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1.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 19-22, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083826

RESUMO

It is critical to identify potential causal targets for SARS-CoV-2, which may guide drug repurposing options. We assessed the associations between genetically predicted protein levels and COVID-19 severity. Leveraging data from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative comparing 6492 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 1 012 809 controls, we identified 18 proteins with genetically predicted levels to be associated with COVID-19 severity at a false discovery rate of <0.05, including 12 that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. Of the 18 proteins, 6 showed positive associations and 12 showed inverse associations. In conclusion, we identified 18 candidate proteins for COVID-19 severity.

2.
Brain Sci ; 10(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with deficits in social communication ability and repetitive behavior. The pathophysiological events involved in the brain of this complex disease are still unclear. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to profile the gene expression signatures of brain cortex of ASD patients, by using two publicly available RNA-seq studies, in order to discover new ASD-related genes. RESULTS: We detected 1567 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by meta-analysis, where 1194 were upregulated and 373 were downregulated genes. Several ASD-related genes previously reported were also identified. Our meta-analysis identified 235 new DEGs that were not detected using the individual RNA-seq studies used. Some of those genes, including seven DEGs (PAK1, DNAH17, DOCK8, DAPP1, PCDHAC2, and ERBIN, SLC7A7), have been confirmed in previous reports to be associated with ASD. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathways analysis showed several molecular pathways enriched by the DEGs, namely, osteoclast differentiation, TNF signaling pathway, complement and coagulation cascade. Topological analysis of protein-protein interaction of the ASD brain cortex revealed proteomics hub gene signatures: MYC, TP53, HDAC1, CDK2, BAG3, CDKN1A, GABARAPL1, EZH2, VIM, and TRAF1. We also identified the transcriptional factors (TFs) regulating DEGs, namely, FOXC1, GATA2, YY1, FOXL1, USF2, NFIC, NFKB1, E2F1, TFAP2A, HINFP. CONCLUSION: Novel core genes and molecular signatures involved with ASD were identified by our meta-analysis.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

4.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4346-4354, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907841

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is among the most well-characterized cancer types, yet a large proportion of the heritability of pancreatic cancer risk remains unclear. Here, we performed a large transcriptome-wide association study to systematically investigate associations between genetically predicted gene expression in normal pancreas tissue and pancreatic cancer risk. Using data from 305 subjects of mostly European descent in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project, we built comprehensive genetic models to predict normal pancreas tissue gene expression, modifying the UTMOST (unified test for molecular signatures). These prediction models were applied to the genetic data of 8,275 pancreatic cancer cases and 6,723 controls of European ancestry. Thirteen genes showed an association of genetically predicted expression with pancreatic cancer risk at an FDR ≤ 0.05, including seven previously reported genes (INHBA, SMC2, ABO, PDX1, RCCD1, CFDP1, and PGAP3) and six novel genes not yet reported for pancreatic cancer risk [6q27: SFT2D1 OR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54 (1.25-1.89); 13q12.13: MTMR6 OR (95% CI), 0.78 (0.70-0.88); 14q24.3: ACOT2 OR (95% CI), 1.35 (1.17-1.56); 17q12: STARD3 OR (95% CI), 6.49 (2.96-14.27); 17q21.1: GSDMB OR (95% CI), 1.94 (1.45-2.58); and 20p13: ADAM33 OR (95% CI): 1.41 (1.20-1.66)]. The associations for 10 of these genes (SFT2D1, MTMR6, ACOT2, STARD3, GSDMB, ADAM33, SMC2, RCCD1, CFDP1, and PGAP3) remained statistically significant even after adjusting for risk SNPs identified in previous genome-wide association study. Collectively, this analysis identified novel candidate susceptibility genes for pancreatic cancer that warrant further investigation. SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptome-wide association analysis identified seven previously reported and six novel candidate susceptibility genes for pancreatic cancer risk.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3905, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764609

RESUMO

It remains elusive whether some of the associations identified in genome-wide association studies of prostate cancer (PrCa) may be due to regulatory effects of genetic variants on CpG sites, which may further influence expression of PrCa target genes. To search for CpG sites associated with PrCa risk, here we establish genetic models to predict methylation (N = 1,595) and conduct association analyses with PrCa risk (79,194 cases and 61,112 controls). We identify 759 CpG sites showing an association, including 15 located at novel loci. Among those 759 CpG sites, methylation of 42 is associated with expression of 28 adjacent genes. Among 22 genes, 18 show an association with PrCa risk. Overall, 25 CpG sites show consistent association directions for the methylation-gene expression-PrCa pathway. We identify DNA methylation biomarkers associated with PrCa, and our findings suggest that specific CpG sites may influence PrCa via regulating expression of candidate PrCa target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(9): 2729-2742, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564095

