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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114516, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487846

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the past five years, ethnopharmacy-based drugs have been increasingly used in clinical practice. It has been reported that hundreds of ethnopharmacy-based drugs can modulate autophagy to regulate physiological and pathological processes, and ethnomedicines also have certain therapeutic effects on illnesses, revealing the important roles of these medicines in regulating autophagy and treating diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study reviews the regulatory effects of natural products on autophagy in recent years, and discusses their pharmacological effects and clinical applications in the process of diseases. It provides a preliminary literature basis and reference for the research of plant drugs in the regulation of autophagy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review in the fields of relationship between autophagy and ethnomedicine in treating diseases from PubMed electronic database was performed. Information was obtained from documentary sources. RESULTS: We recorded some illnesses associated with autophagy, then classified them into different categories reasonably. Based on the uses of these substances in different researches of diseases, a total of 80 active ingredients or compound preparations of natural drugs were searched. The autophagy mechanisms of these substances in the treatments of divers diseases have been summarized for the first time, we also looked forward to the clinical application of some of them. CONCLUSIONS: Autophagy plays a key function in lots of illnesses, the regulation of autophagy has become one of the important means to prevent and treat these diseases. About 80 compounds and preparations involved in this review have been proved to have therapeutic effects on related diseases through the mechanism of autophagy. Experiments in vivo and in vitro showed that these compounds and preparations could treat these diseases by regulating autophagy. The typical natural products curcumin and tripterine have powerful roles in regulating autophagy and show good and diversified curative effects.

2.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 149, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is one of the most common hematological disease that can be life-threatening caused by bleeding complications. However, the treatment options for thrombocytopenia remain limited. METHODS: In this study, giemsa staining, phalloidin staining, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were used to identify the effects of 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4'-glucoside (DMAG), a natural ellagic acid derived from Sanguisorba officinalis L. (SOL) on megakaryocyte differentiation in HEL cells. Then, thrombocytopenia mice model was constructed by X-ray irradiation to evaluate the therapeutic action of DMAG on thrombocytopenia. Furthermore, the effects of DMAG on platelet function were evaluated by tail bleeding time, platelet aggregation and platelet adhesion assays. Next, network pharmacology approaches were carried out to identify the targets of DMAG. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed to elucidate the underling mechanism of DMAG against thrombocytopenia. Finally, molecular docking simulation, molecular dynamics simulation and western blot analysis were used to explore the relationship between DAMG with its targets. RESULTS: DMAG significantly promoted megakaryocyte differentiation of HEL cells. DMAG administration accelerated platelet recovery and megakaryopoiesis, shortened tail bleeding time, strengthened platelet aggregation and adhesion in thrombocytopenia mice. Network pharmacology revealed that ITGA2B, ITGB3, VWF, PLEK, TLR2, BCL2, BCL2L1 and TNF were the core targets of DMAG. GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses suggested that the core targets of DMAG were enriched in PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, hematopoietic cell lineage, ECM-receptor interaction and platelet activation. Molecular docking simulation and molecular dynamics simulation further indicated that ITGA2B, ITGB3, PLEK and TLR2 displayed strong binding ability with DMAG. Finally, western blot analysis evidenced that DMAG up-regulated the expression of ITGA2B, ITGB3, VWF, p-Akt and PLEK. CONCLUSION: DMAG plays a critical role in promoting megakaryocytes differentiation and platelets production and might be a promising medicine for the treatment of thrombocytopenia.

3.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 14: 1621-1628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785921

