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1.
Bioact Mater ; 7: 292-323, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466734

RESUMO

Therapeutic oligonucleotides (TOs) represent one of the most promising drug candidates in the targeted cancer treatment due to their high specificity and capability of modulating cellular pathways that are not readily druggable. However, efficiently delivering of TOs to cancer cellular targets is still the biggest challenge in promoting their clinical translations. Emerging as a significant drug delivery vector, nanoparticles (NPs) can not only protect TOs from nuclease degradation and enhance their tumor accumulation, but also can improve the cell uptake efficiency of TOs as well as the following endosomal escape to increase the therapeutic index. Furthermore, targeted and on-demand drug release of TOs can also be approached to minimize the risk of toxicity towards normal tissues using stimuli-responsive NPs. In the past decades, remarkable progresses have been made on the TOs delivery based on various NPs with specific purposes. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction on the basis of TOs as well as the action mechanisms of several typical TOs, and then describe the obstacles that prevent the clinical translation of TOs, followed by a comprehensive overview of the recent progresses on TOs delivery based on several various types of nanocarriers containing lipid-based nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, porous nanoparticles, DNA/RNA nanoassembly, extracellular vesicles, and imaging-guided drug delivery nanoparticles.

2.
Med Chem ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: alzheimer's disease (ad) and parkinson's (pd) disease are common neurodegenerative conditions of the central nervous system (cns). Thus, these diseases have only been treated symptomatically since no approved drug is available that provides a complete cure. OBJECTIVES: through reading relevant literature published at home and abroad, the method and significance of prodrug strategy to increase the efficacy of ad and pd drugs were discussed. METHODS: the biological mechanisms and currently approved drugs for both diseases have been discussed, revealing that most of these treatments utilized existing prodrug design strategies, including increased lipophilicity, and the use of transporters mediation and bio-oxidation to improve oral bioavailability and brain permeability. RESULTS: the purpose of this paper is to review the research progress in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (ndds), especially ad and pd, using the prodrug strategy. The research of drug bioavailability and the prodrug strategy of cns targeted drug delivery lay the foundation for drug development to treat these diseases. CONCLUSION: the use of prodrug strategies provides important opportunities for the development of novel therapies for ad and pd.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 11730-11735, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851125

RESUMO

The gas-phase reactions of [TiAlO4]+ with methane have been explored by using FT-ICR mass spectrometry complemented by quantum chemical calculations. Interestingly, the [TiAlO4]+ ions can activate two methane molecules continuously. Moreover, in contrast to the previous reports on gas-phase methane activation by metal oxide clusters, in which hydrogen-atom transfer and/or proton-coupled electron transfer prevail, a hydride transfer process dominates the [TiAlO4]+/CH4 system. The associated electronic origins have been discussed, and such a terminal metal-oxo active center as addressed in the [TiAlO4]+ cluster has proven to be promising in the construction of efficient catalysts concerning methane conversion.

4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731273

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Cytochimera potato plants, which mixed with diploid and tetraploid cells, could cause the highest and significantly increased biomass yield than the polyploid and diploid potato plants. Polyploidization is an important approach in crop breeding for agronomic trait improvement, especially for biomass production. Cytochimera contains two or more mixed cells with different levels of ploidy, which is considered a failure in whole genome duplication. Using colchicine treatment with diploid (Dip) potato (Solanum chacoense) plantlets, this study generated tetraploid (Tet) and cytochimera (Cyt) lines, which, respectively, contained complete and partial cells with genome duplication. Compared to the Dip potato, we observed remarkably enhanced plant growth and biomass yields in Tet and Cyt lines. Notably, the Cyt potato straw, which was generated from incomplete genome doubling, was of significantly higher biomass yield than that of the Tet with a distinctively altered cell wall composition. Meanwhile, we observed that one layer of the tetraploid cells (about 30%) in Cyt plants was sufficient to trigger a gene expression pattern similar to that of Tet, suggesting that the biomass dominance of Cyt may be related to the proportion of different ploidy cells. Further genome-wide analyses of co-expression networks indicated that down-regulation (against Dip) of spliceosomal-related transcripts might lead to differential alternative splicing for specifically improved agronomic traits such as plant growth, biomass yield, and lignocellulose composition in Tet and Cyt plants. In addition, this work examined that the genome of Cyt line was relatively stable after years of asexual reproduction. Hence, this study has demonstrated that incomplete genome doubling is a promising strategy to maximize biomass production in potatoes and beyond.

