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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 570: 402-410, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224321

RESUMO

Controlled synthesis of hierarchical hydroxyapatite materials is a hot research topic because of the excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity of the materials. In this study, flower-like hydroxyapatite spheres (FHAPS) were facile synthesized in one pot using Al(OH)3 as a structure-directing agent. The prepared FHAPS comprised nanosheets possessing a uniform diameter of approximately 4 µm. Notably, the FHAPS can be degraded in solutions with a pH of 5.5 for 144 h or incubated with cells for 48 h. In addition, the FHAPS have rough surfaces, which exhibit high loading contents for the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX, 9.1%) and siRNA (2.0%). Thus, the FHAPS can effectively deliver DOX into drug-resistant breast cancer cells to exert an excellent killing effect compared with free DOX and transfect siRNA into tumor cells to interfere with the expression of the target protein. Taken together, this work successfully prepared FHAPS via a convenient synthesis route that shows high delivery efficiency for anticancer drugs and siRNA.

2.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493020913557, 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223541

RESUMO

In China, stroke is a major cause of mortality, and long-term physical and cognitive impairment. To meet this challenge, the Ministry of Health China Stroke Prevention Project Committee (CSPPC) was established in April 2011. This committee actively promotes stroke prevention and control in China. With government financial support of 838.4 million CNY, 8.352 million people from 536 screening points in 31 provinces have received stroke screening and follow-up over the last seven years (2012-2018). In 2016, the CSPPC issued a plan to establish stroke centers. To shorten the pre-hospital period, the CSPPC established a stroke center network, stroke map, and stroke "Green Channel" to create three 1-h gold rescue circles, abbreviated as "1-1-1" (onset to call time <1 h; pre-hospital transfer time < 1 h, and door-to-needle time < 1 h). From 2017 to 2018, the median door-to-needle time dropped by 4.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-9.4) from 50 min to 48 min, and the median onset-to-needle time dropped by 2.8% (95% CI, 0.4-5.2) from 180 min to 175 min. As of 31 December 2018, the CSPPC has established 380 stroke centers in mainland China. From 1 November 2018, the CSPPC has monitored the quality of stroke care in stroke center hospitals through the China Stroke Data Center Data Reporting Platform. The CSPPC Stroke program has led to a significant improvement in stroke care. This program needs to be further promoted nationwide.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142247

RESUMO

Powder-form piezocatalysts suffer from poor recyclability and pose a potential threat of creating serious secondary pollution, which restrict their practical applications. Thin-film piezocatalysts, which not only exhibit good recyclability but also fully contact with solution, are believed to be one of the solutions to address these problems. In this work, the nanostructured BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films were fabricated by a facile hydrothermal method for their potential applications in piezocatalysis. The vertically standing BTO nanosheets grown on the top of TiO2 nanorod arrays exhibited superior piezocatalytic performance as well as piezo-electrochemical property. Given the different strain states between thin-film piezocatalyst and powder-form piezocatalyst, both the impact force of water and isostatic pressure are taken into consideration in finite element method (FEM) simulation. The FEM simulation shows that a stronger piezoelectric filed can be built in BTO nanosheets because of their easier deformation, and thus can lead to a higher piezocatalytic degradation efficiency. Our work presented here is expected to provide a potential route for the nanoengineering of thin-film piezocatalysts and clarify the catalytic mechanism for substrate-fixed piezocatalysts.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 268: 55-60, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex differences between psychotic depression (PD) and non-psychotic depression (NPD) have received little systematic study. This study was conducted to investigate sex difference in patients with psychotic and non-psychotic major depressive disorder in a Chinese Han population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1718 first-episode and drug-naïve outpatients with major depressive disorder were recruited. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. All subjects were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). RESULTS: The prevalence of PD in female patients (10.97%) was higher than that in male patients (7.99%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that female patients were older compared with male patients in NPD group, but there were no significant differences in demographic and clinical variables between female and male PD patients. Further, there were no sex differences in the scores of HAMD, HAMA and positive symptom subscale of PANSS in both PD and NPD groups. Two-way ANOVA showed that PD patients had significantly higher scores on the HAMD, HAMA and positive symptom subscale of PANSS than non-PD patients. However, there were no significant effects of sex and sex* subtypes. LIMITATIONS: The main limitations are cross-sectional design and inability to control selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show significant differences in clinical profiles between PD and NPD patients; however, no sex difference has been observed in the either PD or NPD patients.