RESUMO

Purpose: Assessment of the clinical effectiveness and safety of 755-nm long-pulse alexandrite laser combined with 0.5% timolol maleate eye drops in treating thicker infantile hemangioma (IH). Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of IH treated with 755-nm long-pulse alexandrite laser and topical timolol in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from October 2019 to October 2020. Seventy-eight cases were included, with a five-week laser treatment interval. Treatment status was documented during the 35 weeks before each treatment, the effect was assessed at the visual analog scale (VAS), and side effects were recorded. During the 6-month follow-up period, the recurrence and residual skin lesions were monitored. The relationship between IH thickness, treatment duration and VAS was analyzed. Results: Among the 78 children with hemangioma, 4 children were treated with a combination of propranolol, fractional laser and cinnamyl alcohol injection due to poor curative effect. Finally, the lesions were effectively alleviated. At the 5th, 15th, 25th, and 35th weeks of treatment, the average VAS of 74 children were 3.56 ± 1.20, 4.61 ± 1.43, 5.63 ± 1.60, and 6.63 ± 1.72, respectively. We analyzed VAS in different thickness groups with Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance(RMANOVA). The results show that the VAS of the thickness 2-3 mm and 3-5mm groups were higher than the 5-7mm and 7-8mm groups (F group = 440.54, P <0.05, F time = 448.31, P <0.05). During the 6-month follow-up period, none of the 74 children relapsed and the residual skin lesions gradually vanished. Conclusion: Combined treatment of IHs with a 755-nm long-pulse alexandrite laser and 0.5% timolol maleate eye drops which has apparent clinical efficacy and safety reduce residual skin lesions and decrease the IH recurrence rate.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 750165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616302

RESUMO

Genus Sanguisorba (family: Rosaceae) comprises nearly 148 species, distributed widely across the temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Sanguisorba officinalis L. (S. officinalis) has been used as a hemostatic and scald treating medicine in China for a long time. Numerous studies have demonstrated that plant extracts or monomers from S. officinalis exhibit several pharmacological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-virus, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects. The other species of genus Sanguisorba are also being studied by researchers worldwide. Sanguisorba minor Scop. (S. minor), as an edible wild plant, is a common ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, and its young shoots and leaves are often mixed with traditional vegetables and consumed as salad. Reports on genus Sanguisorba available in the current literature were collected from Google Scholar, Web of Science, Springer, and PubMed. The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org./tpl1.1/search?q=Sanguisorba), International Plant Name Index (https://www.ipni.org/?q=Sanguisorba) and Kew Botanical Garden (http://powo.science.kew.org/) were used for obtaining the scientific names and information on the subspecies and cultivars. In recent years, several in vivo and in vitro experiments have been conducted to reveal the active components and effective monomers of S. officinalis and S. minor. To date, more than 270 compounds have been isolated and identified so far from the species belonging to genus Sanguisorba. Numerous reports on the chemical constituents, pharmacologic effects, and toxicity of genus Sanguisorba are available in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the current traditional applications of plants, which are supported by a large number of scientific experiments. Owing to these promising properties, this species is used in the treatment of various diseases, including influenza virus infection, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes and leukopenia caused by bone marrow suppression. Moreover, the rich contents and biological effects of S. officinalis and S. minor facilitate these applications in dietary supplements and cosmetics. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in the traditional uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and clinical applications of genus Sanguisorba. The present comprehensive review may provide new insights for the future research on genus Sanguisorba.

5.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The intergenic SNP rs10865331 at 2p15 was identified as a major risk factor for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) susceptibility in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). B3GNT2 gene regulates polylactosamine synthesis is potentially functionally relevant to AS disease development. We investigated whether SNP rs10865331 and two B3GNT2 SNPs (rs11900673 and rs1136151) are associated with AS susceptibility and disease severity in Taiwanese. METHODS: Distributions of genotypes, alleles, and haplotypes of three SNPs were compared between 1,472 AS patients and 2,117 healthy blood donors and among AS patients stratified by clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The intergenic SNP rs10865331 was significantly associated with AS (PFDR = 1.02E-05) in Taiwanese. In AS patients stratified by positivity of HLA-B27 and syndesmophyte formation, all three B3GNT2 locus SNPs (rs11900673, rs1136151, and rs10865331) were significantly associated with syndesmophyte formation among HLA-B27 positive AS patients. Haplotype analyses revealed that the "CTA" (rs11900673C/rs1136151T/rs10865331A) haplotype was significantly associated with AS susceptibility (Padj = 0.0177) and syndesmophyte formation (Padj = 0.016) in HLA-B27 positive patients. In contrast, "TCG" (rs11900673T/rs1136151C/rs10865331G) haplotype showed protection against AS development (Padj = 0.0005 for HLA-B27 positive and Padj = 0.004 for HLA-B27 negative, respectively) and syndesmophyte formation (Padj = 0.0017) in HLA-B27 positive patients. Furthermore, B3GNT2 mRNA expressions were negatively associated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, P = 0.0103), C-reactive protein (CRP, P = 0.0353), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI, P = 0.0171), and syndesmophyte formation (P = 0.0148). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that B3GNT2 gene may contribute to AS development and affect AS severity by interacting with HLA-B27 in Taiwanese.