5.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739587

RESUMO

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the deadliest diseases of cats in China. In this study, 120 ascitic fluid samples from FIP-suspected cats were collected from veterinary hospitals in 21 provinces in China between 2019 and 2021. One hundred nine samples were positive for feline coronavirus (FCoV), with no feline immunodeficiency virus infections and one feline leukemia virus infection (1/109, 0.92%). The prevalence of FCoV was significantly associated with age (p < 0.01) and was not highly associated with gender, breed, geographical location, or viral coinfection (p > 0.01). One unique strain, SD/202012/003, contained a six-nucleotide deletion in the spike gene. Sequence analysis showed that 94.68% (89/94) of the isolates had a mutation of methionine to leucine at position 1058 in the spike protein. The epidemiological data obtained of FCoV in this study may be beneficial for clinical monitoring of FCoV in China.

6.
Front Genet ; 12: 682082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745200

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are increasingly being used to treat patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but only a third of these patients are sensitive to ICBs. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis could be a novel target for antitumor treatment, and combined treatment with ferroptosis inducers might enhance sensitivity to immunotherapy. However, there is a lack of information on the crosstalk between ferroptosis-related lncRNAs and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, we aim to explore prognostic value of ferroptosis-related lncRNAs and clarify potential role in ICBs of HCC. Methods: We obtained mRNA and lncRNA expression data from two independent cohorts (TCGA and GEO database). Univariate Cox, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) algorithm and multivariate Cox analysis were used to construct a lncRNA signature, which was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and Kaplan-Meier curves. Tumor-infiltrating cell (TIC) profiling and the tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) algorithm were used to validate the signature model and immunotherapy. Finally, we adopted RT-PCR assay to evaluate the differential expression of lncRNAs in HCC tissues in our hospital. Results: The ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature included five lncRNAs, most of which were positively correlated with clinical stage and grade. The signature could stratify patients into two risk groups, with the high-risk group associated with a shorter overall survival (OS, p < 0.05) in TCGA-LIHC and GSE76427. Besides, the AUCs of the 1-, 3-, and 5-years OS were 0.772, 0.707, and 0.666, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis (GESA) of lncRNAs revealed enrichment of oncogenic and immune-related pathways. The TIC profiling indicated a close correlation between the signature and immune cells. Furthermore, the high-risk group had a better response to immunotherapy than low-risk group. RT-PCR demonstrated these five lncRNAs were upregulated in cancerous tissue than normal tissues. Conclusions: The ferroptosis-related lncRNA signature could accurately predict the OS of HCC patients and may serve as an independent clinical factor for patients' outcomes. Ferroptosis-related lncRNAs may remodel the tumor microenvironment (TME) and affect the anti-cancer ability of ICBs, and therefore, could potentially act as an indicator for the response to immunotherapy in HCC.

7.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(5): 669-676, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728027

