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1.
ACS Omega ; 2(3): 1063-1073, 2017 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457489

RESUMO

An effective strategy was developed to enhance the adaptability of graphene/silicone matrices under external stimuli by embedding nanoscale SiO2 into the graphene/silicone interfaces as a buffer layer. Chemically reduced graphene (rGE) was first covered by SiO2 using an in situ preparation, forming sandwichlike rGE/SiO2 (rGES). Then, rGES was integrated into methyl vinyl polysiloxane, followed by vulcanization, producing the final rGES/silicone rubber (SR) nanocomposite. Such interfacial modification actually built a rigid-flexible SiO2 buffer layer between rGE and polysiloxane. Obvious improvements were seen in both thermal and mechanical properties due to improved interfacial interaction. In a vulcanized rGES/SR system, the addition of 30 wt % rGES (3 wt % rGE) yielded a tensile strength of 6.13 MPa (up to 25 times that of the unmodified rGE in filled SR), a tear strength of 18.08 kN/m, and an elongation at break of 267%, several times higher than those of an rGE/SR nanocomposite. Thermal analysis results indicated that the initial decomposition temperature of rGES/SR containing 5 wt % rGES (0.5 wt % rGE) increased by more than 98 and 288 °C compared to that of SiO2/SR and rGE/SR, respectively. The rGES/polysiloxane matrices showed a tensile shear adhesive strength of 1.78 MPa when used as an adhesive for aluminum sheets, which is higher than that of the rGE/polysiloxane matrix (0.93 MPa).

2.
Arch Virol ; 161(12): 3435-3443, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27638775

RESUMO

To analyze the variation in rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) in an area with high incidence of maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), the RBSDV S1 segment in a collection of 100 maize isolates (sample population A100) from Jining, Shandong Province, was sequenced. An additional 21 maize and rice isolates (subpopulation B21) that were sampled from nine other geographic locations in China in 2012 and 2013 were used as a control. A total of 914 nucleotide mutations, including 239 singleton variable and 675 parsimony-informative sites were detected among the segment 1 (S1) sequences from A100. A total of 614 nucleotide mutation sites including 164 singleton variable and 450 parsimony-informative sites were detected among the S1 sequences from B21, while 97.55 % of the parsimony-informative sites from B21 were also detected in A100. The nucleotide sequence diversities of A100 (π = 0.0479) and B21 (π = 0.0396) were significantly different (P = 0.0002) but showed similar trends. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 121 RBSDV isolates could be classified into two groups based on their S1 sequences, independent of subpopulation, with a combination of host species and locations. A100 and B21 were under the same level of negative and purifying selection, with Ka/Ks ratios of 0.0337 and 0.0369, respectively. The combined RBSDV population, including 121 isolates, was expanding, with negative values for Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F in both A100 and B21, except Tajima's D in A100. Based on S1, the RBSDV population in China has long-term phytogeographic stability, and there do not appear to be any newly-emerging strains.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Reoviridae/classificação , Reoviridae/genética , Zea mays/virologia , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Mutação , Filogenia , Reoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência
3.
J Exp Bot ; 67(15): 4593-609, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27493226

RESUMO

Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a viral infection that results in heavy yield losses in maize worldwide, particularly in the summer maize-growing regions of China. MRDD is caused by the Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). In the present study, analyses of microRNAs (miRNAs), the degradome, and transcriptome sequences were used to elucidate the RBSDV-responsive pathway(s) in maize. Genomic analysis indicated that the expression of three non-conserved and 28 conserved miRNAs, representing 17 known miRNA families and 14 novel miRNAs, were significantly altered in response to RBSDV when maize was inoculated at the V3 (third leaf) stage. A total of 99 target transcripts from 48 genes of 10 known miRNAs were found to be responsive to RBSDV infection. The annotations of these target genes include a SQUAMOSA promoter binding (SPB) protein, a P450 reductase, an oxidoreductase, and a ubiquitin-related gene, among others. Characterization of the entire transcriptome suggested that a total of 28 and 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1.5 and 3.0 d, respectively, after artificial inoculation with RBSDV. The expression patterns of cell wall- and chloroplast-related genes, and disease resistance- and stress-related genes changed significantly in response to RBSDV infection. The negatively regulated genes GRMZM2G069316 and GRMZM2G031169, which are the target genes for miR169i-p5 and miR8155, were identified as a nucleolin and a NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily protein in maize, respectively. The gene ontology term GO:0003824, including GRMZM2G031169 and other 51 DEGs, was designated as responsive to RBSDV.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Reoviridae/fisiologia , Zea mays/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0158052, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351632

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0131410, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26121638

