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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125894, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523556

RESUMO

Phosphate additives especially superphosphate can reduce nitrogen loss, and increase phosphorus availability in composting. This study investigated the changes of different heavy metals fractions and their relationship with bacterial community and abiotic factors during pig manure composting with adding equimolar H3PO4, H2SO4 and K2HPO4. Results showed that both acidic and alkaline labile phosphate increased the potential ecological risk of heavy metals compared to control, but K2HPO4 decreased the accumulation of exchangeable Zn and Mn by 12% and 15% than that with H3PO4 and H2SO4 addition. Network analysis showed that K2HPO4 enhanced the proportion of negative links in bacterial species with heavy metals, but H3PO4 decreased the stability of bacterial network. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that pH was the key factor on metal speciation and risk with phosphate additives than bacterial role. The study presented theoretical basis for additive selection in controlling composting nitrogen fixation and environmental risk.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Animais , Esterco , Metais Pesados/análise , Fosfatos , Solo , Suínos
2.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(14): 3082-3089, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400878

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine the relationship between the endometrial thickness (ET) and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in the postmenopausal women who have a comprehensive health examination. Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective observational study of the prevalence of MAFLD in 8594 postmenopausal women with different ET in the Quality Control Center of Health Examination in Chongqing, China. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for patients of different ET with MAFLD after adjusting for age. Results: The incidences of MAFLD were 28.6% (1352), 30.3% (1058), 34.9% (133) in postmenopausal women with ET of < 3 mm, 3 mm ≤ & < 5 mm, and ≥ 5 mm, respectively. Compared with a baseline ET of less than 5.0 mm, the risk of MAFLD in patients with ET of ≥5.0 mm is higher (OR=1.291, 95% CI: 1.041-1.603, P<0.05). After adjustment for age, a statistically significant positive correlation was still observed. The increased prevalence of MAFLD in patients with ET of 3 mm ≤ &<5 mm (OR=1.110, 95% CI: 1.008-1.223) and ≥5 mm (OR=1.383, 95% CI: 1.109-1.724) achieved statistical significance, respectively. In addition, multiple logistic analyses controlling for age also confirmed the finding of positive correlation among body mass index (BMI) and ET. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is a positive correlation between MAFLD and ET in postmenopausal women. In addition, increased BMI is also associated with an increased risk of thickened endometrium.

3.
Acta Cytol ; 65(5): 393-402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the mutation status of multiple driver genes by RT-qPCR and their significance in advanced lung adenocarcinoma using cytological specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 155 cytological specimens that had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma in the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University were selected from April to November 2019. The cytological specimens included serous cavity effusion and fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Among cytological specimens, 108 cases were processed by using the cell block method (CBM), and 47 cases were processed by the disposable membrane cell collector method (MCM) before DNA/RNA extraction. Ten drive genes of EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, HER2, RET, PIK3CA, and MET were combined detected at one step by the amplification refractory mutation system and ABI 7500 RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The purity of RNA (p = 0.005) and DNA (p = 0.001) extracted by using the MCM was both significantly higher than that extracted by using the CBM. Forty-seven cases of fresh cell specimens processed by the MCM all succeeded in multigene detections, while of 108 specimens processed by the CBM, 6 cases failed in multigene detections. Among 149 specimens, single-gene mutation rates of EGFR, ALK, ROS1, RET, HER2, MET, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations were 57.71%, 6.04%, 3.36%, 2.68%, 2.01%, 2.01%, 1.34%, 0.67%, 0% and 0% respectively, and 6 cases including 2 coexistence mutations. We found that mutation status was correlated with gender (p = 0.047), but not correlated with age (p = 0.141) and smoking status (p = 0.083). We found that the EGFR mutation status was correlated with gender (p = 0.003), age (p = 0.015) and smoking habits (p = 0.007), and ALK mutation status was correlated with age (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Compared with the CBM, the MCM can improve the efficiency of DNA/RNA extraction and PCR amplification by removing impurities and enriching tumor cells. And we speculate that the successful detection rate of fresh cytological specimens was higher than that of paraffin-embedded specimens. EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 mutations were the main driver mutations in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. We speculate that EGFR and ALK are more prone to concomitant mutations, respectively. Targeted therapies for patients with coexisting mutations need further study.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363152