RESUMO

Objective To explore the effect of miR-145-5p on the proliferation and apoptosis of human ovarian cancer cells and the possible molecular mechanisms involved.Methods Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the expression of miR-145-5p in ovarian epithelial cells and ovarian cancer cells.CCK-8 and flow cytometry were used to detect the effects of miR-145-5p overexpression on the proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.TargetScan was employed to predict the target genes of miR-145-5p.Western blotting,dual luciferase reporter assay and rescue experiment were employed to predict and verify the underlying molecular mechanism of miR-145-5p function.Results The expression of miR-145-5p in ovarian cancer cells was significantly lower than that in normal ovarian epithelial cells(t=4.345,P=0.049).Compared with the control group,the overexpression of miR-145-5p reduced the proliferation rate(t=-15.790,P<0.001)and increased the apoptosis rate(t=5.433,P=0.032)of ovarian cancer cells.ARK5 was predicted as the direct target gene of miR-145-5p(t=4.583,P=0.010).The cells with ARK5 overexpression showed increased proliferation rate(t=27.290,P<0.001)and decreased apoptosis rate(t=-8.241,P=0.001).The overexpression of miR-145-5p can down-regulate the mRNA(t=-12.824,P<0.001)and protein(t=-4.792,P=0.001)levels of ARK5.The rescuing expression of ARK5 significantly offset the inhibitory effects of miR-145-5p on cell proliferation(t=15.580,P=0.004)and apoptosis(t=-12.470,P=0.006).Conclusion miR-145-5p may inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells by targeting ARK5.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Apoptose/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114775, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742863

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda is the main traditional healthcare system in Indian medicine. Tibetan medicine (TM), Mongolian medicine (MM), Buddhist medicine (BM), Dai medicine (DM), and Uyghur medicine (UM) are main traditional medicines practiced in China. These are existing traditional medical systems that still play a role in disease prevention and treatment. AIM OF THE STUDY: To reveal the similarities and differences of traditional medicinal preparations between Ayurveda in India and five traditional medicines in China to deepen medical exchanges and cooperation between the two countries and beyond. METHODS: All preparations were extracted from statutory pharmacopoeias, ministry standards, and prescription textbooks from China and India. The information of each preparation, such as therapeutic uses, medicinal materials, and preparation forms, was recorded in Excel for statistical analysis and visual comparison. RESULTS: A total of 645 Ayurvedic preparations, 458 TM preparations, 164 MM preparations, 616 BM preparations, 227 DM preparations, and 94 UM preparations were identified. Preparations of the six traditional medicines were mostly used for treating digestive, respiratory, and urogenital system diseases. The preparation forms of these six traditional medicines are mainly pills and powders. There are 38 shared-use medicinal materials in Ayurveda and TM preparations, 25 in Ayurveda and MM preparations, 30 in Ayurveda and BM preparations, 39 in Ayurveda and DM preparations, and 31 in Ayurveda and UM preparations. Finally, we selected one important shared-use preparation (Triphala) and 51 medicinal materials to research traditional use and modern pharmacology. CONCLUSIONS: These preparations are used by different prescribers and users of medicinal materials in different medical systems with the similarities and differences. The similarities may reflect the historical exchanges of traditional medicines between the two countries. The differences showed that traditional medicines in China have absorbed some theories, diagnoses, and treatments from Ayurveda but also retained their own ethnic and regional characteristics.

9.
PhytoKeys ; 184: 103-110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785974

RESUMO

A new species of Rubiaceae, Spiradiclisdetianensis is described from a limestone karst area of southwestern China. This new species is morphologically similar to S.cordata and S.spathulata. All of them have rosetted habit and long peduncles, but it differs from the former by the cuneate leaf bases (vs. basally cordate) and much longer corolla tubes (1.8-2.2 cm long vs. ca. 5 mm long), and from the latter mainly by its tubular-funnel shaped corolla (vs. slenderly salver shaped), 4.5-6.8 (vs. 1.5-2) mm in diam, inside throat and corolla densely puberulent (vs. glabrous except a ring of long hairs at the middle). It also resembles to S.tubiflora, but differs clearly by its subrosulate habit (vs. procumbent to creeping), longer leaf blades (7.0-10.5 cm vs. 0.5-2.5 cm) and longer corolla tubes (18-22 mm vs. 14-16 mm). At same time, color photos, illustrations, detailed descriptions and conservation status of the new species are provided.