RESUMO

Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) causes maize rough dwarf disease or rice black-streaked dwarf disease and can lead to severe yield losses in maize and rice. To analyse RBSDV evolution, codon usage bias and genetic structure were investigated in 111 maize and rice RBSDV isolates from eight geographic locations in 2013 and 2014. The linear dsRNA S7 is A+U rich, with overall codon usage biased toward codons ending with A (A3s, S7-1: 32.64%, S7-2: 29.95%) or U (U3s, S7-1: 44.18%, S7-2: 46.06%). Effective number of codons (Nc) values of 45.63 in S7-1 (the first open reading frame of S7) and 39.96 in S7-2 (the second open reading frame of S7) indicate low degrees of RBSDV-S7 codon usage bias, likely driven by mutational bias regardless of year, host, or geographical origin. Twelve optimal codons were detected in S7. The nucleotide diversity (π) of S7 sequences in 2013 isolates (0.0307) was significantly higher than in 2014 isolates (0.0244, P = 0.0226). The nucleotide diversity (π) of S7 sequences in isolates from Jinan (0.0391) was higher than that from the other seven locations (P < 0.01). Only one S7 recombinant was detected in Baoding. RBSDV isolates could be phylogenetically classified into two groups according to S7 sequences, and further classified into two subgroups. S7-1 and S7-2 were under negative and purifying selection, with respective Ka/Ks ratios of 0.0179 and 0.0537. These RBSDV populations were expanding (P < 0.01) as indicated by negative values for Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F. Genetic differentiation was detected in six RBSDV subpopulations (P < 0.05). Absolute Fst (0.0790) and Nm (65.12) between 2013 and 2014, absolute Fst (0.1720) and Nm (38.49) between maize and rice, and absolute Fst values of 0.0085-0.3069 and Nm values of 0.56-29.61 among these eight geographic locations revealed frequent gene flow between subpopulations. Gene flow between 2013 and 2014 was the most frequent.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Oryza/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Reoviridae/genética , Composição de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Códon/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Nucleotídeos/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética/genética , Reoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Seleção Genética
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 7(3): 728-42, 2015 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25751146

RESUMO

A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation.


Assuntos
Fusarium/química , Tricotecenos/análise , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/química
7.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98394, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24897124

RESUMO

The transgenic wheat line N12-1 containing the WYMV-Nib8 gene was obtained previously through particle bombardment, and it can effectively control the wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) disease transmitted by Polymyxa graminis at turngreen stage. Due to insertion of an exogenous gene, the transcriptome of wheat may be altered and affect root exudates. Thus, it is important to investigate the potential environmental risk of transgenic wheat before commercial release because of potential undesirable ecological side effects. Our 2-year study at two different experimental locations was performed to analyze the impact of transgenic wheat N12-1 on bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) at four growth stages (seeding stage, turngreen stage, grain-filling stage, and maturing stage). We also explored the activities of urease, sucrase and dehydrogenase in rhizosphere soil. The results showed that there was little difference in bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil between N12-1 and its recipient Y158 by comparing Shannon's, Simpson's diversity index and evenness (except at one or two growth stages). Regarding enzyme activity, only one significant difference was found during the maturing stage at Xinxiang in 2011 for dehydrogenase. Significant growth stage variation was observed during 2 years at two experimental locations for both soil microbial community diversity and enzyme activity. Analysis of bands from the gel for fungal community diversity showed that the majority of fungi were uncultured. The results of this study suggested that virus-resistant transgenic wheat had no adverse impact on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil during 2 continuous years at two different experimental locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for environmental impact monitoring of transgenic wheat when the introduced gene is derived from a virus.


Assuntos
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Triticum/genética , Meio Ambiente , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Vírus de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Triticum/virologia
8.
J Genet ; 90(1): 39-44, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21677387

RESUMO

Validation and dissection of a QTL region for leaf traits in rice which has been reported in a number of independent studies were conducted. Three sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) were originated from a residual heterozygous line derived the indica cross Zhenshan 97B/Milyang 46. They were overlapping and totally covered a 4.2-Mb heterogenous region extending from RM4923 to RM402 on the short arm of rice chromosome 6. Each NIL set consisted of 10 maternal lines and 10 paternal lines. They were measured for the length, width, perimeter and area of the top three leaves and the number of spikelets per panicle, number of grains per panicle and grain weight per panicle. In NIL sets 6-4 and 6-7, differing in intervals RM4923-RM225 and RM19410-RM6119, respectively, significant variations with the enhancing alleles from the female parent ZS97 were shown for the length, perimeter and area except for the area of the third leaf from top in 6-4, but the effects were lower in 6-4 than in 6-7. No significant effects were detected for the three traits in the remaining NIL set. It was shown that flag leaf length (FLL) is the primary target of the QTLs detected. Two QTLs for FLL linked in repulsion phase were resolved, of which qFLL6.2 located in the 1.19-Mb interval RM3414-RM6917 had a major effect with the enhancing allele from Zhenshan 97B, and qFLL6.1 located in the 946.8-kb interval RM19350-RM19410 had a smaller effect with the enhancing allele from Milyang 46. The two QTLs also exerted pleiotropic effects on the yield traits.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Grão Comestível/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética
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