6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000688, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218572

RESUMO

Obesity leads to multiple health problems, including diabetes, fatty liver, and even cancer. Here, we report that urolithin A (UA), a gut-microflora-derived metabolite of pomegranate ellagitannins (ETs), prevents diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in mice without causing adverse effects. UA treatment increases energy expenditure (EE) by enhancing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducing browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Mechanistically, UA-mediated increased thermogenesis is caused by an elevation of triiodothyronine (T3) levels in BAT and inguinal fat depots. This is also confirmed in UA-treated white and brown adipocytes. Consistent with this mechanism, UA loses its beneficial effects on activation of BAT, browning of white fat, body weight control, and glucose homeostasis when thyroid hormone (TH) production is blocked by its inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). Conversely, administration of exogenous tetraiodothyronine (T4) to PTU-treated mice restores UA-induced activation of BAT and browning of white fat and its preventive role on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these results suggest that UA is a potent antiobesity agent with potential for human clinical applications.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e203976, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202646

RESUMO

Importance: Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed. Objective: To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China. Design, Settings, and Participants: This cross-sectional, survey-based, region-stratified study collected demographic data and mental health measurements from 1257 health care workers in 34 hospitals from January 29, 2020, to February 3, 2020, in China. Health care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Main Outcomes and Measures: The degree of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress was assessed by the Chinese versions of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the 7-item Insomnia Severity Index, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. Results: A total of 1257 of 1830 contacted individuals completed the survey, with a participation rate of 68.7%. A total of 813 (64.7%) were aged 26 to 40 years, and 964 (76.7%) were women. Of all participants, 764 (60.8%) were nurses, and 493 (39.2%) were physicians; 760 (60.5%) worked in hospitals in Wuhan, and 522 (41.5%) were frontline health care workers. A considerable proportion of participants reported symptoms of depression (634 [50.4%]), anxiety (560 [44.6%]), insomnia (427 [34.0%]), and distress (899 [71.5%]). Nurses, women, frontline health care workers, and those working in Wuhan, China, reported more severe degrees of all measurements of mental health symptoms than other health care workers (eg, median [IQR] Patient Health Questionnaire scores among physicians vs nurses: 4.0 [1.0-7.0] vs 5.0 [2.0-8.0]; P = .007; median [interquartile range {IQR}] Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale scores among men vs women: 2.0 [0-6.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-7.0]; P < .001; median [IQR] Insomnia Severity Index scores among frontline vs second-line workers: 6.0 [2.0-11.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-8.0]; P < .001; median [IQR] Impact of Event Scale-Revised scores among those in Wuhan vs those in Hubei outside Wuhan and those outside Hubei: 21.0 [8.5-34.5] vs 18.0 [6.0-28.0] in Hubei outside Wuhan and 15.0 [4.0-26.0] outside Hubei; P < .001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed participants from outside Hubei province were associated with lower risk of experiencing symptoms of distress compared with those in Wuhan (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.88; P = .008). Frontline health care workers engaged in direct diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with COVID-19 were associated with a higher risk of symptoms of depression (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.09; P = .01), anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.22-2.02; P < .001), insomnia (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.92-4.60; P < .001), and distress (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.25-2.04; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of heath care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and other regions in China, participants reported experiencing psychological burden, especially nurses, women, those in Wuhan, and frontline health care workers directly engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and care for patients with COVID-19.

8.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 52-58, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145457

RESUMO

The miRNA gene in DNA is first transcribed to Pri-miRNA, and then processed to Pre-miRNA, a stem-loop RNA segment (precursor) and further to miRNA which binds to mRNA by Dicer protein complex. It was confirmed that goat miR-204 could regulate the expressions of Sirt1 and the SSCs' (Spermatogonial Stem Cells) important genes Oct4 and Plzf, and inhibit the proliferation of dairy goat SSCs in vitro in our previous work. So, the research in vivo was needed next. In this study, the recombinant lentivirus vector pCDH-CMV-mir204-EF1-GreenPuro containing a goat chi-pri-mir-204 gene DNA segment was structured, and transfected into 293 T cells for packaged lentivirus, which then were injected into mouse seminiferous tubules. After 7 days, the goat miR-204 and the related genes such as Sirt1 and Plzf were detected in the mouse testis. This work laid a good foundation for further study of miR-204 biological function in vivo.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188059