10.
Neurol Ther ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797551

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As an autoimmune central nervous system disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been extensively investigated. A specific antigenic target, astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has already been identified, and it can be recognized explicitly by the autoantibody marker NMO-IgG. Along with the immune attacks, clinical disabilities would gradually accumulate. As there has been no validated and well-recognized therapy for NMO till now, preventing and postponing attack using immunosuppressive therapies is the primary treatment option. METHODS: In the current retrospective study, the effect of immunosuppressive agents was investigated through a long-term follow-up. To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of rituximab (RTX), azathioprine (AZA), and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapies, all 129 patients with NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) who received at least one of these treatments were studied, including 55 seropositive for AQP4-Ab and 74 seronegative for AQP4-Ab. RESULTS: The median post-treatment annualized relapse rate (ARR) was lower than the pre-treatment rates in all AQP4+Ab groups (from 1.0 to 0.7 in RTX, from 0.8 to 0.3 in AZA, and from 0.85 to 0.35 in MMF). Meanwhile, the ARR also decreased in all AQP4-Ab groups (from 0.3 to 0.2 in RTX, from 0.9 to 0.5 in AZA, and from 0.9 to 0.4 in MMF). Disability condition improved in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) in all AQP4+Ab groups (from 4.0 to 2.75 in RTX, from 3.5 to 2.5 in AZA, and from 3.0 to 2.0 in MMF) and in all AQP4-Ab groups (from 3.0 to 2.5 in RTX, from 3.0 to 2.5 in AZA, and from 3.5 to 2.0 in MMF). There was no statistically significant difference between the post-treatment and pre-treatment changes of EDSS and ARR in the RTX, AZA, and MMF groups (P > 0.05). However, according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, RTX-treated patients were more likely to be relapse-free after long-term follow-up than those who received AZA or MMF therapy. Meanwhile, adverse effects were noted in three out of 23 patients with RTX treatment, five of 32 with AZA treatment, and three of 21 with MMF treatment. No serious adverse events were observed in all treatment groups during the study. CONCLUSIONS: RTX, AZA, and MMF therapies efficiently lowered the relapse frequency and disability in both of the AQP4-Ab seropositive or seronegative patients with NMO. Furthermore, low dosage of RTX is recommended for the patients with NMO owing to its long-term effectiveness and safety.

11.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 26(1): 45, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) within the nucleus is directly linked to driving gene expression through transcriptional complexes. Histone lysine methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D) is widely present in many cancers. It is known to epigenetically stimulate the expression of genes associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our analyses show that KMT2D possesses two distinct low-complexity domains (LCDs) capable of driving the assembly of membrane-less condensates. The dependence of the mechanisms underlying monomethylation of H3K4 on the LLPS microenvironment derived from KMT2D LCDs is unclear in tumor. METHODS: KMT2D LCD-depletion cells were used to investigate tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. We identified some core proteins, including WDR5, RBBP5, and ASH2L, which are involved in the KMT2D-associated catalytic complex in KMT2D LCD-deficient cells to further elucidate the mechanism that decreases monomethylation of H3K4. We also evaluated the viability of KMT2D LCD-deficient cells in vivo. Finally, using 1,6-hexanediol (HD), an inhibitor of LLPS, we determined cell activities associated with KMT2D function in wild-type PANC-1 cells. RESULTS: Without the LLPS microenvironment in KMT2D LCD-deficient cells or wild-type PANC-1 cells treated with HD, the WDR5 protein was significantly less stable and the protein-protein interactions between the components of the KMT2D-enzyme complex were attenuated, impairing the formation of the complex. Moreover, with the decrease in H3K4me1 level at enhancers, transcription factors such as LIFR and KLF4 were markedly downregulated, effectively inhibiting tumor progression. In xenograft tumor models, PANC-1 cells lacking the KMT2D LCDs showed effectively suppressed tumor growth compared to normal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the two low-complexity domains of the KMT2D protein could form a stable LLPS microenvironment, promoting the KMT2D catalysis of H3K4 monomethylation through stabilization of the WDR5 protein and KMT2D-enzyme complex. Therefore, finding ways to regulate the LLPS microenvironment will be benefitial for new cancer treatment strategies.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt C): 127655, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773795