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The anthocyanin biosynthesis gene Ca3GT was fine-mapped in a 110.5-kb region through a map-based cloning strategy. Gene expression and promoter analyses confirmed the strong candidate gene Capana10g001978. Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) fruit can be dark green, green, light green, purple, yellow, or ivory at the juvenile stage. Anthocyanins are responsible for fruit color formation in mature unripe pepper fruit, and transient accumulation of anthocyanins is the main problem in breeding pepper plants with mature purple fruit. Only a few genes controlling this trait have been cloned. The present study aimed to map and identify an anthocyanin biosynthesis gene from pepper using an F2 population derived from a cross between line '17C3808' (purple mature unripe fruit) and line '17C3807' (green mature unripe fruit). The trait was mapped on a 110.5-kb interval between markers SSR18213 and SSR18228 on chromosome 10. There were three open reading frames in this region; Capana10g001978 was predicted in this region as markers CAPS-78-708 and InDel146 co-segregated with it. Capana10g001978 is a structural gene encoding the GTB transcription factor involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Comparing parental sequences, two base mutations were identified in the exon of Capana10g001978, at positions + 528 bp and + 708 bp, which resulted in changes in the 176th and 236th amino acid residues, from glutamine (CAA) to histidine (CAC), causing a nonsense mutation (from CAG to CAA). Additionally, Capana10g001978 was highly expressed in the pericarp of mature, unripe pepper fruit. There were four single nucleotide polymorphisms, three sequence deletions, and one sequence insertion in the promoter region of purple, mature, and unripe pepper fruit, leading to the formation of a W-box and a GT1-motif. Thus, Capana10g001978 is a strong candidate gene of Ca3GT involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mature unripe pepper fruit. These results provide important information regarding the isolation and characterization of Ca3GT, and they are the starting point for studying the regulatory pathway responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis in pepper.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Transcriptoma
11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(8): 2130-2138, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(3): 843-855, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863155

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Bulked segregant analysis and fine mapping delimited the pepper genic male sterile (msc-2) locus into a 336 kb region on chromosome 5. A strong candidate gene, Capana05g000766, a homolog of AtMS1, was indentified in this region. Genic male sterility (msc-2) is used to produce hybrid seeds in Northern China. However, no co-segregated markers have been reported or candidate genes controlling this trait have been cloned. Here, bulked segregant analysis and genotyping of an F2 population and a 18Q5431AB line were employed to fine map msc-2, which was delimited to a 336 kb region. In this region, Capana05g000766 was a homolog of AtMS1, which encodes a plant homeodomain finger involved in tapetum development. A "T" deletion in the Capana05g000766 locus leads to a premature stop codon, which may cause a loss-of-function mutation. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that Capana05g000766 was an anther-specific gene and down-regulation of the gene resulted in male sterility. Therefore, Capana05g000766 was identified as the strongest candidate gene for the msc-2 locus. Allelism tests showed that msc-1 and msc-2 were nonallelic, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis indicated that the two genes did not interact directly with each other at the protein level. As msc-1 and msc-2 are homologs of AtDYT1 and AtMS1 in Arabidopsis, they may play similar roles in tapetum development in genic male sterile peppers, and Msc-1 might be up stream of Msc-2 in the regulation of other genes involved in tapetum development.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Alelos , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Códon sem Sentido , Regulação para Baixo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766117

RESUMO

There are many agronomic traits of pepper (Capsicum L.) with abundant phenotypes that can benefit pepper growth. Using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36 agronomic traits was carried out for 287 representative pepper accessions. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of the GWAS results, we analyzed the genetic diversity, distribution of labels (SLAF tags and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) and population differentiation and determined the optimal statistical model. In our study, 1487 SNPs were highly significantly associated with 26 agronomic traits, and 2126 candidate genes were detected in the 100-kb region up- and down-stream near these SNPs. Furthermore, 13 major association peaks were identified for 11 key agronomic traits. Then we examined the correlations among the 36 agronomic traits and analyzed SNP distribution and found 37 SNP polymerization regions (total size: 264.69 Mbp) that could be selected areas in pepper breeding. We found that the stronger the correlation between the two traits, the greater the possibility of them being in more than one polymerization region, suggesting that they may be linked or that one pleiotropic gene controls them. These results provide a theoretical foundation for future multi-trait pyramid breeding of pepper. Finally, we found that the GWAS signals were highly consistent with those from the nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene for cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), verifying their reliability. We further identified Capana06g002967 and Capana06g002969 as Rf candidate genes by functional annotation and expression analysis, which provided a reference for the study of cytoplasmic male sterility in Capsicum.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
Cancer Res ; 79(18): 4592-4598, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337649

RESUMO

Several blood protein biomarkers have been associated with prostate cancer risk. However, most studies assessed only a small number of biomarkers and/or included a small sample size. To identify novel protein biomarkers of prostate cancer risk, we studied 79,194 cases and 61,112 controls of European ancestry, included in the PRACTICAL/ELLIPSE consortia, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci for 1,478 plasma proteins. A total of 31 proteins were associated with prostate cancer risk including proteins encoded by GSTP1, whose methylation level was shown previously to be associated with prostate cancer risk, and MSMB, SPINT2, IGF2R, and CTSS, which were previously implicated as potential target genes of prostate cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies. A total of 18 proteins inversely correlated and 13 positively correlated with prostate cancer risk. For 28 of the identified proteins, gene somatic changes of short indels, splice site, nonsense, or missense mutations were detected in patients with prostate cancer in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that relevant genes were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways. In conclusion, this study identifies 31 candidates of protein biomarkers for prostate cancer risk and provides new insights into the biology and genetics of prostate tumorigenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: Integration of genomics and proteomics data identifies biomarkers associated with prostate cancer risk.