RESUMO

Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater; however, carbon source shortages limit denitrification. We studied the effect of algae addition as an external carbon source in CWs and found that the nitrogen removal efficiency of CWs is highly dependent on the algae dosage. Optimal nitrogen removal percentage (80.5%) can be achieved by adding 81.1 mg·L-1 dry weight algae to the influent when the chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio reaches 5.3. Longitudinal changes in the nitrogen concentrations, organic matter concentrations, and nitrogen functional genes were also analyzed. The algae addition strengthened the anoxic environment, boosted the volatile fatty acid concentrations, and improved the ratio of nitrite reductase gene (nirS) and copper-containing nitrite reductase (nirK)/16S rRNA, as well as the ratio of nitrate reductase gene (narG)/16S rRNA, thereby expanding the active space for denitrification. The addition of algae could potentially provide enough carbon to enhance denitrification during treatment of wastewater with a low COD/N ratio.

5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112782, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358790

RESUMO

The concentration, composition, distribution, and possible sources of phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface sediments from fishing ports in the Circum-Bohai-Sea region were investigated. The potential ecological risks of PAEs on three sensitive aquatic organisms (algae, crustacean, and fish) were assessed based on the risk quotient. The concentrations of 16 PAEs were in the range of 8.53-86.13 µg/g. Six PAEs, which were considered as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, were main congeners. Fishing ports with high PAE concentration were located near the eastern area of the Shandong Peninsula, the southern area of the Liaodong Peninsula, and the estuary of the Yellow River. Wastewater, atmospheric deposition, plastic, and rubber products were possible sources of PAEs. The PAEs showed medium to high ecological risks on the three aquatic organisms, and the ecological risks were attributed to four PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and benzylbutyl phthalate.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Dibutilftalato , Ésteres , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 711956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456869

RESUMO

Objective: The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and thyroid hormones in euthyroid subjects is unclear. We investigated the relationship between thyroid function and the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis in a large cohort of euthyroid Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3496 participants were enrolled. Liver ultrasonography was used to define the presence of NAFLD (n=2172) or the absence of NAFLD (n=1324). Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made and thyroid function parameters including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. The severity of hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness was assessed by transient elastography. Results: Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in the severe NAFLD group and moderate NAFLD group than in the mild NAFLD group (5.18 ± 0.58 vs 5.11 ± 0.57 vs 4.98 ± 0.60 pmol/L, P<0.001). Participants with F4 and F3 liver fibrosis had higher FT3 levels than those with F2 fibrosis (6.33 ± 0.39 vs 5.29 ± 0.48 vs 5.20 ± 0.50 pmol/L, P<0.001). However, FT4 and TSH levels did not correlate with hepatic steatosis or liver fibrosis severity. In addition, the proportions of participants with NAFLD (46.0% vs 63.1% vs 73.3%, P<0.001) and liver fibrosis (11.5% vs 18.6% vs 20.8%, P<0.001) increased as FT3 levels increased. Logistic regression analysis showed that FT3 levels were positively associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis presence, even after adjustment for metabolic risk factors including BMI. In non-obese participants, the FT3 level was an independently risk factor for the severity of hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: There are positive associations of FT3 levels with the severity of hepatic steatosis and the presence of liver fibrosis in NAFLD with euthyroidism.

7.
J Mycol Med ; 31(4): 101160, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311225

RESUMO

The capsule associated protein 10 gene (CAP10) is indispensable to the formation of the polysaccharide capsule, and is closely associated with Cryptococcus (C.) neoformans virulence. In this study, we designed the shRNA expression plasmid to interfere with the synthesis of CAP10 gene. We infected mice with yeast cells in the respiratory tract, and monitored the development of infections in lung tissues. Results showed that the cap10-shRNA group may alleviate pathological lesions in pulmonary C. neoformans infection, and a lower degree of inflammatory cells was observed in the cap10-shRNA group. Moreover, the fungal burden was significantly lower in the cap10-shRNA group, indicating that the clearance towards C. neoformans was somehow affected. Down-regulation of CAP10 was beneficial to the balance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios. Collectively, our results showed that the expression of CAP10 was associated with an antifungal immune response in mice, suggesting that CAP10 regulates the inflammatory response. Therefore, we expect that the CAP10 gene will become a new molecular therapeutic target in cryptococcosis treatment.

