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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 632-642, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380904

RESUMO

Icariin (ICA) has a significant capacity to protect against depression and hippocampal injury, but it cannot effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain. Therefore, the mechanism by which ICA protects against hippocampal injury in depression remains unclear. In this study, we performed proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid to investigate the mechanism by which ICA prevents dysfunctional hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. A rat model of depression was established through exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 6 weeks, after which 120 mg/kg ICA was administered subcutaneously every day. The results showed that ICA alleviated depressive symptoms, learning and memory dysfunction, dysfunctional neurogenesis, and neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus of rats with depression. Neural stem cells from rat embryonic hippocampi were cultured in media containing 20% cerebrospinal fluid from each group of rats and then treated with 100 µM corticosterone. The addition of cerebrospinal fluid from rats treated with ICA largely prevented the corticosterone-mediated inhibition of neuronal proliferation and differentiation. Fifty-two differentially expressed proteins regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and ICA were identified through proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. These proteins were mainly involved in the ribosome, PI3K-Akt signaling, and interleukin-17 signaling pathways. Parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry showed that Rps4x, Rps12, Rps14, Rps19, Hsp90b1, and Hsp90aa1 were up-regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and down-regulated by ICA. In contrast, HtrA1 was down-regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and up-regulated by ICA. These findings suggest that ICA can prevent depression and dysfunctional hippocampal neurogenesis through regulating the expression of certain proteins found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The study was approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine of China in March 2017.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 115-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100446

RESUMO

Exposure to explosive shockwave often leads to blast-induced traumatic brain injury in military and civilian populations. Unprotected ears are most often damaged following exposure to blasts. Although there is an association between tympanic membrane perforation and TBI in blast exposure victims, little is known about how and to what extent blast energy is transmitted to the central nervous system via the external ear canal. The present study investigated whether exposure to blasts directed through the ear canal causes brain injury in Long-Evans rats. Animals were exposed to a single blast (0-30 pounds per square inch (psi)) through the ear canal, and brain injury was evaluated by histological and behavioral outcomes at multiple time-points. Blast exposure not only caused tympanic membrane perforation but also produced substantial neuropathological changes in the brain, including increased expression of c-Fos, induction of a profound chronic neuroinflammatory response, and apoptosis of neurons. The blast-induced injury was not limited only to the brainstem most proximal to the source of the blast, but also affected the forebrain including the hippocampus, amygdala and the habenula, which are all involved in cognitive functions. Indeed, the animals exhibited long-term neurological deficits, including signs of anxiety in open field tests 2 months following blast exposure, and impaired learning and memory in an 8-arm maze 12 months following blast exposure. These results suggest that the unprotected ear canal provides a locus for blast waves to cause TBI. This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (Animal protocol# 0932E, approval date: September 30, 2016 and 0932F, approval date: September 27, 2019).

3.
Front Robot AI ; 8: 739023, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616776

RESUMO

This paper presents a framework to alleviate the Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) training data sparsity problem that is present in challenging domains by creating a DRL agent training and vehicle integration methodology. The methodology leverages accessible domains to train an agent to solve navigational problems such as obstacle avoidance and allows the agent to generalize to challenging and inaccessible domains such as those present in marine environments with minimal further training. This is done by integrating a DRL agent at a high level of vehicle control and leveraging existing path planning and proven low-level control methodologies that are utilized in multiple domains. An autonomy package with a tertiary multilevel controller is developed to enable the DRL agent to interface at the prescribed high control level and thus be separated from vehicle dynamics and environmental constraints. An example Deep Q Network (DQN) employing this methodology for obstacle avoidance is trained in a simulated ground environment, and then its ability to generalize across domains is experimentally validated. Experimental validation utilized a simulated water surface environment and real-world deployment of ground and water robotic platforms. This methodology, when used, shows that it is possible to leverage accessible and data rich domains, such as ground, to effectively develop marine DRL agents for use on Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) navigation. This will allow rapid and iterative agent development without the risk of ASV loss, the cost and logistic overhead of marine deployment, and allow landlocked institutions to develop agents for marine applications.

