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1.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13681, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously published that altered expression of gastric TRPV1, BDNF, and peripheral cytokines was present in patients with functional dyspepsia. We herein examine whether genetic predisposition in altered biomarkers influences dyspeptic, sleep, and mood symptoms in patients with FD without previous infection. METHODS: Consecutive adult FD patients (Rome III) with no recent history of gastroenteritis and asymptomatic age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited for upper endoscopy. Subjects with GERD and IBS as predominant symptoms, diabetes mellitus, current or previous H pylori infection, psychiatric illness, and recent use of NSAID or PPI were excluded. The genetic associations with dyspeptic symptoms, sleep quality, and mood symptoms were evaluated. Genetic polymorphisms in TRPV1, TGFB1, TNF, COMT, BDNF, IL6, IL8, IL10, and IL12 were analyzed. KEY RESULTS: Twenty-nine male FD patients and 104 female FD patients were age matched (±3 years) with 81 healthy subjects. All had postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) as predominant subtype (PDS: 130, EPS: 3). SNPs in TGFB1 showed significant associations in dyspeptic patients after age and sex adjustment [for RS4803455: in the codominant model (C/A, OR = 0.34 (0.18-0.65), P = .004); in the dominant model (genotype C/C vs C/A-A/A, OR = 0.42 (0.23-0.77), P = .004); and in the overdominant model (genotype C/C-A/A vs C/A, OR = 0.38 (0.21-0.70), P < .001)] [for RS1800469: in dominant model (genotype A/A vs A/G-G/G, OR = 0.52 (0.27-0.99), P = .043)]. A allele in RS4803455 was associated with higher HADS depression score (P = .05) and epigastric burning sensation(P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Our data showed that dyspeptic patients predispose genetic difference in TGFB1 which may influence the severity of dyspepsia.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404640

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Chinese medicine modalities, including acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), have been used as palliative interventions among cancer patients. More research should be conducted to confirm their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to prioritize Chinese medicine clinical research questions for cancer palliative care. METHODS: Twelve international experts, including physicians, Chinese medicine practitioners, nurses, and clinical research methodologists (n = 3 from each category), from Asia, North America, Australia, and Europe participated in a two-round Delphi survey for prioritizing 29 research questions identified from existing systematic reviews. The experts were asked to 1) rate clinical importance of answering the questions on a nine-point Likert scale; 2) provide qualitative comments on their ratings; and 3) suggest outcome measurement approaches. RESULTS: Eight research priorities reached positive consensus after the two-round Delphi survey. Six of the priorities focused on acupuncture and related therapies, of which median ratings on importance ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 (interquartile range: 1.00 to 2.50), and the percentage agreement ranged from 75.0% to 91.7%. The remaining two priorities related to CHM, with median ratings ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 (interquartile range: 1.00 to 1.50) and percentage agreement ranged from 75.0% to 83.3%. Neither positive nor negative consensus was established among the remaining 21 questions. CONCLUSION: The findings will inform rational allocation of scarce research funding for evaluating the effectiveness of Chinese medicine for cancer palliative care, especially on acupuncture and related therapies. Further research on herb safety and herb-drug interaction should be performed before conducting international trials on CHM.