RESUMO

The aging trend of China's population is increasing, and the pension problem is becoming increasingly prominent. The pension mode provided by the government alone can no longer meet the social demand, and the government's purchase of home-based care services from social organizations has become a new trend. In order to improve the efficiency and quality of pension services, a reasonable performance evaluation model needs to be established. Performance evaluations of home-based elderly-care services purchased by the government are problematic as a result of multiple-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM), as the problems are not single-attribute or single-expert issues. The extended TODIM not only integrates the advantages of cumulative prospect theory (CPT) into a consideration of the psychological factors of DMs, but also retains the superiority of the classical TODIM in relative dominance. The Pythagorean 2-tuple linguistic sets (P2TLSs) could easily depict qualitative assessment information related to the government's purchase of home-based care services. Thus, in this paper, we extend the TODIM method based on the cumulative prospect theory (CPT) to the Pythagorean 2-tuple linguistic sets (P2TLSs) and propose a Pythagorean 2-tuple linguistic CPT-TODIM (P2TL-CPT-TODIM) method for MAGDM. The P2TL-CPT-TODIM method was proven superior to the classical one through a case study that included a performance evaluation of a home-based elderly-care service purchased by the government. Meanwhile, a comparison with the P2TL-CPT-TODIM method was performed to demonstrate the stability and effectiveness of the designed method.

10.
Med Gas Res ; 10(1): 50-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189670

RESUMO

Glioma is one of the most frequent primary brain tumors. Currently, the most common therapeutic strategy for patients with glioma is surgical resection combined with radiotherapy or/and adjuvant chemotherapy. However, due to the metastatic and invasive nature of glioma cells, the recurrence rate is high, resulting in poor prognosis. In recent years, gas therapy has become an emerging treatment. Studies have shown that the proliferation, metastasis and invasiveness of glioma cells exposed to anesthetic gases are obviously inhibited. Therefore, anesthetic gas may play a special therapeutic role in gliomas. In this review, we aim to collect existing research and summarize the rules of using anesthetic gases on glioma, providing potential strategies for further clinical treatment.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19294, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118742

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to reveal the physical symptom changes and their correlations with mental health status in deep underground miners.A total of 286 deep underground miners completed a cross-sectional questionnaire study at China Pingmei Shenma mine complex. The questionnaire included sociodemographics, self-reported physical symptoms, underground adverse environmental factors, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Five environmental parameters of 1 deep mine were also measured.Data from 266 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The 3 most frequent complaints about underground adverse conditions were moisture [62.03% (165/266)], dim light [45.86% (122/266)], and high temperature [42.11% (112/266)]. Fatigue [40.22% (107/266)], hearing loss [34.96% (93/266)], and tinnitus [31.58% (84/266)] were reported to be the three most common physical symptoms. Insomnia was reported in 204 participants (76.69%) mainly due to the difficulty of falling asleep [42.35% (84/204)] and dreams [39.70% (81/204)]. Mean scores of SCL-90-R subscales including somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and paranoid ideation were elevated compared to Chinese norms, while there was diminished interpersonal sensitivity. Univariate analyses indicated that the 3 most common physical symptoms were associated with poorer SCL-90-R scores. With increasing depth below ground, air pressure, relative humidity, CO2 concentration and temperature rose, while total gamma radiation dose-rate decreased.The physical and mental health status of deep underground miners was poorer than the general Chinese male population. Some adverse environmental factors were identified that may have influenced health status. Measures are suggested to improve the deep underground working environment.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/normas , Síndrome , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , China , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Local de Trabalho/normas
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178518