4.
Adv Mater ; : e2104330, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623707

RESUMO

As a low-cost substitute that uses no expensive rare-earth elements for the high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cell, the Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cell has borrowed optimization strategies used for its predecessor to improve its device performance, including a profiled band gap and surface inversion. Indeed, there have been few reports of constructing CZTSSe absorber layers with surface inversion to improve efficiency. Here, a strategy that designs the CZTSSe absorber to attain surface modification by using n-type Ag2 ZnSnS4 is demonstrated. It has been discovered that Ag plays two major roles in the kesterite thin film devices: surface inversion and front gradient distribution. It has not only an excellent carrier transport effect and reduced probability of electron-hole recombination but also results in increased carrier separation by increasing the width of the depletion region, leading to much improved VOC and JSC . Finally, a champion CZTSSe solar cell renders efficiency as high as 12.55%, one of the highest for its type, with the open-circuit voltage deficit reduced to as low as 0.306 V (63.2% Shockley-Queisser limit). The band engineering for surface modification of the absorber and high efficiency achieved here shine a new light on the future of the CZTSSe solar cell.

5.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(10): 4389-4398, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603993

RESUMO

Background: The precise pathogenesis of anophthalmia/microphthalmia remains unknown. Prenatal observation of the optic chiasm in fetuses with this malformation would assist in understanding the embryonic development of the condition. The present study aimed to establish the normal fetal size ranges of decussation of the optic chiasm, optic nerves, and optic tracts in the axial plane using two-dimensional transabdominal ultrasound throughout gestation and to compare these ranges to the corresponding values in fetuses with anophthalmia/microphthalmia. Methods: In total, 310 normal fetuses and 16 fetuses with anophthalmia/microphthalmia were included in this study. The widths of the decussation of the optic chiasm, optic nerves, and optic tracts of normal fetuses at 19-40 weeks' gestation were measured in the axial plane by two-dimensional transabdominal ultrasound. The same widths were retrospectively measured in the axial plane using three-dimensional ultrasound in fetuses with anophthalmia/microphthalmia and compared to the results from the normal fetuses. Results: The decussation, optic nerves, and optic tracts of 310 normal fetuses were measured. The normal widths of the decussation of the optic chiasm, optic nerves, and optic tracts increased linearly with gestational age. The interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility was excellent for the decussation but relatively low for the optic nerves and optic tracts. The optic nerve width of fetuses with anophthalmia/microphthalmia was significantly smaller than that of normal fetuses (P<0.001), but the widths of the decussation (P=0.061) and optic tracts (P=0.053) were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: The normal ranges of the decussation of the optic chiasm, optic nerves, and optic tracts established in this study can provide a quantitative basis for prenatal evaluation of the optic pathway. Fetal anophthalmia/microphthalmia may be associated with optic nerve hypoplasia.

6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 663068, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604102

RESUMO

Exploring microbial community compositions in humans with healthy versus diseased states is crucial to understand the microbe-host interplay associated with the disease progression. Although the relationship between oral cancer and microbiome was previously established, it remained controversial, and yet the ecological characteristics and their responses to oral carcinogenesis have not been well studied. Here, using the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing along with the in silico function analysis by PICRUSt2 (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States 2), we systematically characterized the compositions and the ecological drivers of saliva microbiome in the cohorts of orally healthy, non-recurrent oral verrucous hyperplasia (a pre-cancer lesion), and oral verrucous hyperplasia-associated oral cancer at taxonomic and function levels, and compared them with the re-analysis of publicly available datasets. Diversity analyses showed that microbiome dysbiosis in saliva was significantly linked to oral health status. As oral health deteriorated, the number of core species declined, and metabolic pathways predicted by PICRUSt2 were dysregulated. Partitioned beta-diversity revealed an extremely high species turnover but low function turnover. Functional beta-diversity in saliva microbiome shifted from turnover to nestedness during oral carcinogenesis, which was not observed at taxonomic levels. Correspondingly, the quantitative analysis of stochasticity ratios showed that drivers of microbial composition and functional gene content of saliva microbiomes were primarily governed by the stochastic processes, yet the driver of functional gene content shifted toward deterministic processes as oral cancer developed. Re-analysis of publicly accessible datasets supported not only the distinctive family taxa of Veillonellaceae and Actinomycetaceae present in normal cohorts but also that Flavobacteriaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae as well as the dysregulated metabolic pathways of nucleotides, amino acids, fatty acids, and cell structure were related to oral cancer. Using predicted functional profiles to elucidate the correlations to the oral health status shows superior performance than using taxonomic data among different studies. These findings advance our understanding of the oral ecosystem in relation to oral carcinogenesis and provide a new direction to the development of microbiome-based tools to study the interplay of the oral microbiome, metabolites, and host health.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Carcinogênese , Disbiose , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 108882, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655756