16.
Cancer Res ; 79(13): 3192-3204, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101764

RESUMO

Genome-wide association study-identified prostate cancer risk variants explain only a relatively small fraction of its familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for many of these identified associations remain unknown. To discover novel prostate cancer genetic loci and possible causal genes at previously identified risk loci, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study in 79,194 cases and 61,112 controls of European ancestry. Using data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project, we established genetic models to predict gene expression across the transcriptome for both prostate models and cross-tissue models and evaluated model performance using two independent datasets. We identified significant associations for 137 genes at P < 2.61 × 10-6, a Bonferroni-corrected threshold, including nine genes that remained significant at P < 2.61 × 10-6 after adjusting for all known prostate cancer risk variants in nearby regions. Of the 128 remaining associated genes, 94 have not yet been reported as potential target genes at known loci. We silenced 14 genes and many showed a consistent effect on viability and colony-forming efficiency in three cell lines. Our study provides substantial new information to advance our understanding of prostate cancer genetics and biology. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies novel prostate cancer genetic loci and possible causal genes, advancing our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transcriptoma , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028930

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are two kinds of abundant toxic metals in aquatic ecosystem. The present study evaluated the effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on oxidative stress responses and histological alterations in female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Fish were exposed for 7 days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (39.2 µg L-1), (iii) waterborne Cd (299.6 µg L-1), and (iv) Cu and Cd in mixture (19.6 and 149.8 µg L-1, respectively). Antioxidant enzyme activities and gene mRNA abundance in fish tissues (gills, liver, and ovaries) were induced by Cu and Cd exposures, both individually and in mixture, at day 1, but an asynchronous response was observed between most enzyme activities and gene mRNA abundance following 7 days exposure. Biochemical analysis and histological observation indicated that exposure to Cu and Cd, alone and in combination, caused evident damage to lipids and tissue structure in gills, liver and ovaries. Comparing with single Cu or Cd exposure, Cu and Cd co-exposure induced greater increase in the mRNA expression of most antioxidant genes and caused more severe lesions in fish tissues, which suggested that exposure to waterborne Cu and Cd in mixture might increase their individual toxicity. Furthermore, positive relationships between nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) expression and expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also observed in the present study, which suggested that Cu or/and Cd induced expression of these antioxidant genes were might through activation of Nrf2.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cobre/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699994

RESUMO

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which is controlled by mitochondrial genes, is an important trait for commercial hybrid seed production. So far, genes controlling this trait are still not clear in pepper. In this study, complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and assembled for the CMS line 138A and its maintainer line 138B. The genome size of 138A is 504,210 bp, which is 8618 bp shorter than that of 138B. Meanwhile, more than 214 and 215 open reading frames longer than 100 amino acids (aas) were identified in 138A and 138B, respectively. Mitochondrial genome structure of 138A was quite different from that of 138B, indicating the existence of recombination and rearrangement events. Based on the mitochondrial genome sequence and structure variations, mitochondrion of 138A and FS4401, a Korean origin CMS line, may have inherited from a common female ancestor, but their CMS traits did originate separately. Candidate gene selection was performed according to the published characteristics of the CMS genes, including the presence SNPs and InDels, located in unique regions, their chimeric structure, co-transcription, and transmembrane domain. A total of 35 ORFs were considered as potential candidate genes and 14 of these were selected, with orf300a and 0rf314a as strong candidates. A new marker, orf300a, was developed which did co-segregate with the CMS trait.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/fisiologia , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/fisiologia , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 475-483, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639874

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental contaminant, has been shown to disturb the dynamics of Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) in mammal testis. However, the effects of BPA on Sertoli cell barrier (SC barrier) were little known in fish to date. To evaluate the potential mechanism of reproductive toxicity of BPA, we studied the damage of SC barrier using in vivo models. In this study, male adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus were exposed to 15 µg/L BPA for 7-35 days. Gonadal histology and the integrity of SC barrier were analyzed. Meanwhile, the expressions of SC barrier -associated proteins, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) content, and the mRNA expressions of genes in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were detected. Histological analysis demonstrated 15 µg/L BPA promoted the infiltration of inflammatory cells in fish testes after 7-days exposure. The biotin tracer assay showed that 7-days BPA exposure increased permeability for spermatid cysts. In addition, the BPA treatment caused increased TNFα in testis, which was reportedly related to SC barrier impairment. The expressions of Occludin and ß-Catenin protein were significantly decreased in the testes after 7- and 21-days exposure. BPA also altered the mRNA expressions of occludin, ß-catenin, p38 MAPK and JNK. Therefore, the detrimental effects of BPA on reproduction of male fish may attribute to the disturbed expressions of SC junction proteins.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Barreira Hematotesticular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cyprinidae , Fenóis/toxicidade , Células de Sertoli/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Barreira Hematotesticular/metabolismo , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Saúde da Mulher
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