6.
ACS Omega ; 6(40): 26545-26555, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661009

RESUMO

Drug development has a high failure rate, with safety properties constituting a considerable challenge. To reduce risk, in silico tools, including various machine learning methods, have been applied for toxicity prediction. However, these approaches often confront a serious problem: the training data sets are usually biased (imbalanced positive and negative samples), which would result in model training difficulty and unsatisfactory prediction accuracy. Multitask networks obtained significantly better predictive accuracies than single-task methods, and capsule neural networks showed excellent performance in sparse data sets in previous studies. In this study, we developed a new multitask framework based on a capsule neural network (multitask CapsNet) to measure 12 different toxic effects simultaneously. We found that multitask CapsNet excelled in toxicity prediction and outperformed many other computational approaches using the multitask strategy. Only after training on biased data sets did multitask CapsNet achieve significantly improved prediction accuracy on the Tox21 Data Challenge, which gave the largest ratio of highest accuracy (8/12) among compared models. Our model gave a prediction accuracy of 96.6% for the target NR.PPAR.gamma, whose ratio of negative to positive samples was up to 36:1. These results suggested that multitask CapsNet could overcome the bias problems and would provide a novel, accurate, and efficient approach for predicting the toxicities of compounds.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 708331, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485295

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia is closely linked with hemorrhagic diseases, for which induction of thrombopoiesis shows promise as an effective treatment. Polyphenols widely exist in plants and manifest antioxidation and antitumour activities. In this study, we investigated the thrombopoietic effect and mechanism of 3,3',4'-trimethylellagic acid (TMEA, a polyphenol in Sanguisorba officinalis L.) using in silico prediction and experimental validation. A KEGG analysis indicated that PI3K/Akt signalling functioned as a crucial pathway. Furthermore, the virtual molecular docking results showed high-affinity binding (a docking score of 6.65) between TMEA and mTOR, suggesting that TMEA might target the mTOR protein to modulate signalling activity. After isolation of TMEA, in vitro and in vivo validation revealed that this compound could promote megakaryocyte differentiation/maturation and platelet formation. In addition, it enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and P70S6K and increased the expression of GATA-1 and NF-E2, which confirmed the mechanism prediction. In conclusion, our findings are the first to demonstrate that TMEA may provide a novel therapeutic strategy that relies on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway to facilitate megakaryocyte differentiation and platelet production.

8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 631552, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458248

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the gut microbiota has received considerable attention for its interactions with the host. Microbial ß-glucuronidase generated by this community has hence aroused concern for its biotransformation activity to a wide range of exogenous (foreign) and endogenous compounds. Lately, the role of gut microbial ß-glucuronidase in the pathogenesis of breast cancer has been proposed for its estrogen reactivation activity. This is plausible considering that estrogen glucuronides are the primary products of estrogens' hepatic phase II metabolism and are subject to ß-glucuronidase-catalyzed hydrolysis in the gut via bile excretion. However, research in this field is still at its very preliminary stage. This review outlines the biology of microbial ß-glucuronidase in the gastrointestinal tract and elaborates on the clues to the existence of microbial ß-glucuronidase-estrogen metabolism-breast cancer axis. The research gaps in this field will be discussed and possible strategies to address these challenges are suggested.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 704093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393785

