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1.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211058114, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate whether acellular dermal matrix (ADM) grafts could prevent Frey's syndrome (FS) and improve esthetic scores following parotidectomy. METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2019, 175 patients underwent parotidectomy. We divided the patients into two groups: the ADM group and the control group. We included in each group 30 patients according to a propensity score matched analysis. RESULTS: FS was subjective in 1 patient (3%) from the ADM group and 9 patients (30%) from the control group (P=0.015). Patients in the ADM group had a subjective esthetic score of 6.1 + 1.7 compared with 5.2 + 1.7 in the control group. The subjective esthetic score for patients in the ADM group was higher than that for patients in the control group (P =0.040). CONCLUSION: The present clinical study suggests that ADM grafts are effective in preventing FS and improving esthetic scores after parotidectomy.

2.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether coeliac axis resection (CAR) results from tumour topography or a prognostic factor for distal pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. We aimed to compare the clinicopathological data between distal pancreatectomy with en bloc CAR (DP-CAR) and distal pancreatectomy plus splenectomy (DP-S) and analyse the prognostic factors. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed clinicopathological data from 102 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy for PDAC and the factors affecting disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Of these patients, 45 and 57 underwent DP-CAR and DP-S, respectively. RESULTS: DP-CAR was associated with more operative challenges than DP-S: more portomesenteric vein resections (48.9% vs. 14.0%), longer operations (320 vs. 242 min), and greater estimated blood loss (EBL) (600 vs. 200 ml). DP-CAR had larger tumours (5 vs. 4 cm), more perineural invasion (91.1% vs. 73.7%), and more microscopically positive surgical margins (20% vs. 3.5%), compared to DP-S. The major complication was clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (20.6%). The median DFS was 15.8 months and the median OS was 20.1 months. CAR was not associated with DFS or OS. EBL>700 ml, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and adjuvant chemotherapy independently affected DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: DP-CAR was associated with larger tumours and more surgical challenges but not with poorer DFS and OS than DP-S. CAR was more likely to result from tumour topography rather than from an adverse prognostic factor for resected distal PDAC. EBL>700 ml, LVI, and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent factors affecting the survival of patients with distal PDAC who underwent surgical resection.

3.
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(10): 901-904;909, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628812

RESUMO

Objective:To investigate the predictive risk factors of vocal fold leukoplakia under electronic laryngoscope and influential factors of malignancy. Methods:A total of 163 cases with vocal cord leukoplakia were analyzed retrospectively. The relationship between the clinical features, including site, size, whether involving the anterior commissure, morphology and pathological grade were analyzed. Then the associations with malignant transformation in vocal cord leukoplakia were evaluated by using multiple Logistic regression analysis. Results:There were one side lesions in 96 cases(58.9%), and bilateral vocal cord lesions in 67 cases(41.1%). The vocal cord leukoplakia with extension less than half of the vocal cord was observed in 135 cases(82.8%) and beyond half of the vocal cord was seen in 28 cases(17.1%). Lesions involving the anterior commissure were 42 cases(25.8%), without involving the anterior commissure were 121 cases(74.2%). According to morphological features, 82 patients(50.3%) had a superficial type, followed by exophytic type(n=65, 39.9%), and ulcerative type(n=16, 9.8%). The pathological type included squamous epithelial simple hyperplasia in 65 cases(39.9%), mild hyperplasia in 44 cases(27.0%), moderate hyperplasia in 31 cases(19.0%), severe hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ in 23 cases(14.1%). 140 cases(85.9%) were in low risk group, and 23 cases(14.1%) were in high risk group. The site of the vocal fold leukoplakia was not associated with the pathological grade(P>0.05), whether the vocal fold leukoplakia range exceeds 1/2 of the total length of the vocal fold, and whether involving the anterior commissure were associated with the pathological grade(both P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences between the pathological grade and the morphological type(P<0.01). Ten cases developed larynx cancer, the ratio of malignant transformation was 6.1%. The multiple Logistic regression showed that whether involving the anterior commissure and histopathological classification were the risk factors of malignant transformation in vocal cord eukoplakia. Conclusion:The pathological results of vocal cord leukoplakia can be predicted by laryngoscopy features. Involving of the anterior commissure and histopathological classification are the risk factors of malignant transformation in vocal cord leukoplakia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Laríngeas , Laringoscópios , Eletrônica , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/epidemiologia , Leucoplasia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prega Vocal
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665265