RESUMO

In this work, a novel Ni-doped PbO2 anode (Ni-PbO2) was prepared via a co-electrodeposition method and used to remove Ni-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Ni-EDTA) from solutions typical of electroless nickel plating wastewater. Compared with a pure PbO2 electrode, Ni doping increased the oxygen evolution potential as well as the reactive surface area and reactive site concentration and reduced the electron transfer resistance thereby resulting in superior Ni-EDTA degradation performance. The 1% Ni-doped PbO2 electrode exhibited the best electrochemical oxidation activity with a Ni-EDTA removal efficiency of 96.5 ± 1.2%, a Ni removal efficiency of 52.1 ± 1.4% and an energy consumption of 2.6 kWh m-3. Further investigations revealed that 1% Ni doping enhanced both direct oxidation and hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation processes involved in Ni-EDTA degradation. A mechanism for Ni-EDTA degradation is proposed based on the identified products. The free nickel ion concentration initially increased as a result of the degradation of Ni-EDTA complexes and subsequently decreased as a consequence of nickel electrodeposition on the cathode surface. Further characterization of the cathode deposits by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated that the deposition products were a mixture of Ni0, NiO and Ni(OH)2 with elemental Ni accounting for roughly 80% of the deposited nickel. Results of this study pave the way for the application of anodic oxidation processes for efficient degradation of Ni-containing complexes and recovery of Ni from nickel-containing wastewaters.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804175

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia is a series of harmful reactions, such as acute necrosis of tissue, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and blood-brain barrier injury, due to the insufficient blood supply to the brain. Inflammatory response and gut microbiota imbalance are important concomitant factors of cerebral ischemia and may increase the severity of cerebral ischemia through the gut-brain axis. Qishiwei Zhenzhu pills (QSW) contain more than 70 kinds of medicinal materials, which have the effects of anti-cerebral infarction, anti-convulsion, anti-dementia, and so on. It is a treasure of Tibetan medicine commonly used in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Tibetan areas. In this study, we gave rats QSW (66.68 mg/kg) once by gavage in advance and then immediately established the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. After 24 hours of treatment, the neuroprotection, intestinal pathology, and gut microbiota were examined. The results showed that QSW could significantly reduce the neurobehavioral abnormalities and cerebral infarction rate in MCAO rats. Furthermore, qPCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry results showed that QSW could effectively inhibit IL-6, IL-1ß, and other inflammatory factors so as to effectively reduce the inflammatory response of MCAO rats. Furthermore, QSW could improve intestinal integrity and reduce intestinal injury. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that QSW could significantly improve the gut microbiota disorder of MCAO rats. Specifically, at the phylum level, it can regulate the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in the gut microbiota of rats with MCAO. At the genus level, it can adjust the abundance of Escherichia and Shigella. At the species level, it can adjust the abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus reuteri. All in all, this study is the first to show that QSW can reduce the severity of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating gut microbiota and inhibiting the inflammatory response.

14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 168, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum lipid abnormalities are generally considered as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, evidence for the effect of long-term serum lipid fluctuations on future T2DM probability remains limited. METHODS: A total of 4475 nondiabetic participants who underwent annual health examinations between 2010 and 2013 were followed for the subsequent 5-year risk of T2DM. The Cox proportional hazards model was performed to evaluate the associations of visit-to-visit variabilities and trajectories of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) with T2DM probability. RESULTS: During the five-year follow-up, 223 newly developed T2DM cases were identified. Compared with the "Low" TG trajectory, "Moderate" and "Moderate-High" TG trajectories were significantly associated with T2DM incidence, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.51 (1.12-2.03) and 2.55 (1.62-4.03), respectively. Additionally, participants in the third and fourth quartiles of TG/standard deviation (SD) were associated with increased T2DM probability when compared with those in the lowest quartile. After excluding individuals with prediabetes, participants with "Moderate-High" TG trajectory still had a 2.43-fold greater risk of T2DM compared with those with "Low" TG trajectory (95 % CI: 1.28-4.63). In addition, compared with participants in "Low" HDL-c trajectory, the future T2DM probability was significantly reduced in those with "Moderate" and "High" HDL-c trajectories, with HR (95 % CI) of 0.52 (0.37-0.72) and 0.38 (0.18-0.80), respectively. After excluding individuals with prediabetes, the "Moderate" HDL-c trajectory remained associated with decreased T2DM probability when compared with "Low" HDL-c trajectory (HR: 0.55, 95 % CI: 0.35-0.88). However, the incidence of T2DM was not associated with the long-term fluctuations of TC and LDL-c. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term visit-to-visit variability of TG, and the change trajectories of TG and HDL-c were significantly associated with future T2DM probability. Moreover, these associations were not affected after excluding individuals with prediabetes.