RESUMO

Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) play a crucial role in stimulating thrombopoiesis. However, conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results regarding the efficacy of thrombopoietin receptor agonists versus placebo. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to assess the effects of five TPO-RAs via indirect comparison. For this network meta-analysis, we considered randomized trials that included any of the following interventions: avatrombopag, lusutrombopag, eltrombopag, romiplostim, recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO). We searched the Medline, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases for randomized controlled clinical trials from inception to January 31, 2021. We use randomized controlled clinical trials of TPO-RAs for treatment of immune thrombocytopenia in adults. The primary outcome was the number of patients achieving platelet response which was defined as the achievement of a platelet count of more than 30 or 50 cells × 109/L in the absence of rescue therapy, and the secondary outcome was the therapy-related serious adverse events and incidence of bleeding episodes. To obtain the estimates of efficacy and safety outcomes, we performed a random-effects network meta-analysis. These estimates were presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We use surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities to rank the comparative effects and safety of all drugs against the placebo. In total, 2,207 patients were analyzed in 20 clinical trials. All preparations improved the point estimates of platelet response when compared with the placebo. Avatrombopag and lusutrombopag had the best platelet response compared to the placebo, the former had a non-significant advantage compared to the latter [odds ratio (OR) = 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 7.05)]. The treatments were better than eltrombopag, romiplostim, rituximab, and rhTPO + rituximab, with corresponding ORs of 3.10 (1.01, 9.51), 9.96 (2.29, 43.29), 33.09 (8.76, 125.02), and 21.31 (3.78, 119.98) for avatrombopag and 1.62 (0.63, 4.17), 5.21 (1.54, 17.62), 17.34 (5.15, 58.36), and 11.16 (2.16, 57.62) for lusutrombopag. Regarding bleeding, the placebo group had the highest probability of bleeding, whereas lusutrombopag had the lowest risk of bleeding when compared to the placebo. Adverse events were slightly higher in patients receiving rituximab than in those receiving placebo or other treatments. Overall, this meta-analysis showed that avatrombopag may yield the highest efficacy because it has the most favorable balance of benefits and acceptability.

10.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(11): 1270-1282, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452926

RESUMO

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been largely resistant to immunotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that detect and kill transformed cells without prior sensitization, and their infiltration into prostate tumors corresponds with an increased overall survival among patients with mCRPC. We sought to harness this knowledge to develop an approach to NK-cell based immunotherapy for mCRPC. We engineered an NK cell line (NK-92MI) to express CD64, the sole human high-affinity IgG Fcγ receptor (FcγR1), and bound these cells with antibodies to provide interchangeable tumor-targeting elements. NK-92MICD64 cells were evaluated for cell-activation mechanisms and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). A combination of mAbs was used to target the prostate tumor antigen tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TROP2) and the cancer-associated fibroblast marker fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP). We found that CD64, which is normally expressed by myeloid cells and associates with the adaptor molecule FcRγ, can be expressed by NK-92MI cells and mediate ADCC through an association with CD3ζ. Cytotoxicity from the combination approach was two-fold higher compared to treatment with NK-92MICD64 cells and either mAb alone, and seven-fold higher than NK-92MICD64 cells alone at an effector-target cell ratio of 20:1. The cytotoxic effect was lost when using isotype control antibodies, indicating a selective targeting mechanism. The combination approach demonstrated efficacy in vivo as well and significantly reduced tumor growth compared with the saline control. This combination therapy presents a potential approach for treating mCRPC and could improve immunotherapy response.

11.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 22(1): 45, 2021 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormally elevated xanthine oxidase (XO) activity has been verified to cause various pathological processes, such as gout, oxidative stress injury and metabolic syndrome. Thus, XO activators may exhibit above potential toxicological properties. Plumbagin (PLB) is an important active compound in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), while its obvious toxic effects have been reported, including diarrhea, skin rashes and hepatic toxicity. However, the potential toxicity associated with enhancement of XO activity has not been fully illuminated so far. METHODS: The present study investigated the effect of PLB on XO activity by culturing mouse liver S9 (MLS9), human liver S9 (HLS9), XO monoenzyme system with PLB and xanthine. Then, the molecular docking and biolayer interferometry analysis were adopted to study the binding properties between PLB and XO. Finally, the in vivo acceleration effect also investigated by injected intraperitoneally PLB to KM mice for 3 days. RESULTS: PLB could obviously accelerate xanthine oxidation in the above three incubation systems. Both the Vmax values and intrinsic clearance values (CLint, Vmax/Km) of XO in the three incubation systems increased along with elevated PLB concentration. In addition, the molecular docking study and label-free biolayer interferometry assay displayed that PLB was well bound to XO. In addition, the in vivo results showed that PLB (2 and 10 mg/kg) significantly increased serum uric acid levels and enhanced serum XO activity in mice. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study outlines a potential source of toxicity for PLB due to the powerful enhancement of XO activity, which may provide the crucial reminding for the PLB-containing preparation development and clinical application.