3.
JAMA ; 322(2): 134-144, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287522

RESUMO

Importance: Case series suggest favorable results of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for treatment of patients with achalasia. Data comparing POEM with pneumatic dilation, the standard treatment for patients with achalasia, are lacking. Objective: To compare the effects of POEM vs pneumatic dilation as initial treatment of treatment-naive patients with achalasia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized multicenter clinical trial was conducted at 6 hospitals in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Hong Kong, and the United States. Adult patients with newly diagnosed achalasia and an Eckardt score greater than 3 who had not undergone previous treatment were included. The study was conducted between September 2012 and July 2015, the duration of follow-up was 2 years after the initial treatment, and the final date of follow-up was November 22, 2017. Interventions: Randomization to receive POEM (n = 67) or pneumatic dilation with a 30-mm and a 35-mm balloon (n = 66), with stratification according to hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was treatment success (defined as an Eckardt score ≤3 and the absence of severe complications or re-treatment) at the 2-year follow-up. A total of 14 secondary end points were examined among patients without treatment failure, including integrated relaxation pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter via high-resolution manometry, barium column height on timed barium esophagogram, and presence of reflux esophagitis. Results: Of the 133 randomized patients, 130 (mean age, 48.6 years; 73 [56%] men) underwent treatment (64 in the POEM group and 66 in the pneumatic dilation group) and 126 (95%) completed the study. The primary outcome of treatment success occurred in 58 of 63 patients (92%) in the POEM group vs 34 of 63 (54%) in the pneumatic dilation group, a difference of 38% ([95% CI, 22%-52%]; P < .001). Of the 14 prespecified secondary end points, no significant difference between groups was demonstrated in 10 end points. There was no significant between-group difference in median integrated relaxation pressure (9.9 mm Hg in the POEM group vs 12.6 mm Hg in the pneumatic dilation group; difference, 2.7 mm Hg [95% CI, -2.1 to 7.5]; P = .07) or median barium column height (2.3 cm in the POEM group vs 0 cm in the pneumatic dilation group; difference, 2.3 cm [95% CI, 1.0-3.6]; P = .05). Reflux esophagitis occurred more often in the POEM group than in the pneumatic dilation group (22 of 54 [41%] vs 2 of 29 [7%]; difference, 34% [95% CI, 12%-49%]; P = .002). Two serious adverse events, including 1 perforation, occurred after pneumatic dilation, while no serious adverse events occurred after POEM. Conclusions and Relevance: Among treatment-naive patients with achalasia, treatment with POEM compared with pneumatic dilation resulted in a significantly higher treatment success rate at 2 years. These findings support consideration of POEM as an initial treatment option for patients with achalasia. Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number: NTR3593.


Assuntos
Dilatação/métodos , Acalasia Esofágica/terapia , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/cirurgia , Esfincterotomia/métodos , Adulto , Dilatação/efeitos adversos , Acalasia Esofágica/classificação , Acalasia Esofágica/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esfincterotomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 38-44, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331580

RESUMO

WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-23 recommended evidence-based healthcare (EBHC) education for traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) professionals, including Chinese medicine practitioners (CMPs). We evaluated the impact of a customized educational workshop on Hong Kong CMPs' knowledge, attitude and practice of EBHC. Two validated instruments, Evidence-based Practice Questionnaire (EPQ) and Evidence-based Practice Inventory (EPI), were used to assess the impact of EBHC education. Paired t-tests were used to compare scores before and after the workshop. Multiple linear regression was performed to explore the associations between changes in EPQ/EPI scores and CMPs' characteristics. CMPs who completed the workshop (n = 59) demonstrated significant improvements in the attitude (p = 0.013) and knowledge domains of the EPQ (p = 0.005). Significant improvements were also observed in the attitude, perceived behavioural control, decision making, and intention and behaviour domains of the EPI. CMPs who had never received prior EBHC training showed a larger magnitude of improvement in the EPI attitude (p = 0.032), decision making (p = 0.015), and intention and behaviour (p = 0.015) domains post-workshop. Our findings suggest that tailored workshop is effective in strengthening knowledge and in improving attitudes towards EBHC. Future RCTs should be conducted to affirm our findings. Future initiatives may consider incorporating this education approach into CMP curricula, as well as facilitating implementation of EBHC in routine Chinese medicine practice.

5.
Autophagy ; 15(4): 707-725, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612517

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common human pathogenic bacterium. Once infected, it is difficult for the host to clear this organism using the innate immune system. Increased antibiotic resistance further makes it challenging for effective eradication. However, the mechanisms of immune evasion still remain obscure, and novel strategies should be developed to efficiently eliminate H. pylori infection in stomachs. Here we uncovered desirable anti-H. pylori effect of vitamin D3 both in vitro and in vivo, even against antibiotic-resistant strains. We showed that H. pylori can invade into the gastric epithelium where they became sequestered and survived in autophagosomes with impaired lysosomal acidification. Vitamin D3 treatment caused a restored lysosomal degradation function by activating the PDIA3 receptor, thereby promoting the nuclear translocation of PDIA3-STAT3 protein complex and the subsequent upregulation of MCOLN3 channels, resulting in an enhanced Ca2+ release from lysosomes and normalized lysosomal acidification. The recovered lysosomal degradation function drives H. pylori to be eliminated through the autolysosomal pathway. These findings provide a novel pathogenic mechanism on how H. pylori can survive in the gastric epithelium, and a unique pathway for vitamin D3 to reactivate the autolysosomal degradation function, which is critical for the antibacterial action of vitamin D3 both in cells and in animals, and perhaps further in humans. Abbreviations: 1,25D3: 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; ATG5: autophagy related 5; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; CagA: cytotoxin-associated gene A; CFU: colony-forming unit; ChIP-PCR: chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction; Con A: concanamycin A; CQ: chloroquine; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; CTSD: cathepsin D; GPN: Gly-Phe-ß-naphthylamide; H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MCOLN1: mucolipin 1; MCOLN3: mucolipin 3; MCU: mitochondrial calcium uniporter; MOI: multiplicity of infection; NAGLU: N-acetyl-alpha-glucosaminidase; PDIA3: protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3; PMA: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PRKC: protein kinase C; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; SS1: Sydney Strain 1; TRP: transient receptor potential; VacA: vacuolating cytotoxin; VD3: vitamin D3; VDR: vitamin D receptor.

