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1.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674007

RESUMO

The genotype-first approach has been successfully applied and has elucidated several subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it requires very large cohorts because of the extensive genetic heterogeneity. We investigate the alternate possibility of whether phenotype-specific genes can be identified from a small group of patients with specific phenotype(s). To identify novel genes associated with ASD and abnormal head circumference using a phenotype-to-genotype approach, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 67 families with ASD and abnormal head circumference. Clinically relevant pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants account for 23.9% of patients with microcephaly or macrocephaly, and 81.25% of those variants or genes are head-size associated. Significantly, recurrent pathogenic mutations were identified in two macrocephaly genes (PTEN, CHD8) in this small cohort. De novo mutations in several candidate genes (UBN2, BIRC6, SYNE1, and KCNMA1) were detected, as well as one new candidate gene (TNPO3) implicated in ASD and related neurodevelopmental disorders. We identify genotype-phenotype correlations for head-size-associated ASD genes and novel candidate genes for further investigation. Our results also suggest a phenotype-to-genotype strategy would accelerate the elucidation of genotype-phenotype relationships for ASD by using phenotype-restricted cohorts.

2.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3094, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300657

RESUMO

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e900, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo likely gene-disrupting variants of POGZ cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, de novo missense variants of this gene were not well explored in neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: The single-molecule molecular inversion probes-based targeted sequencing method was performed on the proband. Variant was validated using Sanger sequencing in both proband and parents. Immunoblot analysis was performed to examine the expression of POGZ in patient-derived peripheral blood lymphocytes. Published POGZ de novo missense variants in neuropsychiatric disorders were reviewed. RESULTS: We detected a novel de novo missense variant in POGZ (c.1534C>A, p.H512N, NM_015100.4) in an individual with ASD. Immunoblot analysis revealed a dramatic reduction in POGZ protein in patient-derived peripheral blood lymphocytes suggesting a loss-of-function mechanism of this de novo missense variant. In addition, we collected and annotated additional eight POGZ de novo missense variants identified in neuropsychiatric disorders from literatures. CONCLUSION: Our findings will be beneficial to the functional analysis of POGZ in ASD pathogenesis, and for genetic counseling and clinical diagnosis of patients with POGZ de novo missense variants.

6.
J Genet Genomics ; 46(5): 247-257, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196716

RESUMO

Excess de novo likely gene-disruptive and missense variants within dozens of genes have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. However, many rare inherited missense variants of these high-risk genes have not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the rare missense variant burden of POGZ in a large cohort of ASD patients from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) and further dissected the functional effect of disease-associated missense variants on neuronal development. Our results showed a significant burden of rare missense variants in ASD patients compared to the control population (P = 4.6 × 10-5, OR = 3.96), and missense variants in ASD patients showed more severe predicted functional outcomes than those in controls. Furthermore, by leveraging published large-scale sequencing data of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and sporadic case reports, we identified 8 de novo missense variants of POGZ in NDD patients. Functional analysis revealed that two inherited, but not de novo, missense variants influenced the cellular localization of POGZ and failed to rescue the defects in neurite and dendritic spine development caused by Pogz knockdown in cultured mouse primary cortical neurons. Significantly, L1CAM, an autism candidate risk gene, is differentially expressed in POGZ deficient cell lines. Reduced expression of L1cam was able to partially rescue the neurite length defects caused by Pogz knockdown. Our study showed the important roles of rare inherited missense variants of POGZ in ASD risk and neuronal development and identified the potential downstream targets of POGZ, which are important for further molecular mechanism studies.

7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00789, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors. Mutations of three FOX genes, including FOXP1, FOXP2, and FOXG1, have been reported in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). However, due to the lack of site-specific statistical significance, the pathogenicity of missense mutations of these genes is difficult to determine. METHODS: DNA and RNA were extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mutation was detected by single-molecule molecular inversion probe-based targeted sequencing, and the variant was validated by Sanger sequencing. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot were performed to assay the expression of the mRNA and protein. To assess the pattern of disorder-related missense mutations of NDD-related FOX genes, we manually curated de novo and inherited missense or inframeshift variants within FOXP1, FOXP2, and FOXG1 that co-segregated with phenotypes in NDDs. All variants were annotated by ANNOVAR. RESULTS: We detected a novel de novo missense mutation (NM_001244815: c.G1444A, p.E482K) of FOXP1 in a patient with intellectual disability and severe speech delay. Real-time PCR and western blot revealed a dramatic reduction of mRNA and protein expression in patient-derived lymphocytes, indicating a loss-of-function mechanism. We observed that the majority of the de novo or transmitted missense variants were located in the FOX domains, and 95% were classified as pathogenic mutations. However, 10 variants were located outside of the FOX domain and were classified as likely pathogenic or variants of uncertain significance. CONCLUSION: Our study shows the pathogenicity of missense and inframeshift variants of NDD-related FOX genes, which is important for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling. Functional analysis is needed to determine the pathogenicity of the variants with uncertain clinical significance.