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: YrFDC12 and PbcFDC, co-segregated in chromosome 4BL, and significantly interacted with Yr30/Pbc1 to enhance stripe rust resistance and to promote pseudo-black chaff development. Cultivars with durable resistance are the most popular means to control wheat stripe rust. Durable resistance can be achieved by stacking multiple adult plant resistance (APR) genes that individually have relatively small effect. Chinese wheat cultivars Ruihua 520 (RH520) and Fengdecun 12 (FDC12) confer partial APR to stripe rust across environments. One hundred and seventy recombinant inbred lines from the cross RH520 × FDC12 were used to determine the genetic basis of resistance and identify genomic regions associated with stripe rust resistance. Genotyping was carried out using 55 K SNP array, and eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on chromosome arms 2AL, 2DS, 3BS, 4BL, 5BL (2), and 7BL (2) by inclusive composite interval mapping. Only QYr.nwafu-3BS from RH520 and QYr.nwafu-4BL.2 (named YrFDC12 for convenience) from FDC12 were consistent across the four testing environments. QYr.nwafu-3BS is likely the pleiotropic resistance gene Sr2/Yr30. YrFDC12 was mapped in a 2.1-cM interval corresponding to 12 Mb and flanked by SNP markers AX-111121224 and AX-89518393. Lines harboring both Yr30 and YrFDC12 displayed higher resistance than the parents and expressed pseudo-black chaff (PBC) controlled by loci Pbc1 and PbcFDC12, which co-segregated with Yr30 and YrFDC12, respectively. Both marker-based and pedigree-based kinship analyses revealed that YrFDC12 was inherited from founder parent Zhou 8425B. Fifty-four other wheat cultivars shared the YrFDC12 haplotype. These results suggest an effective pyramiding strategy to acquire highly effective, durable stripe rust resistance in breeding.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 700023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616674

RESUMO

Purpose: Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the classic treatment option for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who progress while receiving treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). In this study, we analyzed real-world outcomes of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) combined with platinum-free chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC after developing resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with mutation-positive NSCLC after developing resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Patients who received chemotherapy alone plus ICIs with or without anti-angiogenic drugs (cohort A) or platinum-based chemotherapy (cohort B) between February 2019 and August 2020 were enrolled. Clinical characteristics, EGFR mutation status, response to therapy, and adverse events (AEs) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Seventeen patients were eligible and included in the analysis, including 8 in cohort A and 9 in cohort B. After a median follow-up of 7.6 months, the median progression-free survival was 6.5 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.1 to 7.0] in cohort A and 3.6 months (95% CI, 1.3-5.8) in cohort B (hazard ratios, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05-0.93; P = 0.039). The overall response and disease control rates were 50% and 100% in cohort A, and 22% and 89% in cohort B, respectively. Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 25% of the patients in cohort A and in 33.3% of the patients in cohort B. Conclusion: ICIs plus platinum-free, single-agent chemotherapy provides promising progression-free survival and overall response rate benefit, along with a low rate of severe AEs in patients with EGFR-TKI-resistant advanced NSCLC.

6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 66-76, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607675

RESUMO

Crop residue open burning is an important emission source of ambient particles in China. This study analyzed the particle emission characteristics of crop residue open burning through combustion experiments with a novel open combustion simulation device using three typical crop straws in north China (corn, wheat, and rice). Particle samples size ranging from 0.006-9.890 µm were collected by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor plus, a high size-resolution instrument capable of dividing particles into 14 size stages. The size distributions of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and elements were analyzed, and source chemical profiles were constructed for PM0.1, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10. The number concentration of particles was concentrated in the Aiken nuclei mode (0.006-0.054 µm), accounting for 75% of the total number, whereas the mass concentration was concentrated in the accumulation mode (0.054-0.949 µm), accounting for 85.43% of the mass loading. OC, EC, Cl-, and K(include total K and water-soluble K) were the major chemical components of the particles, whose mass percentage distributions differed from those of other components. These five main components exhibited a bell-shaped size distribution in the 0.006-9.890 µm range, whereas the other components exhibited a U-shaped distribution. Among the chemical profiles for PM0.1-PM10, OC was the most important component at 10-30%, followed by EC at 2%-8%. The proportions of K+, Cl-, and K varied substantially in different experimental groups, ranging from 0-15%, and K+ and Cl- were significantly correlated (r = 0.878, α = 0.000).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 686529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566765