6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(5): 803-810, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Real-world epidemiological data on the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with immune-mediated diseases treated with biologics are scarce in TB endemic areas. We investigated the incidence of TB in a population-based setting and stratified the risk of TB among different biological therapies. METHODS: We collected medical data from a territory-wide computerized database in Hong Kong. We reported the incidence of TB in patients treated with various classes of biologics, and calculated standardized incidence ratio by comparing with the general population. Subgroup analyses were performed based on disease subtypes and biological drugs. RESULTS: Among 2485 subjects with immune-mediated diseases (82.5% rheumatology diseases; 10.6% IBD; 6.9% dermatology diseases), 54 subjects developed active TB during 6921 person-years of follow-up. The mean age (±s.d.) was 43 (14) years, and the median follow-up duration was 24.9 months (interquartile range 4.9-45.0). The overall standardized incidence ratio of TB was 10.91 (95% CI 8.00-13.82), and patients treated with infliximab had a nearly 26 times increased risk of TB compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio 25.95; 95% CI 17.23-34.67). The risk of TB with TNF inhibitor was higher than with a non-TNF biologic (hazard ratio 4.34; 95% CI 1.31-14.39), while the risk of infliximab was higher than etanercept and adalimumab (hazard ratio: 4.10 and 2.08, respectively). CONCLUSION: The risk of TB is much higher in patients with immune-mediated diseases on biological therapy compared with the general population, and infliximab is associated with the highest risk of TB among the biologics analysed.

7.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13514, 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to model the moment-to-moment relationship between daily life stress, emotions, and bowel symptoms among patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea subtype (IBS-D) in the flow of daily life using a smartphone-based experience sampling method (ESM). METHODS: Patients with IBS-D (N = 27) and healthy controls (HC; N = 30) completed ESM ratings of their real-time daily life stress, which was defined as subjective stress related to daily activities, both positive and negative emotions, as well as bowel symptoms eight times a day for 14 consecutive days, following a baseline interview measuring bowel and mood symptoms. Moment-to-moment association between ESM variables was tested within and between groups using multilevel regression modeling. KEY RESULTS: Patients with IBS-D reported more severe bowel symptoms and lower positive affect than HCs, but levels of daily life stress and negative affect were comparable between groups. Time-lagged analysis of ESM data revealed that, among patients with IBS-D, daily life stress predicted a decrease in abdominal pain and urgency to defecation at a subsequent time point, whereas severity of bowel symptoms and occurrence of diarrhea predicted a subsequent increase in negative affect and daily life stress. The above associations were not found among HCs. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: ESM unveiled the dynamic relationship between bowel symptoms, stress, and emotionality. Patients with IBS-D responded to bowel symptoms with more stress and distress momentarily. Counter-intuitively, daily life activity stress appeared to ameliorate bowel symptoms, although a more rigorous study design is required to testify this claim. Psychological understanding of IBS-D is discussed.

8.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 24(4): 584-592, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347937