RESUMO

Isorhapontigenin is a natural bioactive stilbene isolated from various plants and fruits. It has been reported to exhibit several physiological activities including anticancer and anti-inflammation activity in vitro and in experimental animal models. This study aimed to investigate whether isorhapontigenin exerts antidiabetic effects in vivo. To this end, diabetic db/db mice were treated with either 25 mg kg-1 of isorhapontigenin or vehicle intraperitoneally for a period of 5 weeks. The results show that isorhapontigenin treatment significantly reduced postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, as well as free fatty acid, three markers of diabetes. Further studies show that isorhapontigenin treatment markedly improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance of db/db mice as shown by ITT and GTT. Together, these physiological results show that isorhapontigenin possesses antidiabetic properties in vivo. Mechanistically, the isorhapontigenin-mediated antidiabetic effect is caused by favorable changes in adipose tissue, including reductions in adipocyte diameter and improved adipose insulin sensitivity. Further studies with 3T3-L1 cells show that isorhapontigenin treatment promotes preadipocyte differentiation by upregulation of the activity of the master adipogenic regulator PPARγ and deceleration of its proteasomal degradation. Together, our results establish for the first time an important role of isorhapontigenin as a potential nutraceutical agent for diabetes treatment.

13.
FASEB J ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212192

RESUMO

Mitochondrial aconitase (Aco2) catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the TCA cycle, which produces NADH and FADH2, driving synthesis of ATP through OXPHOS. In this study, to explore the relationship between adipogenesis and mitochondrial energy metabolism, we hypothesize that Aco2 may play a key role in the lipid synthesis. Here, we show that overexpression of Aco2 in 3T3-L1 cells significantly increased lipogenesis and adipogenesis, accompanied by elevated mitochondrial biogenesis and ATP production. However, when ATP is depleted by rotenone, an inhibitor of the respiratory chain, the promotive role of Aco2 in adipogenesis is abolished. In contrast to Aco2 overexpression, deficiency of Aco2 markedly reduced lipogenesis and adipogenesis, along with the decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and ATP production. Supplementation of isocitrate efficiently rescued the inhibitory effect of Aco2 deficiency. Similarly, the restorative effect of isocitrate was abolished in the presence of rotenone. Together, these results show that Aco2 sustains normal adipogenesis through mediating ATP production, revealing a potential mechanistic link between TCA cycle enzyme and lipid synthesis. Our work suggest that regulation of adipose tissue mitochondria function may be a potential way for combating abnormal adipogenesis related diseases such as obesity and lipodystrophy.

14.
Curr Med Sci ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207032

RESUMO

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has occurred unexpectedly and emerged as a health problem worldwide. Despite the rapidly increasing number of cases in subsequent weeks, the clinical characteristics of pediatric cases are rarely described. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 10 hospitals across Hubei province. A total of 25 confirmed pediatric cases of COVID-19 were collected. The demographic data, epidemiological history, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, laboratory and radiological data, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed. Of 25 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the boy to girl ratio was 1.27:1. The median age was 3 years. COVID-19 cases in children aged <3 years, 3.6 years, and ≥6-years patients were 10 (40%), 6 (24%), and 9 (36%), respectively. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (13 [52%]), and dry cough (11 [44%]). Chest CT images showed essential normal in 8 cases (33.3%), unilateral involvement of lungs in 5 cases (20.8%), and bilateral involvement in 11 cases (45.8%). Clinical diagnoses included upper respiratory tract infection (n=8), mild pneumonia (n=15), and critical cases (n=2). Two critical cases (8%) were given invasive mechanical ventilation, corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin. The symptoms in 24 (96%) of 25 patients were alleviated and one patient had been discharged. It was concluded that children were susceptible to COVID-19 like adults, while the clinical presentations and outcomes were more favorable in children. However, children less than 3 years old accounted for majority cases and critical cases lied in this age group, which demanded extra attentions during home caring and hospitalization treatment.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 504: 155-162, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disease caused by deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH). Timely and accurate diagnosis is an ongoing challenge. Measurement of plasma C1-INH activity is currently the critical standard test. We describe a novel and highly robust point-of-care assay to quantify C1-INH activity in dried blood spot (DBS). METHODS: C1-INH was extracted from 3 mm punches of DBS samples and incubated with excess amount of C1 esterase (C1s). The mixture was subsequentially incubated with C1s substrate, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantitation of the enzyme reaction product. RESULTS: The assay was validated within a quantification range from 100 to 1500 mU/mL. The intra-day precision and accuracy ranged from 4.0% to 11.6% and -11.1% to -2.1%, and the inter-day precision and accuracy were 8.1-13.1% and -10.3% to 0.9%, respectively. Normal C1-INH activity (n = 103) ranged from 311 to 1090 mU/mL, whereas 23 out of 24 HAE patients exhibited C1-INH activity lower than 100 mU/mL. CONCLUSION: DBS specimen collection for measurement of functional C1-INH activity in a physician's office is straightforward and not limited by logistic considerations and therefore, appropriate for the diagnosis of HAE in high throughput diagnostic laboratories.