RESUMO

Background: Individuals exposed to childhood maltreatment present with a deficiency in emotional processing in later life. Most studies have focused mainly on childhood physical or sexual abuse; however, childhood emotional abuse, a core issue underlying different forms of childhood maltreatment, has received relatively little attention. The current study explored whether childhood emotional abuse is related to the impaired processing of emotional facial expressions in healthy young men. Methods: The emotional facial processing was investigated in a classical gender discrimination task while the event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected. Childhood emotional abuse was assessed by a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) among 60 healthy young men. The relationship between the score of emotional abuse and the behavioral and the ERP index of emotional facial expression (angry, disgust, and happy) were explored. Results: Participants with a higher score of childhood emotional abuse responded faster on the behavioral level and had a smaller P2 amplitude on the neural level when processing disgust faces compared to neutral faces. Discussion: Individuals with a higher level of childhood emotional abuse may quickly identify negative faces with less cognitive resources consumed, suggesting altered processing of emotional facial expressions in young men with a higher level of childhood emotional abuse.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112743, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481350

RESUMO

Fluralaner, a systemic pesticide, was originally registered with the US Food and Drug Administration in 2014 under the trade name Bravecto for flea treatment for pets. As a GABA antagonist, the footprint of fluralaner has expended beyond medical and veterinary pests in recent years. In this study, we examined the acute toxicity of fluralaner against three pests of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Megalurothrips usitatus, and Phyllotreta striolata in the Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Cruciferae families, respectively, and the sublethal impact of fluralaner on Propylaea japonica, a widely distributed predatory ladybeetle. Based on LC50, fluralaner was effective against H. vigintioctopunctata (0.098 mg a.i. L-1 for the second instar larvae), M. usitatus (0.134 mg a.i. L-1 for adult females), and P. striolata (0.595 mg a.i. L-1 for adults). For P. japonica, however, fluralaner was substantially less effective (1.177 mg a.i. L-1 for the third instar larvae). Furthermore, the LC10 and LC30 of P. japonica were also consistently higher than the LC50 of the three pests. In addition, we did not observe any significant impacts of fluralaner at LC10 and LC30 on the life history traits, including body weight, developmental time, pre-oviposition period, and fecundity of P. japonica. Based on our results from acute toxicities and sublethal impacts, fluralaner is effective against vegetable pests, while potentially friendly to P. japonica when employed as a biological control agent.


Assuntos
Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Isoxazóis/toxicidade , Comportamento Predatório , Estados Unidos , Verduras
10.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 37(10): 585-593, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486460

RESUMO

As a typical environmental endocrine disruptor (EED), bisphenol A (BPA) can induce pathological hyperplasia of the prostatic epithelium and stroma. This study concentrates mainly on the effect and underlying mechanisms of BPA on prostatic hyperplasia, which is based on the culture of primary human prostate epithelial cells (HPEpiC) and human prostate fibroblasts (HPrF). In an effect to screen the optimal pro-survival BPA levels, HPEpiC and HPrF were, respectively, exposed to concentration gradients of BPA (10-12 M-10-4 M) solution diluted with two corresponding medium and incubated for 72 h at 37°C. CCK-8 assay showed that 10-9 M-10-5 M BPA could facilitate the proliferation of HPEpiC, while similar proliferative effect of HPrF only needed 10-11 M-10-7 M BPA. HPrF were more sensitive to BPA than HPEpiC. The qualification of PCNA gene expression measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) also mirrored the BPA-induced cell proliferation. Additionally, our results considered that androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ERα, ERß), and NFKB1 gene expressions exhibited up-regulation in HPEpiC treated with 10-9 M BPA for 72 h. However, in HPrF, the identical BPA treatment could activate ERα, ERß, and NFKB1 gene expressions and down-regulated the expression of AR levels. It is further confirmed that low-dose BPA can indeed promote the proliferation of human prostate cells in vitro, and the mechanisms of BPA for prostatic epithelial and stromal hyperplasia may not be consistent.