RESUMO

Background/Aims: There is uncertainty about how to measure outcomes reported by patients in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study was conducted to develop an instrument and to determine of the definition of respondent for a patient reported outcomes to assess the efficacy of a treatment used for GERD treatment. Methods: A structural process has developed a self-evaluation questionnaire for GERD (SEQ-GERD); health-related quality of life questionnaire for GERD (GERD-QOL) was translated through cross-cultural validation. Two-week reproducibility was evaluated and construct validity was assessed by correlating the SEQ-GERD with the Patient Assessment of Gastrointestinal Disorders (PAGI-SYM), the reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ), and GERD-QOL. Changes in SEQ-GERD scores were compared to assess the discriminative validity following 4 weeks of proton pump inhibitor administration. Results: A total of 83 Korean patients were included (mean age 46 ± 14 years, females 61.4%). The internal consistency of the 19-item SEQ-GERD was good (alpha = 0.60-0.94) and the test-retest reliability was high (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.67-0.95). The SEQ-GERD highly correlated with the GERD domain of the PAGI-SYM (correlation coefficient r = 0.894, P < 0.001), the RDQ-GERD (r = 0.877, P < 0.001), and GERD-QOL (r = -0.536, P < 0.05). SEQ-GERD scores significantly varied according to the overall treatment effectiveness scale of drug responsiveness and significantly decreased after drug treatment (mean differences according to the overall treatment effectiveness scale, P = 0.020). Conclusion: This study supports that SEQ-GERD is reliable and valid, and can be used to evaluate the treatment response in patients with GERD.

9.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 3(12): 837-844, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend the use of neuromodulators in patients with functional dyspepsia not responding to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and prokinetics; however, there is a lack of data from randomised controlled trials supporting their use. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), in treatment-refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled consecutive patients with Rome II functional dyspepsia aged 18-80 years. Eligible patients were Helicobacter pylori-negative, had a normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and abdominal ultrasound, and remained symptomatic after open-label treatment with 8 weeks of esomeprazole and 4 weeks of domperidone. Patients completed questionnaires assessing dyspepsia symptoms, mood, and insomnia, and were then randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive imipramine (at a dose of 25 mg once nightly for the first 2 weeks, and then 50 mg thereafter) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was overall satisfactory relief of global dyspepsia symptoms at 12 weeks, via patient-reported assessment in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00164775, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Sept 11, 2005, and Aug 20, 2010, 107 patients with treatment-refractory functional dyspepsia were randomly assigned to receive imipramine (n=55) or placebo (n=52). Relief of global dyspepsia symptoms at 12 weeks occurred in 35 (63·6%, 95% CI 50·4-75·1) of 55 patients on imipramine compared with 19 (36·5%, 95% CI 24·8-50·1) of 52 on placebo (p=0·0051). Ten (18%) patients on imipramine discontinued the study due to adverse events (three dry mouth, two constipation, two drowsiness, and one each insomnia, palpitations, and blurred vision), compared with four (8%) on placebo (one dry mouth and constipation, and one each palpitations, worsening of gastro-oesophageal reflux, and limb paraesthesia). There were no serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Low-dose imipramine should be considered as a possible therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia refractory to both PPIs and prokinetics, although patients should be cautioned about the adverse event profile. FUNDING: None.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Living in an urban environment may increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is unclear if this observation is seen globally. We conducted a population-based study to assess the relationship between urbanization and incidence of IBD in the Asia-Pacific region. METHODS: Newly diagnosed IBD cases between 2011 and 2013 from 13 countries or regions in Asia-Pacific were included. Incidence was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) and pooled using random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis was used to assess incidence rates and their association with population density, latitude, and longitude. RESULTS: We identified 1175 ulcerative colitis (UC), 656 Crohn's disease (CD), and 37 IBD undetermined (IBD-U). Mean annual IBD incidence per 100 000 was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.43-1.57). India (9.31; 95% CI: 8.38-10.31) and China (3.64; 95% CI, 2.97-4.42) had the highest IBD incidence in Asia. Incidence of overall IBD (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01-4.76]) and CD (IRR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.83-9.12) was higher across 19 areas of Asia with a higher population density. In China, incidence of IBD (IRR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.10-5.16) and UC (IRR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8) was positively associated with gross domestic product. A south-to-north disease gradient (IRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.91-0.98) was observed for IBD incidence and a west-to-east gradient (IRR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05-1.24) was observed for CD incidence in China. This study received IRB approval. CONCLUSIONS: Regions in Asia with a high population density had a higher CD and UC incidence. Coastal areas within China had higher IBD incidence. With increasing urbanization and a shift from rural areas to cities, disease incidence may continue to climb in Asia.