12.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208618

RESUMO

MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A) interacts with NKG2D on immune cells to regulate host immune responses. We aimed to determine whether MICA alleles are associated with AS susceptibility in Taiwanese. MICA alleles were determined through haplotype analyses of major MICA coding SNP (cSNP) data from 895 AS patients and 896 normal healthy controls in Taiwan. The distributions of MICA alleles were compared between AS patients and normal healthy controls and among AS patients, stratified by clinical characteristics. ELISA was used to determine soluble MICA (sMICA) levels in serum of AS patients and healthy controls. Stable cell lines expressing four major MICA alleles (MICA*002, MICA*008, MICA*010 and MICA*019) in Taiwanese were used for biological analyses. We found that MICA*019 is the only major MICA allele significantly associated with AS susceptibility (PFDR = 2.25 × 10-115; OR, 14.90; 95% CI, 11.83-18.77) in Taiwanese. In addition, the MICA*019 allele is associated with syndesmophyte formation (PFDR = 0.0017; OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.29-2.22) and HLA-B27 positivity (PFDR = 1.45 × 10-33; OR, 28.79; 95% CI, 16.83-49.26) in AS patients. Serum sMICA levels were significantly increased in AS patients as compared to healthy controls. Additionally, MICA*019 homozygous subjects produced the highest levels of sMICA, compared to donors with other genotypes. Furthermore, in vitro experiments revealed that cells expressing MICA*019 produced the highest level of sMICA, as compared to other major MICA alleles. In summary, the MICA*019 allele, producing the highest levels of sMICA, is a significant risk factor for AS and syndesmophyte formation in Taiwanese. Our data indicate that a high level of sMICA is a biomarker for AS.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 683935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122112

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation, an inflammatory response within the central nervous system (CNS), is a main hallmark of common neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others. The over-activated microglia release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which induces neuronal death and accelerates neurodegeneration. Therefore, inhibition of microglia over-activation and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been a promising strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Many drugs have shown promising therapeutic effects on microglia and inflammation. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-a natural barrier preventing brain tissue from contact with harmful plasma components-seriously hinders drug delivery to the microglial cells in CNS. As an emerging useful therapeutic tool in CNS-related diseases, nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely applied in biomedical fields for use in diagnosis, biosensing and drug delivery. Recently, many NPs have been reported to be useful vehicles for anti-inflammatory drugs across the BBB to inhibit the over-activation of microglia and neuroinflammation. Therefore, NPs with good biodegradability and biocompatibility have the potential to be developed as an effective and minimally invasive carrier to help other drugs cross the BBB or as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarized various nanoparticles applied in CNS, and their mechanisms and effects in the modulation of inflammation responses in neurodegenerative diseases, providing insights and suggestions for the use of NPs in the treatment of neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

14.
Front Neurol ; 12: 653752, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025557

RESUMO

Patients with non-disabling middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis (ND-MCAS) are at risk for disabling ischemic cerebrovascular events (DICE) despite aggressive medical therapy. In this study, we aimed to verify whether cerebral circulation time (CCT) was a potential predictor of DICE in patients with ND-MCAS. From January 2015 to January 2020, 46 patients with ND-MCAS treated with aggressive medical therapy were enrolled for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in this convenience sampling study. They were divided into the DICE (-) and DICE (+) groups based on the occurrence of DICE within 3 months after DSA. The CCT was defined as the time from the appearance of the MCA to the peak intensity of the Trolard vein during DSA. The rCCT (relative CCT) was defined as the ratio of the CCT of the stenotic side (sCCT) to the CCT of the healthy side (hCCT). The differences in sCCT, hCCT, and rCCT between the two groups were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the risk factors and DICE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the predictive value of rCCT in identifying DICE in ND-MCAS patients. The results showed that DICE appeared in 5 of the 46 patients within 3 months. rCCT were significantly increased in the DICE (+) group compared with the DICE (-) group [1.08 (1.05, 1.14) vs. 1.30 (1.22, 1.54), p < 0.001]. Logistic regression analysis found that prolonged rCCT was an independent positive prognostic factor for DICE (odds ratio = 1.273, p = 0.019) after adjustment for potential confounders (age, diabetes, antithrombotic use, and stenosis degree). ROC analysis showed that rCCT provided satisfactory accuracy in distinguishing the DICE (+) group from the DICE (-) group among ND-MCAS patients (area under the curve = 0.985, p < 0.001), with an optimal cutoff point of 1.20 (100% sensitivity, 97.6% specificity). In conclusion, prolonged rCCT is independently associated with the occurrence of DICE in ND-MCAS patients and may be used to identify individuals at risk of DICE.