11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 683914, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484038

RESUMO

Psychological factors can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity toward stressors. Animal studies demonstrated that uncontrollability was one critical factor associated with HPA axis stress response, but the results in human studies were inconsistent. The current study adopted a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (the TSST), as the stressor to regulate the objective controllability level, and young adult participants were asked to rate their subjectively perceived control level toward the stressor and measured their cortisol stress responses (N=54; 19 females and 35 males) to address this concern. Results showed that participants' perceived control on the TSST was related to the cortisol stress response. In other words, under the stress of a certain objective controllability level, the lower the subjectively perceived control level, the greater the HPA axis response. This finding suggested that, in addition to objective controllability, subjectively perceived control is a psychological factor that regulates activation of the HPA axis in young adults.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117521, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380221

RESUMO

Based on the wind erosion equation and the use of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite remote sensing data combined with parameter normalization processing, an optimized high spatial-temporal resolution soil fugitive dust (SFD) emission inventory compiling method was proposed in this study. The "2 + 26" cities in northern China, where heavy pollution frequently occurs, were used as a case study. Using the optimized method, we estimated that the PM50, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from SFD of "2 + 26" cities in 2018 were 2,014,927, 1,007,463, and 151,120 tons, respectively. The dust emissions and emission factors of each city presented significant differences and were generally of a greater level in high-latitude areas (such as cities in Hebei Province) than in low-latitude areas (such as cities in Henan and Shandong Province). Moreover, with an increase in latitude, vegetation cover factors generally exhibit an upward trend, while temperature and rainfall exhibit a downward trend. The dust emissions in the different months showed significant differences. The total dust emission reached the highest level in "late winter-early spring" season (February to April), and the monthly emission accounted for 15-17% of the annual emissions. While in the "summer-autumn" season (July to November), it is the lowest level of the whole year, monthly emissions accounted for 3-5% of the annual emissions. The emission inventory method proposed in this study can provide a reference for dust emission assessment and further pollution prevention and control work.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Solo
13.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 6157-6167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385843

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have shown that nutrition and systemic inflammation plays an essential role in the development of soft tissue sarcoma. However, few studies have explored the association of clinicopathologic features and local recurrence with nutritional and inflammatory markers in retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS). This study sought to evaluate the prognostic value of the preoperative nutritional and inflammatory markers for local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) among surgical RPLS patients. Methods: The study included 111 RPLS patients who underwent surgery between May 2010 and June 2019 at the Peking University Cancer Hospital Sarcoma Center. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (time-ROC) curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of markers to predict LRFS. The associations of the CONUT-FAR score with clinicopathological variables and LRFS were evaluated. Results: In the time-ROC curve analysis, the CONUT-FAR score was superior to other nutritional and inflammatory markers in predicting LRFS. The CONUT-FAR score was the only nutritional and inflammatory marker that independently predicted LRFS in the multivariate analysis, and patients with a high CONUT-FAR score (> 11) showed significantly decreased LRFS. Although the CONUT-FAR score failed to discriminate patients with low grade (G1) (p = 0.327) or undergoing incomplete (R2) resection (p = 0.072), it stratified patients with high grade (G2 and G3) or undergoing complete resection (R0/R1) into subgroups with significantly distinct LRFS (p < 0.001). The CONUT-FAR score also showed good clinical utility among patients with different clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The preoperative CONUT-FAR score reflects both nutritional and inflammatory factors and is an effective predictor of LRFS for surgical RPLS patients.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 42094-42103, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431295