11.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3663, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202057

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bacterial colonization in recipients after FMT has been studied, but little is known about the role of the gut fungal community, or mycobiota. Here, we show evidence of gut fungal dysbiosis in CDI, and that donor-derived fungal colonization in recipients is associated with FMT response. CDI is accompanied by over-representation of Candida albicans and decreased fungal diversity, richness, and evenness. Cure after FMT is associated with increased colonization of donor-derived fungal taxa in recipients. Recipients of successful FMT ("responders") display, after FMT, a high relative abundance of Saccharomyces and Aspergillus, whereas "nonresponders" and individuals treated with antibiotics display a dominant presence of Candida. High abundance of C. albicans in donor stool also correlates with reduced FMT efficacy. Furthermore, C. albicans reduces FMT efficacy in a mouse model of CDI, while antifungal treatment reestablishes its efficacy, supporting a potential causal relationship between gut fungal dysbiosis and FMT outcome.

12.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 11: 1756284818785573, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034530

RESUMO

Background: Pharmacotherapy, including prokinetics and proton pump inhibitors for functional dyspepsia (FD) have limited effectiveness, and their safety has been recently questioned. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) could be considered as an alternative. A systematic review (SR) of SRs was performed to evaluate the potential effectiveness and safety of CHM. Method: We conducted a comprehensive literature search for SRs with meta-analyses in eight international and Chinese databases. Pooled effect estimation from each meta-analysis was extracted. The AMSTAR instrument was used to assess the methodological quality of the included SRs. Results: A total of 14 SRs of mediocre quality assessing various CHMs, alone or in combination with conventional pharmacotherapy, were included. Meta-analyses showed that CHM was more effective than prokinetic agents for the alleviation of global dyspeptic symptoms. Three specific CHM formulae appeared to show superior results in the alleviation of global dyspeptic symptoms, including Si Ni San, modified Xiao Yao San and Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi decoction. No significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events in using CHM or pharmacotherapy was reported. Conclusion: CHM can be considered as an alternative for the treatment of FD symptoms when prokinetic agents and proton pump inhibitors are contraindicated. Future trial design should focus on measuring changes in individual dyspeptic symptoms and differentiate the effectiveness of different CHM for postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. A network meta-analysis approach should be used to explore the most promising CHM formula for FD treatment in the future.

13.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1218, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967603

RESUMO

Objectives: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a crucial regulator of fibrinolysis, is increased in sepsis, but its values in predicting disease severity or mortality outcomes have been controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of its predictive values in sepsis. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched until August 18, 2017 for studies that evaluated the relationships between PAI-1 levels and disease severity or mortality in sepsis. Results: A total of 112 and 251 entries were retrieved from the databases, of which 18 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. A total of 4,467 patients (36% male, mean age: 62 years, mean follow-up duration: 36 days) were analyzed. PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in non-survivors than survivors [odds ratios (OR): 3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.31-6.67, P < 0.0001] and in patients with severe sepsis than in those less severe sepsis (OR: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.37-7.75, P = 0.008). Conclusion: PAI-1 is a significant predictor of disease severity and all-cause mortality in sepsis. Although the predictive values of PAI-1 reached statistical significance, the clinical utility of PAI-1 in predicting outcomes will require carefully designed prospective trials.