16.
Nanotechnology ; 31(22): 225201, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040948

RESUMO

An ultrathin near-perfect MoSe2 absorber working in the visible regime is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally, and it consists of a MoSe2/Au bi-layer film. The polymer-assisted deposition method is used to synthesize MoSe2 films, which can reduce the roughness and thus improve the film absorption. Simulation results show that the absorption of the absorber with 22 nm MoSe2 reaches to larger than 90% between 628.5 nm and 718 nm with a peak value up to 99.5% at 686 nm. Moreover, the measured absorption also shows near-perfect absorption of this simple absorber. Finally, an ultrathin photodetector is fabricated based on this perfect absorber and shows on/off reproducibility and remarkable photocurrent, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the dark current.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013064

RESUMO

With China's sustained economic development and constant increase in national income, Chinese nationals' tourism consumption rate increases. As a major Chinese economic development engine, the domestic tourism industry has entered a transition period operation pattern featured by diversified products. Among them, as a new hot spot of the tourism industry in China, ecological tourism has enjoyed rapid development, with great potential. Thus, the ecological value evaluation of forest ecological tourism demonstration areas is very important to the domestic tourism industry. In this paper, we propose some Dombi Heronian mean operators with interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IVIFNs). Then, two MADM (multiple attribute decision making) methods are proposed based on IVIFWDHM (interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy weighted Dombi Heronian mean) and IVIFWDGHM (interval-valued intuitionistic weighted Dombi geometric Heronian mean) operators. Finally, we gave an experimental case for evaluating the ecological value of forest ecological tourism demonstration area to show the proposed decision methods.

18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1411-1418, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027143

RESUMO

Substantial progress has been achieved in red and green perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). However, blue PeLEDs are still inferior in light-emitting efficiency and luminance compared with their green and red counterparts. Herein efficient blue PeLEDs simultaneously achieving high luminance and high color stability are fabricated based on the polycrystalline perovskites with a 3D Rb-Cs alloyed scaffold. The synergistic manipulation of an isopropanol antisolvent treatment and the PEDOT:PSS/blue perovskite interface modification with RbCl effectively improve the photoluminescence properties of the resultant blue polycrystalline 3D perovskite films and the final electroluminescence performance of the blue PeLEDs. The optimized blue PeLEDs show a maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.66% with an emission peak at 484 nm and a full width at half-maximum of 18 nm as well as CIE coordinates of (0.08, 0.21). Moreover, the optimized blue PeLEDs not only show superior color stability under various luminances but also achieve high luminances. The obtained maximum luminance of 9243 cd m-2 is one of the highest values among the efficient and color-stable blue PeLEDs.

20.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056246

RESUMO

G-quadruplexes form folded structures because of tandem repeats of guanine sequences in DNA or RNA. They adopt a variety of conformations, depending on many factors, including the type of loops and cations, the nucleotide strand number, and the main strand polarity of the G-quadruplex. Meanwhile, the different conformations of G-quadruplexes have certain influences on their biological functions, such as the inhibition of transcription, translation, and DNA replication. In addition, G-quadruplex binding proteins also affect the structure and function of G-quadruplexes. Some chemically synthesized G-quadruplex sequences have been shown to have biological activities. For example, bimolecular G-quadruplexes of AS1411 act as targets of exogenous drugs that inhibit the proliferation of malignant tumours. G-quadruplexes are also used as vehicles to deliver nanoparticles. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence G-quadruplex structures and maintain the stability of G-quadruplexes. Herein, we mainly discuss the factors influencing G-quadruplexes and the synthetic G-quadruplex, AS1411. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This review summarizes the factors that influence G-quadruplexes and the functions of the synthetic G-quadruplex, AS1411. It also discusses the use of G-quadruplexes for drug delivery in tumour therapy.

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