15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 227: 113964, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743062

RESUMO

The tetralone and tetralone derivatives, as crucial structural scaffolds of potential novel drugs targeted at multiple biological end-points, are normally found in several natural compounds and also, it can be used as parental scaffold and/or intermediate for the synthesis of a series of pharmacologically active compounds with a broad-spectrum of bioactivities including antibacterial, antitumor, CNS effect and so on. Meanwhile, SAR information of its analogues has drawn attentions among medicinal chemists, which could contribute to the further research related to tetralone derivatives aimed at multiple targets. This review encompasses pharmacological activities, SAR analysis and docking study of tetralone and its derivatives, expecting to provide a general retrospect and prospect on tetralone derivatives.

16.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 258: 110693, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752895

RESUMO

Knowledge of early development in bivalves is of great importance to understand the function of animal organ systems and the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is an economically important bivalve living in marine intertidal zones. To determine the pattern of muscle development in the clams, we investigate the characteristics of musculature development utilizing phalloidin staining and confocal microscopy. Myofilaments first appear at the early trochophore stage, and gradually become orderly arranged during the transition from trochophore to veliger. For veliger, larval muscle system is mainly composed of dorsal velum retractors, medio-dorsal velum retractors, ventral velum retractors, ventral larval retractors and anterior and posterior adductor muscles. After metamorphosis, the muscle system of late veliger has been reconstructed, showing the irreversible shrink of velum retractor muscles, the rapid growth of wedge-shaped foot and mantle margins. One of the most striking changes in settled spats is the development of sophisticated architecture of foot musculature, which consists of transverse pedal muscles, anterior foot retractor and posterior foot retractor. These findings will not only provide the basis to understand the dynamic pattern of myogenesis in the burrowing bivalves, but also provide valuable information for comparative analysis of muscle development among bivalves.

17.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(29): 8888-8893, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal tumors are relatively rare in adults and uncommon in children. Tracheal neurilemmoma is a rare condition in adults that usually affects middle-aged people, but it can also occur in children. Because the clinical presentation is nonspecific and insidious, diagnosis is often delayed. The most common symptoms in these patients are stridor or wheezing (especially positional) and cough. A few patients are misdiagnosed and mistakenly treated for asthma. CASE SUMMARY: A 10-year-old girl was admitted to our unit with a 2-mo history of recurrent cough, dyspnea, and tachypnea. Her condition was more severe after exercise. Her symptoms progressed despite treatment with inhaled fluticasone/salmeterol. Flexible electronic laryngoscopy showed a red, smooth, and round mushroom-shaped mass in the trachea, about 1 cm below the vocal cords. The surface of the mass was covered with several small and discontinuous blood vessels. About 90% of the tracheal lumen was occupied by the mass. A multidisciplinary operation was performed. The surgically resected mass was diagnosed as benign neurilemmoma by immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION: Intratracheal neurilemmoma is fairly rare in children. The main symptoms include coughing, wheezing, and dyspnea. The tumor's size, location, and degree of intratracheal and extratracheal invasion can be measured by chest computed tomography. The main treatment strategies used for tracheal neurilemmoma are surgical resection and endoscopic excision. Long-term follow-up is warranted for the evaluation of outcomes and complications.