8.
Mol Autism ; 9: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564305

RESUMO

Background: We previously performed targeted sequencing of autism risk genes in probands from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) (phase I). Here, we expand this analysis to a larger cohort of patients (ACGC phase II) to better understand the prevalence, inheritance, and genotype-phenotype correlations of likely gene-disrupting (LGD) mutations for autism candidate genes originally identified in cohorts of European descent. Methods: We sequenced 187 autism candidate genes in an additional 784 probands and 85 genes in 599 probands using single-molecule molecular inversion probes. We tested the inheritance of potentially pathogenic mutations, performed a meta-analysis of phase I and phase II data and combined our results with existing exome sequence data to investigate the phenotypes of carrier parents and patients with multiple hits in different autism risk genes. Results: We validated recurrent, LGD, de novo mutations (DNMs) in 13 genes. We identified a potential novel risk gene (ZNF292), one novel gene with recurrent LGD DNMs (RALGAPB), as well as genes associated with macrocephaly (GIGYF2 and WDFY3). We identified the transmission of private LGD mutations in genes predominantly associated with DNMs and showed that parental carriers tended to share milder autism-related phenotypes. Patients that carried DNMs in two or more candidate genes show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions: We identify new risk genes and transmission of deleterious mutations in genes primarily associated with DNMs. The fact that parental carriers show milder phenotypes and patients with multiple hits are more severe supports a multifactorial model of risk.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2668-2676, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537371

RESUMO

SHANK3 has been identified as the causative gene of 22q13.3 microdeletion syndrome phenotype. De novo mutations (DNMs) of SHANK3 were subsequently identified in patients with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia (SCZ), a Rett syndrome-like phenotype, and intellectual disability (ID). Although broad developmental phenotypes of these patients have been described in single studies, few studies have reviewed the genotype and phenotype relationships using a relatively large cohort of patients with SHANK3 DNMs. In this study, we identified a de novo splice mutation (NM_033517.1: c.2265+1G>A) that functionally impairs mRNA splicing, produces multiple splice variants, and results in the reduction of the amounts of mRNA. To analyze the genotype and phenotype correlations for SHANK3 DNMs, we reviewed 37 previously published patients with 28 SHANK3 DNMs. Our results revealed that haploinsufficiency of SHANK3 causes a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes with impaired social interaction, repetitive behavior, speech impairment, ID, and regression as the most common observations. Seizures, hypotonia, global development delay, dysmorphic features, and several other features also occurred recurrently. Specific phenotypes are also observed in certain genotypes. Our study provides the frequency of the heterogeneous co-occurring conditions caused by SHANK3 DNMs, which will be beneficial for diagnosis and clinical management.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13316, 2016 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27824329

RESUMO

Recurrent de novo (DN) and likely gene-disruptive (LGD) mutations contribute significantly to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) but have been primarily investigated in European cohorts. Here, we sequence 189 risk genes in 1,543 Chinese ASD probands (1,045 from trios). We report an 11-fold increase in the odds of DN LGD mutations compared with expectation under an exome-wide neutral model of mutation. In aggregate, ∼4% of ASD patients carry a DN mutation in one of just 29 autism risk genes. The most prevalent gene for recurrent DN mutations is SCN2A (1.1% of patients) followed by CHD8, DSCAM, MECP2, POGZ, WDFY3 and ASH1L. We identify novel DN LGD recurrences (GIGYF2, MYT1L, CUL3, DOCK8 and ZNF292) and DN mutations in previous ASD candidates (ARHGAP32, NCOR1, PHIP, STXBP1, CDKL5 and SHANK1). Phenotypic follow-up confirms potential subtypes and highlights how large global cohorts might be leveraged to prove the pathogenic significance of individually rare mutations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Mutação/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Geografia , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
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