15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 228, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although extensive breeding efforts are ongoing in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.), the average yield is far below the theoretical potential. Tillering is an important component of sugarcane yield, however, the molecular mechanism underlying tiller development is still elusive. The limited genomic data in sugarcane, particularly due to its complex and large genome, has hindered in-depth molecular studies. RESULTS: Herein, we generated full-length (FL) transcriptome from developing leaf and tiller bud samples based on PacBio Iso-Seq. In addition, we performed RNA-seq from tiller bud samples at three developmental stages (T0, T1 and T2) to uncover key genes and biological pathways involved in sugarcane tiller development. In total, 30,360 and 20,088 high-quality non-redundant isoforms were identified in leaf and tiller bud samples, respectively, representing 41,109 unique isoforms in sugarcane. Likewise, we identified 1063 and 1037 alternative splicing events identified in leaf and tiller bud samples, respectively. We predicted the presence of coding sequence for 40,343 isoforms, 98% of which was successfully annotated. Comparison with previous FL transcriptomes in sugarcane revealed 2963 unreported isoforms. In addition, we characterized 14,946 SSRs from 11,700 transcripts and 310 lncRNAs. By integrating RNA-seq with the FL transcriptome, 468 and 57 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in T1vsT0 and T2vsT0, respectively. Strong up-regulation of several pyruvate phosphate dikinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase genes suggests enhanced carbon fixation and protein synthesis to facilitate tiller growth. Similarly, up-regulation of linoleate 9S-lipoxygenase and lipoxygenase genes in the linoleic acid metabolism pathway suggests high synthesis of key oxylipins involved in tiller growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we have enriched the genomic data available in sugarcane and provided candidate genes for manipulating tiller formation and development, towards productivity enhancement in sugarcane.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharum/genética , Transcriptoma , Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Saccharum/metabolismo
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 266: 118139, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044953

RESUMO

In this study, 2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HTCC)-based hydrogel was devised as a mucosal adjuvant for H5N1 vaccine. Aimed to investigate the structure activity relationship between HTCC hydrogel and immune response, we prepared a series of HTCC hydrogel with defined quaternization degrees (DQs, 0%, 21%, 41%, 60%, 80%). Results suggested that with DQ increasing, the positive charge and gelation time of HTCC hydrogel increased but the viscosity decreased. We applied in vivo imaging system and found that the moderate DQ 41% prolonged antigen residence time in nasal cavity, resulting in the most potent systemic responses (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, HI). While, the lowest DQ 0% produced the best mucosal IgA antibody responses, most likely due to the closer contact with mucosa. Furthermore, the influence of animal gender was also discussed. These data add to the growing understanding of the relationship between physicochemical features of chitosan-based hydrogel and how they influence the immune responses.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Feminino , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/química , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores Sexuais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 262: 117936, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838813

RESUMO

Inspired by muscle architectures, double network hydrogels with hierarchically aligned structures were fabricated, where cross-linked cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/chitosan hydrogel threads obtained by interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation spinning were collected in alignment as the first network, while isotropic poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PAM-AA) served as the second network. After further cross-linking using Fe3+, the hydrogel showed an outstanding mechanical performance, owing to effective energy dissipation of the oriented asymmetric double networks. The average strength and elongation-at-break of PAM-AA/CNF/Fe3+ hydrogel were 11 MPa and 480 % respectively, which the strength was comparative to that of biological tissues. The aligned CNFs in the hydrogels provided probable ion transport channels, contributing to the high ionic conductivity, which was up to 0.022 S/cm when the content of LiCl was 1.5 %. Together with superior biocompatibility, the well-ordered hydrogel showed a promising potential in biological applications, such as artificial soft tissue materials and muscle-like sensors for human motion monitoring.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Celulose/química , Quitosana/química , Hidrogéis/química , Nanofibras/química , Acrilamidas/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Íons/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Músculos , Resistência à Tração
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 618522, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746755