18.
Front Surg ; 8: 735947, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722622

RESUMO

Background: The effect of active cycle of breathing technique (ACBT) on EC patients has not been well elucidated. In this research, we aim to explore the effect of ACBT on the perioperative outcomes in patients with esophageal carcinoma who underwent esophagectomy. Methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy in an academic institution from December 2017 to July 2019 were included in this study. In a quasi-experimental study, participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (active cycle of breathing technique, n = 107) and an observational group (n = 106) by drawing lots. The chi-squared test, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test, Logistic regression analysis, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to analyze data. A two-sided P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The primary observational endpoint was the mean weight of the sputum. Other outcomes included the six-min-walk test (6MWT), Borg scale, anastomotic leakage, and the length of hospital stay. Results: 95 patients underwent minimally invasive surgery, and 118 patients received open surgery. There were 16 patients with anastomotic leakage in the present study, and we found that patients in the observational group had higher odds of anastomotic leakage. The results showed that the mean weight of the sputum in the observation group was lighter than that of the experimental group. After esophagectomy, the experimental group had better outcomes than the observation group (Borg scale: 2.448 vs. 1.547; 6-MWT: 372.811 vs. 425.355m, all P < 0.05). The mean length of hospital stay was longer in the observation group (17.953 days) than that in the experimental group (12.037 days, P = 0.01). We also found that the observational group had a higher discharge ratio over 2 weeks in all cohort (adjusted OR 2.487, 95% confidence intervals 1.147-5.392, P = 0.021). Conclusion: Active cycle of breathing technique may improve the perioperative outcomes and decrease the length of hospital stay after surgery in patients with esophageal cancer. However, we need more researches to validate these findings.

19.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723467

RESUMO

Cytokine immunotherapy represents an attractive strategy to stimulate robust immune responses for renal injury repair in ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its clinical application is hindered by its nonspecificity to kidney, short circulation half-life, and severe side effects. An ideal cytokine immunotherapy for AKI requires preferential delivery of cytokines with accurate dosage to the kidney and sustained-release of cytokines to stimulate the immune responses. Herein, we developed a DNA nanoraft cytokine by precisely arranging interleukin-33 (IL-33) nanoarray on rectangle DNA origami, through which IL-33 can be preferentially delivered to the kidney for alleviation of AKI. A nanoraft carrying precisely quantified IL-33 predominantly accumulated in the kidney for up to 48 h. Long-term sustained-release of IL-33 from nanoraft induced rapid expansion of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC 2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) and achieved better treatment efficiency compared to free IL-33 treatment. Thus, our study demonstrates that a nanoraft can serve as a structurally well-defined delivery platform for cytokine immunotherapy in ischemic AKI and other renal diseases.

20.
Adv Mater ; : e2107249, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724264

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been considered as a sustainable method to construct complicated 3D structures. However, step effect induced by the traditional point-by-point or layer-by-layer additive manufacturing mode, inevitably occurs and remains an obstacle to realizing the smoothness and uniformity of 3D samples. Here, we propose a continuous liquid film confined 3D printing strategy to fabricate high-precision 3D structures based on the digital light processing (DLP) technology. With the control of the confinement of the liquid-solid interface and the continuous printing mode, liquid film adhering to the cured structure is sucked into the cured layer structures with excess resin adhering to the cured structure scraping off, where the step effect is eliminated and post-washing is avoided. The morphology and dimension of the confined liquid film can be well regulated by ink properties and printing parameters to optimize the surface smoothness and printing fidelity. In addition, heat accumulation and thermal diffusion are also suppressed, ensuring the long-term printing stability. Centimeter-scale contact lens structure with central thickness of ∼ 135 µm comparable to the commercial ones can be printed, which possesses extreme smoothness (sub 1.3 nm), homogeneous mechanical characteristic, biocompatibility and high optical property with imaging resolution of up to 228.1 lp/mm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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