8.
Methods Cell Biol ; 165: 177-185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311866

RESUMO

Autophagy is a process that facilitates the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis by removing unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components. It plays a role in inhibiting tumorigenesis in the early stage of the disease and might promote progression after tumor formation. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAPLC3, better known as LC3), isoform B (LC3B), is one of the most commonly used markers of autophagy. The expression of LC3B has been studied in many cancers and was shown to be closely related to tumor progression. Here, we provide detailed experimental steps for the quantitative detection of LC3B expression in cancer tissue by quantum-dot-based molecular imaging. As compared to the traditional immunohistochemistry (IHC) employing standard fluorochromes, the present method has a higher signal amplitude and improved sensitivity enabling the accurate quantitative detection, which provides a foundation for functional research and the clinical application of LC3B biomarker.

9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(10): 2606-2621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326697

RESUMO

Cisplatin (DDP) was reported to improve pathological complete response (pCR) rates in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients, however, the molecular mechanism still remains largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggested that some chemotherapeutic drugs played anti-tumor effects by inducing cell pyroptosis. Nevertheless, whether pyroptosis contributes to the DDP-induced anti-tumor effect in TNBC remains unexploited. In the present study, NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pyroptosis pathway was involved in the DDP-induced anti-tumor effect of TNBC in vitro and in vivo, providing evidence that DDP might induce pyroptosis in TNBC. Moreover, DDP activated NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pyroptosis pathway by up-regulating the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3). Furthermore, knockdown of MEG3 not only partly abolished the activation effect of DDP on NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pathway-mediated pyroptosis, but also reversed the suppression of DDP on tumor growth and metastasis ability in vitro and in vivo, further confirming that MEG3 may partially mediate the pyroptotic signaling upon DDP treatment. Thus, our data uncovered a novel mechanism that DDP induced pyroptosis via activation of MEG3/NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD pathway in TNBC to exert anti-tumor effects, which may help to develop new strategies for the therapeutic interventions in TNBC.

10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 222: 112514, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280841

RESUMO

Pendimethalin (PND) is one of the best sellers of selective herbicide in the world and has been frequently detected in the water. However, little is known about its effects on cardiac development. In this study, we used zebrafish to investigate the developmental and cardiac toxicity of PND. We exposed the zebrafish embryos with a serial of concentrations at 3, 4, and 5 mg/L at 5.5-72 h post-fertilization (hpf). We found that PND exposure can reduce the heart rate, survival rate, and body length of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we identified many malformations including pericardial and yolk sac edema, spinal deformity, and cardiac looping abnormality. In addition, PND increased the expression of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde and reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase (Antioxidant enzymes); We examined the expression of cardiac development-related genes and the apoptosis markers, and found changes of the following marker: vmhc, nppa, tbx5a, nkx2.5, gata4, tbx2b and FoxO1, bax, bcl-2, p53, casp-9, casp-3. Our data showed that activation of Wnt pathway can rescue the cardiac abnormalities caused by PND. Our results provided new evidence for the toxicity of PND and suggested that the PND residual should be treated as a hazard in the environment.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero , Peixe-Zebra , Compostos de Anilina , Animais , Apoptose , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
Opt Lett ; 46(15): 3725-3728, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329266

RESUMO

We report a scheme to achieve efficient direct mapping of the nonlinear optical response into a spatial beam profile. Compared with previous methods where a standard two-dimensional Airy beam was used as a probe, a modulated beam configuration allows for an improved mapping efficiency, stemming from the induced nonlinearity caused by the applied modulation. We find that the mapping efficiency along different orientations is highly related to the beam patterns and the type of nonlinearity. The improvement of the mapping quality and new, to the best of our knowledge, features found in simulations are further verified in experiments by testing a photorefractive nonlinearity. Our results represent a further step towards an effective tool for the direct measurement of the nonlinear optical response with low power consumption.