RESUMO

Background: Sanguisorba Officinalis L. (SO) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), commonly applied to treat complex diseases, such as anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and hemostatic effects. Especially, it has been reported to exert anti-tumor effect in various human cancers. However, its effect and pharmacological mechanism on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Methods: In this study, network pharmacology approach was applied to characterize the underlying mechanism of SO on HCC. Active compounds and potential targets of SO, as well as related genes of HCC were obtained from the public databases, the potential targets and signaling pathways were determined by protein-protein interaction (PPI), gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. And the compound-target and target-pathway networks were constructed. Subsequently, in vitro experiments were also performed to further verify the anticancer effects of SO on HCC. Results: By using the comprehensive network pharmacology analysis, 41 ingredients in SO were collected from the corresponding databases, 12 active ingredients screened according to their oral bioavailability and drug-likeness index, and 258 potential targets related to HCC were predicted. Through enrichment analysis, SO was found to show its excellent therapeutic effects on HCC through several pathways, mainly related to proliferation and survival via the EGFR, PI3K/AKT, NFκB and MAPK signaling pathways. Additionally, in vitro, SO was found to inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and down-regulate cell migration and invasion in various HCC cells. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that SO treatment down-regulated the expression of p-EGFR, p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-NFκB and p-MAPK proteins in HepG2 cells. These results validated that SO exerted its therapeutic effects on HCC mainly by the regulation of cell proliferation and survival via the EGFR/MAPK and EGFR/PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways. Conclusion: Taken together, this study, revealed the anti-HCC effects of SO and its potential underlying therapeutic mechanisms in a multi-target and multi-pathway manner.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 608017, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708237

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most leading causes of cancer death with a poor prognosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear, and effective treatment for it is limited. Using an integrated bioinformatics method, the present study aimed to identify the key candidate prognostic genes that are involved in HCC development and identify small-molecule drugs with treatment potential. Methods and Results: In this study, by using three expression profile datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus database, 1,704 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 671 upregulated and 1,033 downregulated genes. Then, weighted co-expression network analysis revealed nine modules are related with pathological stage; turquoise module was the most associated module. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses (KEGG) indicated that these genes were enriched in cell division, cell cycle, and metabolic related pathways. Furthermore, by analyzing the turquoise module, 22 genes were identified as hub genes. Based on HCC data from gene expression profiling interactive analysis (GEPIA) database, nine genes associated with progression and prognosis of HCC were screened, including ANLN, BIRC5, BUB1B, CDC20, CDCA5, CDK1, NCAPG, NEK2, and TOP2A. According to the Human Protein Atlas and the Oncomine database, these genes were highly upregulated in HCC tumor samples. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the risk score based on the gene expression signature of these nine genes was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in HCC patients. In addition, the candidate small-molecule drugs for HCC were identified by the CMap database. Conclusion: In conclusion, the nine key gene signatures related to HCC progression and prognosis were identified and validated. The cell cycle pathway was the core pathway enriched with these key genes. Moreover, several candidate molecule drugs were identified, providing insights into novel therapeutic approaches for HCC.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680064

RESUMO

Gynura divaricata (GD) is an Asian herb widely used as an alternative medicine and functional food for type 2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is considered as an important complication of diabetic patients. This study focused on neuroregenerative effects of GD for use in the prevention of diabetic neuropathy. GD leaves were cut and boiled in water to mimic real-life cooking. The boiled content was filtered through white gauze and lyophilized to preserve as dried powder. Antioxidant assay was performed using DPPH assays. UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS was employed to test for important compounds in the extract of these herbs. MTT assay was used to test for cell viability. The extracts at concentration of 250 µg/mL were tested with human gingival cell to observe the change of gene expression. The DPPH assay showed that GD water extract at the concentration of 5000 µg/mL could inhibit DPPH radical for 39.2%. The results showed that 5000 µg of GD water extract contained total phenolic content equivalent to 310.9 µg standard gallic acid. UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS result found phenolic acids and flavonoids as the main components. Human gingival cells treated with 250 µg/mL of GD water extract for 10 days showed upregulation of some neuronal differentiation markers. Staining with Cdr3 dye confirmed the presentation of neuronal progenitors. The extract at the concentration of 250 µg/mL was also tested with apical papilla cells to screen for change of gene expression by RNA sequencing. The result also showed significant upregulation of alpha-internexin (INA). These results indicated that GD water extract might have an inductive effect for neural regeneration and could be used as functional food and supplementation for the prevention or treatment of diabetic neuropathy. This work provided the basic knowledge for further investigations into the benefits of GD for diabetic neuropathy.

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