14.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Existing algorithms predicting the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) assign a fixed score for family history of CRC. Whether the increased CRC risk attributed to family history of CRC was higher in younger patients remains inconclusive. We examined the risk of CRC associated with family history of CRC in first-degree relative (FDR) according to the age of index subjects (<40 vs. ≥40; <50 vs. ≥50; and <60 vs. ≥60 years). METHODS: Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and gray literature from the reference lists of all identified studies were searched from their inception to March 2017. We included case-control/cohort studies that investigated the relationship between family history of CRC in FDR and prevalence of CRC. Two reviewers independently selected articles according to the PRISMA guideline. A random effects meta-analysis pooled relative risks (RR). RESULTS: We analyzed 9.28 million subjects from 63 studies. A family history of CRC in FDR confers a higher risk of CRC (RR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.57-1.97, p < 0.001). This increased risk was higher in younger individuals (RR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.67-6.49 for <40 years versus RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.24-1.62 for ≥40 years, p = 0.017; RR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.94-4.07 for <50 years versus RR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.28-1.69 for ≥50 years, p = 0.001). No publication bias was identified, and the findings are robust in subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in relative risk of CRC attributed to family history was found to be higher in younger individuals. Family history of CRC could be assigned a higher score for younger subjects in CRC risk prediction algorithms. Future studies should examine if such approach may improve their predictive capability.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Proximal migration of colonic lesion has been observed; however, risk factors of lesions in the proximal colon remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate risk factors of lesions in the proximal colon. METHODS: Consecutive subjects with complete colonoscopy were included. The primary outcome was risk factors associated with advanced neoplasm (AN) and serrated lesion in the proximal colon. Age, gender, first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC), smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and the use of aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and anticoagulants were fitted into a regression model, with reference to subjects without colonic finding. Results were measured by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Among 6218 subjects (mean age 56.65 ± 6.15 years; 46.8% male), 352 (5.7%) had AN; 809 (13.0%) had serrated lesions, and 3648 (58.7%) had no colonic finding. There were 148 (2.4%) and 235 (3.8%) subjects having AN and serrated lesion in the proximal colon. Age ≥ 50 (OR: 13.30; 95% CI: 1.85-95.76), male gender (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.26-2.62), FDR with CRC (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.43-3.15), and hypertension (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.30-2.68) were associated with AN in the proximal colon. Age ≥ 50 (OR: 5.72; 95% CI: 2.10-15.53), male gender (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.15-2.05), and smoking (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.23-2.79) increased risk of serrated lesions in the proximal colon. CONCLUSION: Age ≥ 50 and male gender were associated with both proximally located AN and serrated lesion; FDR with CRC and hypertension increased the risk of proximal AN, while ever smoking increased the risk of proximal serrated lesion. FDR with CRC was not associated with serrated lesion.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 155(2): 383-390.e8, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) development has been associated with increased proportions of Bacteroides fragilis and certain Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus species in the intestinal microbiota. We investigated associations between bacteremia from specific intestinal microbes and occurrence of CRC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study after collecting data on 13,096 adult patients (exposed group) in Hong Kong hospitalized with bacteremia (identified by blood culture test) without a previous diagnosis of cancer from January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2015. We collected data on intestinal microbes previously associated with CRC (genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Filifactor, Fusobacterium, Gemella, Granulicatella, Parvimonas, Peptostreptococcus, Prevotella, Solobacterium, and Streptococcus). Clinical information, including patient demographics, comorbid medical conditions, date of bacteremia, and bacterial species identified, were collected. The incidence of biopsy-proved CRC was compared between the exposed and unexposed (patients without bacteremia matched for age, sex, and comorbidities) groups. RESULTS: The risk of CRC was increased in patients with bacteremia from B fragilis (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.85, 95% CI = 2.62-5.64, P = 5.5 × 10-12) or Streptococcus gallolyticus (HR = 5.73, 95% CI = 2.18-15.1, P = 4.1 × 10-4) compared with the unexposed group. In addition, the risk of CRC was increased in patients with bacteremia from Fusobacterium nucleatum (HR = 6.89, 95% CI = 1.70-27.9, P = .007), Peptostreptococcus species (HR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.47-6.35, P = .003), Clostridium septicum (HR = 17.1, 95% CI = 1.82-160, P = .013), Clostridium perfringens (HR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.16-4.52, P = .017), or Gemella morbillorum (HR = 15.2, 95% CI = 1.54-150, P = .020). We observed no increased risk in patients with bacteremia caused by microbes not previously associated with colorectal neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized for bacteremia, we associated later diagnosis of CRC with B fragilis and S gallolyticus and other intestinal microbes. These bacteria might have entered the bloodstream from intestinal dysbiosis and perturbed barrier function. These findings support a model in which specific members of the intestinal microbiota promote colorectal carcinogenesis. Clinicians should evaluate patients with bacteremia from these species for neoplastic lesions in the colorectum.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Disbiose/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteroides fragilis/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides fragilis/patogenicidade , Biópsia , Carcinogênese , Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Disbiose/epidemiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus gallolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus gallolyticus/patogenicidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Chinese herbal medicine, MaZiRenWan (MZRW), has been used for more than 2000 years to treat constipation, but it has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial. We performed a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MZRW, compared with the stimulant laxative senna or placebo, for patients with functional constipation (FC). METHODS: We performed a double-blind, double-dummy, trial of 291 patients with FC based on Rome III criteria, seen at 8 clinics in Hong Kong from June 2013 through August 2015. Patients were observed for 2 weeks and then assigned randomly (1:1:1) to groups given MZRW (7.5 g, twice daily), senna (15 mg daily), or placebo for 8 weeks. Patients were then followed for 8 weeks and evaluated at baseline and weeks 4, 8 (end of treatment), and 16 (end of follow up). Participants recorded information on stool form and frequency, feeling of complete evacuation, and research medication taken. Data on individual bowel symptoms, global symptom improvement, and adverse events were collected. A complete response was defined as an increase ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM)/week from baseline (the primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included response during the follow-up period, colonic transit, individual and global symptom assessments, quality of life measured with 36-item short form Chinese version, and adverse events. RESULTS: Although there was no statistically significant difference in proportions of patients with a complete response to MZRW (68%) vs. senna (57.7%) (P = .14) at week 8, there was a statistically significant difference vs. placebo (33.0%) (P < .005). At the 16-week timepoint (after the 8-week follow-up period), 47.4% of patients had a complete response to MZRW, 20.6% had a complete response to senna, and 17.5% had a complete response to placebo (P < .005 for MZRW vs. placebo). The group that received MZRW group also had significant increases in colonic transit and reduced severity of constipation, straining, incomplete evacuation, and global constipation symptoms compared with the groups that received placebo or senna in (P < .05 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized controlled trial of 291 patients with FC, we found MZRW to be well-tolerated and effective in increasing CSBM/week. MZRW did not appear to be more effective than senna and might be considered as an alternative to this drug. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT01695850.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 4522, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540708