12.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of ascending aortic longitudinal strain (LS) in identification of hypertensive (HP) patients with a high risk of type A aortic dissection (AAD). METHODS: Total 40 primary HP patients with AAD (group C), 80 selected age- and sex-matched primary HP patients (group A, normal-sized ascending aorta (AA), n = 40; group B, dilated AA, n = 40) and 40 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Brachial blood pressures were measured, and the aortic stiffness index (ß) determined by M-mode analysis was calculated as a conventional parameter of arterial stiffness. The LS of the anterior and posterior ascending aortic wall (AW-LS and PW-LS) were determined. RESULTS: Compared to the control group (34.21 ± 5.25%), the mean LS of AA in HP patients (group A 28.6 ± 5.95%; group B 23.64 ± 4.98%; group C 17.93 ± 3.96%; P < .001) were significantly reduced. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the mean LS (OR 0.719, 95% CI 0.615-0.839, P < .001) and pulse pressure (PP) (OR 1.055, 95% CI 1.006-1.106, P = .028) were identified as independent predictors of AAD in HP patients. The AUC of mean LS combined with PP reached 0.926 (sensitivity, 95.0%; specificity, 82.5%), which was higher than the mean LS, PP, stiffness index, and ascending aortic diameter (AAd) separately. Besides, the AW-LS and PW-LS were negatively correlated with the AAd, stiffness index, stroke volume, systolic blood pressure, and PP, respectively (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The LS of AA evaluated by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography decreased significantly along with the expansion of aortic lumen and the occurrence of AAD in HP patients. It is also an independent predictor of AAD in HP patients.

13.
Methods Cell Biol ; 164: 157-165, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225913

RESUMO

Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system in which autophagosomes and autolysosomes degrade the contents they contain in order to realize cell homeostasis and organelle renewal. Measuring autophagy activity and autophagic flux is very important for studying the role of autophagy, but accurate measurement of autophagic flux is quite complicated. Here, we use the GFP-mRFP-LC3 tandem probe to evaluate the cell autophagic flux. GFP is more sensitive to acidic environment and can be degraded in autolysosome due to the acidic environment. On the contrary, mRFP can be stably present in autolysosome due to its better tolerance to PH reduction. Hence, autophagic flux can be evaluated by calculating the ratio of GFP/RFP signal values. In addition, using this probe, we can more accurately measure the basal autophagic flux and induced autophagic flux in cells or animals. Summarily, the GFP-mRFP-LC3 tandem probe is a simple quantitative method to evaluate autophagic flux of cells and even whole organism.

15.
J Mycol Med ; 31(3): 101158, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147759

RESUMO

Candida parapsilosis is a rare cause of primary cutaneous infection, with rare cases reported in the literature to date, most of the reports were immunocompromised individuals. Herein, we report two cases of primary cutaneous infection caused by C. parapsilosis in immunocompetent adults. C. parapsilosis were isolated and identified through morphological and molecular analyses, these isolates were found to be susceptible to itraconazole through in vitro antifungal susceptibility test. Both patients achieved clinical relief following oral itraconazole treatment. These two cases enriched the manifestations of cutaneous C. parapsilosis and highlight the importance of early diagnose and treatment.

17.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159524

RESUMO

AIMS: The term "fetal growth restriction (FGR)" is commonly used to describe fetuses with an estimated fetal weight that is less than 10th percentile for gestational age. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal change of microRNA-590-3p (miR-590-3p), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PIGF), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)9 expressions in early, middle, and late pregnancy, and their correlations with the fetal growth restriction (FGR) risk. METHODS: Totally, 970 pregnant women in early pregnancy were enrolled, and their plasma samples were, respectively, acquired in early pregnancy (at 10th or 11th week of gestational age), middle pregnancy (at 20th or 21st week of gestational age), and late pregnancy (at 33th or 34th week of gestational age) for miR-590-3p, VEGF, PIGF, and MMP9 determinations. RESULTS: MiR-590-3p underwent a growing trend, but VEGF, PIGF, and MMP9 experienced declined trend along with pregnancy (all P < 0.001). Furthermore, the negative association of miR-590-3p with VEGF, PIGF, and MMP9 became stronger along with the pregnancy. Besides, miR-590-3p expression in middle and late pregnancy was higher, but VEGF, PIGF, and MMP9 expressions in middle and late pregnancy were lower in women affected by FGR compared to normal pregnant women (all P < 0.001). In addition, miR-590-3p, VEGF, PIGF, and MMP9 expression in middle and late pregnancy were of good value in predicting FGR risk. CONCLUSIONS: miR-590-3p exhibits a growing trend during pregnancy, and its expression in middle and late pregnancy is associated with increased FGR risk via interaction with VEGF, PIGF, and MMP9.