RESUMO

High dietary carbohydrate intake leads to lipid accumulation in the intestinal tract, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, using yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as a model, we found that (1) high carbohydrate diets (HCD) and high glucose (HG) increased lipid deposition, up-regulated lipogenesis and fatty acid ß-oxidation, activated autophagy and induced oxidative stress in the intestinal tissues and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); (2) lipophagy alleviated HG-induced lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of fatty acid ß-oxidation; (3) Akt interacted directly with Beclin1; (4) HG suppressed Akt1 phosphorylation, downregulated Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Beclin1, activated lipophagy and alleviated the increment of TG deposition induced by HG with S87 and S292 being the key phosphorylation residues of Beclin1 in response to HG; (5) ROS generation mediated HG-induced activation of lipophagy and HG-induced suppression of AKT phosphorylation, activated AMPK and alleviated HG-induced increase of TG deposition. Our study provides mechanistic evidence that high carbohydrate- and glucose-induced lipophagy in intestine and IECs is associated with ROS-AKT-Beclin1-dependent activation of autophagy, which alleviates glucose-induced lipid accumulation. Our findings are important since the regulation of autophagy can be used as potential molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of lipotoxicity in the intestine of vertebrates, including humans.

8.
Subst Abus ; 42(3): 245-254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606426

RESUMO

In the US, methadone treatment can only be provided to patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) through federal and state-regulated opioid treatment programs (OTPs). There is a shortage of OTPs, and racial and geographic inequities exist in access to methadone treatment. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Center for Clinical Trials Network convened the Methadone Access Research Task Force to develop a research agenda to expand and create more equitable access to methadone treatment for OUD. This research agenda included mechanisms that are available within and outside the current regulations. The task force identified 6 areas where research is needed: (1) access to methadone in general medical and other outpatient settings; (2) the impact of methadone treatment setting on patient outcomes; (3) impact of treatment structure on outcomes in patients receiving methadone; (4) comparative effectiveness of different medications to treat OUD; (5) optimal educational and support structure for provision of methadone by medical providers; and (6) benefits and harms of expanded methadone access. In addition to outlining these research priorities, the task force identified important cross-cutting issues, including the impact of patient characteristics, treatment, and treatment system characteristics such as methadone formulation and dose, concurrent behavioral treatment, frequency of dispensing, urine or oral fluid testing, and methods of measuring clinical outcomes. Together, the research priorities and cross-cutting issues represent a compelling research agenda to expand access to methadone in the US.

9.
Org Lett ; 23(20): 8082-8087, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609892

RESUMO

An aerobic metal-free, visible-light-induced regioselective thiolation of phenols with thiophenols is reported. The cross-coupling protocol exhibits great functional group tolerance and high regioselectivity. Mechanistic studies reveal that the disulfide radical cation plays a crucial role in the visible-light catalysis of aerobic thiolation. Simply controlling the equivalent ratio of substrates enables the selective formation of sulfide or sulfoxide products with high activity in a one-pot reaction.