RESUMO

Oesophageal cancers (adenocarcinomas [AC] and squamous cell carcinomas [SCC]) are characterized by high incidence/mortality in many countries. We aimed to delineate its global incidence and mortality, and studied whether socioeconomic development and its incidence rate were correlated. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of incidence and mortality of this medical condition in 2012 for 184 nations from the GLOBOCAN database; national databases capturing incidence rates, and the WHO mortality database were examined. Their correlations with two indicators of socioeconomic development were evaluated. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to generate trends. The ratio between the ASR of AC and SCC was strongly correlated with HDI (r = 0.535 [men]; r = 0.661 [women]) and GDP (r = 0.594 [men]; r = 0.550 [women], both p < 0.001). Countries that reported the largest reduction in incidence in male included Poland (Average Annual Percent Change [AAPC] = -7.1, 95%C.I. = -12,-1.9) and Singapore (AAPC = -5.8, 95%C.I. = -9.5,-1.9), whereas for women the greatest decline was seen in Singapore (AAPC = -12.3, 95%C.I. = -17.3,-6.9) and China (AAPC = -5.6, 95%C.I. = -7.6,-3.4). The Philippines (AAPC = 4.3, 95%C.I. = 2,6.6) and Bulgaria (AAPC = 2.8, 95%C.I. = 0.5,5.1) had a significant mortality increase in men; whilst Columbia (AAPC = -6.1, 95%C.I. = -7.5,-4.6) and Slovenia (AAPC = -4.6, 95%C.I. = -7.9,-1.3) reported mortality decline in women. These findings inform individuals at increased risk for primary prevention.

20.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018430, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593017

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This trial proposes to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA) plus on-demand gastrocaine with waiting list for EA plus on-demand gastrocaine in providing symptom relief and quality-of-life improvement among patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, pragmatic, randomised parallel-group, superiority trial comparing the outcomes of (1) EA plus on-demand gastrocaine group and (2) waiting list to EA plus on-demand gastrocaine group. 132 (66/arm) endoscopically confirmed, Helicobacter pylori-negative patients with FD will be recruited. Enrolled patients will respectively be receiving (1) 20 sessions of EA over 10 weeks plus on-demand gastrocaine; or (2) on-demand gastrocaine and being nominated on to a waiting list for EA, which entitles them 20 sessions of EA over 10 weeks after 12 weeks of waiting. The primary outcome will be the between-group difference in proportion of patients achieving adequate relief of symptoms over 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes will include patient-reported change in global symptoms and individual symptoms, Nepean Dyspepsia Index, Nutrient Drink Test, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD7). Adverse events will be assessed formally. Results on direct medical costs and on the EuroQol (EQ-5D) questionnaire will also be used to assess cost-effectiveness. Analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using appropriate univariate and multivariate methods. A mixed model analysis taking into account missing data of these outcomes will be performed. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed using established approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is supported by the Health and Medical Research Fund, Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China. It has been approved by the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong - New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and be disseminated in international conference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-IPC-15007109; Pre-result.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/uso terapêutico , Aminobenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Atropina/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Dispepsia/terapia , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Compostos de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Hidróxido de Alumínio/economia , Aminobenzoatos/economia , Atropina/economia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dispepsia/economia , Eletroacupuntura/economia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Compostos de Magnésio/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
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