18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Residual pockets are a risk factor of periodontitis progression. This study evaluated the efficacy of periodontal endoscopy (PE) during scaling and root planning (SRP) of residual pockets in chronic periodontitis patients after initial periodontal treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in systemically healthy subjects presenting at least three residual pockets with a probing depth (PD) ≥ 5 mm in each quadrant. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of two trial groups using a computer-generated program: SRP + PE (test group) or SRP alone (control group). Clinical parameters (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PLI)) were then measured at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 1629 sites in 37 patients were examined. Both treatments significantly improved all clinical outcomes (PD, CAL, BOP, and PLI) from baseline to 6 months (P < 0.05), although greater reductions in PD and PLI were observed in the test group at both 3- (PD: 3.45 ± 0.56 vs. 4.14 ± 0.59 mm; PLI: 0.55 ± 0.23 vs. 0.73 ± 0.27) and 6-month follow-up (PD: 3.12 ± 0.63 vs. 4.0 ± 0.68 mm; PLI: 0.49 ± 0.21 vs. 0.72 ± 0.28, respectively; P = 0.001 for PD and P = 0.021 for PLI). No significant differences in CAL or BOP were observed. CONCLUSIONS: SRP + PE resulted in significant reductions in PD and PLI compared to SRP alone in residual pockets with a PD ≥ 5 mm. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings highlight the benefits of SRP + PE, supporting use as an alternative strategy in nonsurgical periodontal treatment.

19.
Urology ; 155: 152-159, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of Pilates training combined with biofeedback training, Kegel training combined with biofeedback training, and Kegel training alone on post-prostatectomy incontinence in male patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomly divided into 3 groups. The changes occurring to the 3 groups before and after treatment and the differences between the 3 groups were assessed using a 1-hour pad test, number of incontinent episodes, the ICIQ questionnaire, and the Oxford Grading Scale. The 3 groups were required to undergo daily training for an 8-week period. RESULTS: At 8 weeks, groups A, B and C experienced a 34.3%, 61.9%, and 67% improvement in the 1-hour pad test, respectively, and 32.1%, 52.9%, and 58.8% reduction in the number of urinary incontinence episodes, respectively, and a 29.4%, 50%, and 64.7% reduction in the ICIQ Scale, respectively, and a 33.3%, 50%, and 50% in Oxford Grading Scale improvement, respectively. The graph results showed that the effect was noted after 3 weeks of treatment and a significant effect occurred by the eighth week of treatment. CONCLUSION: Three methods were shown to optimize urinary continence and pelvic floor muscle strength of patients with post-prostatectomy incontinence. The treatment effect of group C was better than group B, but there was no statistically significant difference in the 1-hour pad tests. It is particularly important to understand the time sensitivity for patient training.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117323, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091267

RESUMO

Evaluation of the toxicity of pesticide residues on non-target organisms in the ecosystem is an important part of pesticide environmental risk assessment. Flupyradifurone is a new type of butenolide insecticide produced by Bayer, who claims it to be "low toxic" to non-target organisms in the environment. However, there is little evidence in the literature to show how flupyradifurone affects aquatic organism development. In the current study, zebrafish embryos were treated with 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/mL of flupyradifurone within 6.0-72 h past fertilization (hpf). We found that the half-lethal concentration (LC50) of flupyradifurone for zebrafish embryos at 96 hpf was 0.21 mg/mL. Flupyradifurone decreases the heart rate, survival rate, and body length of zebrafish embryos. The flupyradifurone treatment also led to the failure of heart looping, and pericardial edema. Moreover, flupyradifurone increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the enzymatic catalysis of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Alterations were induced in the transcription of apoptosis-related genes (bcl-2, bax, bax/bcl-2, p53 and caspase-9) and the heart development-related genes (gata4, myh6, nkx2.5, nppa, tbx2b, tbx5 and vmhc). In the current study, new evidences have been provided regarding the toxic effects of flupyradifurone and the risk of its residues in agricultural products and the environment.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero , Peixe-Zebra , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose , Ecossistema , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Estresse Oxidativo , Piridinas
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