RESUMO

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely explored for real-time monitoring of toxic and irritant chemical gases such as nitrogen oxide (NO2), but they often have issues such as a complicated process of the sensing layer, low sensitivity, long response time, irreversibility, and/or requirement of high temperatures to enhance sensitivity. Herein, we report a sensing material design for room-temperature NO2 detection based on a 3D porous architecture of Ag-decorated reduced graphene oxide-polypyrrole hybrid aerogels (rGO-PPy/Ag) and apply UV activation as an effective strategy to further enhance the NO2 sensing performance. The rGO-PPy/Ag-based SAW sensor with the UV activation exhibits high sensitivity (127.68 Hz/ppm), fast response/recovery time (36.7 s/58.5 s), excellent reproducibility and selectivity, and fast recoverability. Its enhancement mechanisms for highly sensitive and selective detection of NO2 are based on a 3D porous architecture, Ag-decorated rGO-PPy, p-p heterojunction in rGO-PPy/Ag, and UV photogenerated carriers generated in the sensing layer. The scientific findings of this work will provide the guidance for future exploration of next-generation acoustic-wave-based gas sensors.

15.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439690

RESUMO

With the development of intensive care technology, the number of patients who survive acute severe brain injury has increased significantly. At present, it is difficult to diagnose the patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) because motor responses in these patients may be very limited and inconsistent. Electrophysiological criteria, such as event-related potentials or motor imagery, have also been studied to establish a diagnosis and prognosis based on command-following or active paradigms. However, the use of such task-based techniques in DOC patients is methodologically complex and requires careful analysis and interpretation. The present paper focuses on the analysis of sleep patterns for the evaluation of DOC and its relationships with diagnosis and prognosis outcomes. We discuss the concepts of sleep patterns in patients suffering from DOC, identification of this challenging population, and the prognostic value of sleep. The available literature on individuals in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) following traumatic or nontraumatic severe brain injury is reviewed. We can distinguish patients with different levels of consciousness by studying sleep patients with DOC. Most MCS patients have sleep and wake alternations, sleep spindles and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, while UWS patients have few EEG changes. A large number of sleep spindles and organized sleep-wake patterns predict better clinical outcomes. It is expected that this review will promote our understanding of sleep EEG in DOC.

16.
Front Physiol ; 12: 671599, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456741

RESUMO

Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) is an important pest of legumes worldwide, causing great economic loss every year. Beauveria brongniartii and Akanthomyces attenuatus have shown considerable pathogenicity against M. usitatus in our previous studies. The medial lethal concentration (LC50) and the sublethal lethal concentration (LC25) of B. brongniartii isolate SB010 against M. usitatus were 8.38 × 105 and 1.73 × 105 conidia mL-1, respectively, whereas those of A. attenuatus isolate SCAUDCL-53 against M. usitatus were 4.37 × 105 and 2.97 × 104 conidia mL-1, respectively. This study reports the transcriptome-based explanation of the stress responses of M. usitatus following the application of B. brongniartii and A. attenuatus. The analysis of the transcriptomic data revealed the expression of 254, 207, 195, and 234 immunity-related unigenes by M. usitatus in response to B. brongniartii LC50 (SB1), B. brongniartii LC25 (SB2), A. attenuatus LC50 (V1), and A. attenuatus LC25 (V2), respectively. The biological function and metabolic pathway analyses showed that these unigenes were mainly related to pattern recognition receptors, information transduction factors, and reaction factors, such as scavenger receptor, cytochrome b5, cuticle protein, lysozyme, and serine protease.

17.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 7(7)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356915

RESUMO

The excessive use of synthetic chemicals for Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) management has resulted in the development of insecticide resistance as well as adverse effects to the natural ecosystem. This has driven the need to develop alternative pest control strategies. This study reports a synergistic interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus Akanthomyces attenuatus (Zare & Gams) and the botanical insecticide matrine against M. usitatus. The results revealed that the germination rate and colony growth of A. attenuatus were inhibited by higher matrine concentrations. Percentage mortalities of M. usitatus following application of A. attenuatus and matrine showed a dose mortality effect. After five days of treatment, all concentrations of matrine combined with different concentrations of A. attenuatus, except one combination (matrine 0.25 mg/mL + 1 × 107 conidia/mL), showed synergistic effect. The activities of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) in M. usitatus, in response to individual or combined application of A. attenuatus and matrine at the end of the experimental period, were significantly lower than controls. The findings confirm the synergistic action of A. attenuatus and matrine against M. usitatus along with the biochemical phenomenon possibly regulating the synergistic effect.

18.
Prog Neurobiol ; 205: 102127, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343631

RESUMO

Upon awakening from nighttime sleep, the stress hormone cortisol in humans exhibits a robust rise within thirty to forty-five minutes. This cortisol awakening response (CAR), a crucial point of reference within the healthy cortisol circadian rhythm, has been linked to various psychological, psychiatric and health-related conditions. The CAR is thought to prepare the brain for anticipated challenges of the upcoming day to maintain one's homeostasis and promote adaptive responses. Using brain imaging with a prospective design and pharmacological manipulation, we investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this preparation function of the CAR across two studies. In Study 1, a robust CAR is predictive of less hippocampal and prefrontal activity, though enhanced functional coupling between those regions during a demanding task hours later in the afternoon. Reduced prefrontal activity is in turn linked to better working memory performance, implicating that the CAR proactively promotes brain preparedness based on improved neurocognitive efficiency. In Study 2, pharmacologically suppressed CAR using Dexamethasone mirrors this proactive effect, which further causes a selective reduction of prefrontal top-down functional modulation over hippocampal activity. These findings establish a causal link between the CAR and its proactive role in optimizing functional brain networks involved in neuroendocrine control, executive function and memory.

19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 2060288, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336086

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation significantly affects insect life and, as a result, has been widely used to control different invertebrate pests. The current results demonstrate that when Bemisia tabaci first instar nymphs are exposed to UV-A light for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, their developmental and biological parameters are negatively affected by UV-A exposure; the effect increased with an increase in exposure time. We hypothesized that UV-A light is compatible with other biological control agents. Results showed that when the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps fumosorosea was applied to third instar nymphs of B. tabaci previously exposed to UV-A light, the LC50 was 3.4% lower after 72 h of exposure to UV-A light compared to the control. However, when the fungus was exposed to UV-A light, its virulence decreased with an increase in UV-A exposure time. The parasitism rate of Encarsia formosa against 24 h UV-A-exposed third instar nymphs of B. tabaci increased while the adult emergence from parasitized nymphs was not affected after UV-A light exposure. Parasitism rate was significantly reduced however following E. formosa exposure to UV-A light; but again, adult emergence was not affected from parasitized nymphs. The percentage mortality of E. formosa increased with increasing exposure time to UV-A light. The enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, GST, and AChE and the energy reserve contents were negatively affected due to UV-A exposure. Collectively, this study has demonstrated that UV-A light significantly suppresses the immune system of B. tabaci and that UV-A light is compatible with other biological control agents if it is applied separately from the biological agent.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149114, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332379

RESUMO

The development of a refined fugitive dust emission inventory is vital for prevention and control of air pollution. In this study, a fugitive dust emission inventory of soil dust (SD), road dust (RD), and construction dust (CD) in Xiong'an New Area (XANA) for 2020 was developed by collecting activity data and combining remote sensing and field investigation data based on a popular compilation technology in China. The CALPUFF model was used to elucidate the contribution characteristics of dust sources to ambient particulate matter (PM), and the accuracy of the dust emission inventory compilation method was verified. The results show that the total emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 were 43,081.14 tons and 9701.69 tons, respectively. Meanwhile, RD and CD were the main emission sources, accounting for over 98.49% of the total emissions. The total contribution from the different types of dust sources to the ambient PM10 was 42.59 µg/m3 (29.38%), with the contribution of RD (32.63 µg/m3, 22.51%) being approximately three times that of CD (9.78 µg/m3, 6.74%). Roads were the main source of fugitive dust, but large-scale infrastructure construction was the main cause of the high emission and high contribution of RD. The results show that the emission inventory compilation method can be used to estimate the emissions of dust sources, while the method used to calculate the emission of SD may be more suitable for dry and semi-dry areas with less rainfall. It was also found that when the dust emissions stay stable, the contribution of dust sources to the ambient PM10 in different seasons can vary by 3-4 times. Therefore, under adverse meteorological conditions, it is necessary to strengthen the control of various dust sources and reduce the influence of human factors on them.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poeira , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
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