10.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Both self­rated health (SRH) and the cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics of the American Heart Association have been reported as predictors of cardiovascular events. However, a longitudinal study of the relationships between these metrics has not been conducted before. OBJECTIVES We investigated the association between SRH and CVH metrics in a longitudinal study involving an Asian population. PATIENTS AND METHODS Eligible participants were enrolled between 2009 and 2014. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between SRH and overall ideal CVH metrics as well as each ideal CVH metric at baseline and during follow­up. Additionally, we classified participants into 3 groups according to the change in SRH after 3 years of follow­up and analyzed the changes in ideal CVH metrics in these groups. RESULTS Our study group consisted of 15 608 participants. After a mean follow­up of 2.69 years, participants who classified their health as "Poor" or "Very Poor" had reduced odds ratios (ORs) for ideal CVH metrics, with ORs of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.54-0.85; P = 0.001) and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.37-0.96; P = 0.03) for "Poor" and "Very Poor" SRH, respectively. In contrast, the odds for increased ideal CVH metrics rose as SRH improved (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.36; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Changes in SRH ratings might accurately reflect changes in CVH metrics. Our longitudinal study demonstrated that SRH was significantly associated with the number of ideal CVH metrics. Our findings provide epidemiological evidence for future public health strategies targeting cardiovascular disease.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: His-Purkinje conduction system pacing (HPCSP) has emerged as an effective alternative to overcome the limitations of right ventricular pacing (RVP) via physiological left ventricular activation, but there remains a paucity of comparative information for His bundle pacing (HBP) and left bundle branch pacing (LBBP). METHODS: A Bayesian random-effects network analysis was conducted to compare the relative effects of HBP, LBBP, and RVP in patients with bradycardia and conduction disorders. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched from database inception until 21 September 2021. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies involving 4,160 patients were included in this meta-analysis. LBBP significantly improved success rate, pacing threshold, pacing impedance, and R-wave amplitude compared with HBP. LBBP also demonstrated a non-significant trend towards superior outcomes of lead complications, heart failure hospitalization, atrial fibrillation, and all-cause death. However, HBP was associated with significantly shorter paced QRS duration relative to LBBP. Despite higher success rate, shorter procedure/fluoroscopy duration, and fewer lead complications, patients receiving RVP were more likely to experience reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, longer paced QRS duration, and higher rates of heart failure hospitalization than those receiving HPCSP. No statistical differences were observed in the remaining outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: This network meta-analysis demonstrates the efficacy and safety of HPCSP for the treatment of bradycardia and conduction disorders, with differences in pacing parameters, electrophysiology characteristics, and clinical outcomes between HBP and LBBP. Larger-scale, long-term comparative studies are warranted for further verification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 550, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) predominantly function in the carcinogenesis of multiple developing human tumors. The current study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of LINC00337 in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We analyzed TCGA and GTEx datasets and chose LINC00337 as the research object. Cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion were detected in the gain and loss experiments of LINC00337 both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, RNA pull-down, luciferase reporter assays, western blotting analysis, and rescue experiments were performed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of LINC00337 function. RESULTS: LINC00337 expression was remarkably upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, LINC00337 knockdown was shown to repress cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, as well as the cell cycle, and gear up apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. With respect to the mechanism, LINC00337 knockdown boosted miR-1285-3p expression and then restrained YTHDF1 expression post-transcriptionally. Crucially, both miR-1285-3p decrement and YTHDF1 overexpression successfully reversed the influence on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis caused by LINC00337 shRNA. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LINC00337 acts as an oncogenic lncRNA, targeting miR-1285-3p and regulating YTHDF1 expression, to promote the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.

13.
Trials ; 22(1): 697, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magill forceps are frequently used to complete nasotracheal intubation (NTI). We aimed to identify a tube core that could conveniently facilitate the NTI process without using Magill forceps. METHODS: Sixty patients scheduled for oral and maxillofacial surgeries were enrolled in our study and divided into two groups (30 per group) with no differences with regard to demographic data. In the Magill forceps group (Group M), a wire-reinforced endotracheal catheter was inserted into the trachea using Magill forceps. However, in the tube core group (Group T), a tube core bent to the physiological curve of the nasal cavity and lubricated with aseptic paraffin oil was inserted into the endotracheal catheter and was then withdrawn after the endotracheal catheter was advanced through the glottis under direct vision. RESULTS: All NTIs were completed successfully, and Magill forceps were not used on any patient in Group T. There was a significant difference in total NTI time between the two groups (Group M, 59.7 (5.1) s vs Group T, 52.4 (3.1) s). Mild epistaxis was observed in 6 patients in Group M and 5 patients in Group T (6/30 vs 5/30, respectively). No damage to oral tissue or teeth was observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that using a tube core, consisting of a disposable sterilised stylet, is a convenient choice for NTI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Patient enrolment was conducted after registration in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( www.Chictr.org.cn , ChiCTR190002 7387). This trial was prospectively registered on 11 November 2019.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal , Laringoscopia , Cateteres , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Cavidade Nasal , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
14.
Opt Express ; 29(16): 24663-24673, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614817

RESUMO

We investigate the optical resonances in coupled meta-atoms with hybrid interaction pathways. One interaction pathway is the directly near-field coupling between the two meta-atoms. The other interaction pathway is via the continuum in a waveguide functioned as a common bus connecting them. We show that by properly introducing gain or loss into the meta-atoms, the hybrid optical system becomes parity-time (P T) symmetric, in which the effective coupling rate can be customized by manipulating the length of the waveguide. At the exact phase of the customized P T symmetry, the coupled meta-atoms support discrete super-resonant modes that can be observed from the transmission spectra as extremely sharp peaks. At an exception point where the eigenmodes coalesce, albeit the transmission curve is flat, a high-Q factor of the localized field in the meta-atoms can be obtained. Similarities of the super-resonance with the bound states in the continuum (BICs) are discussed. This investigation promotes our understanding about the ways in realizing high-Q optical resonance especially by manipulating the distributions of loss and gain via the concepts of P T and BICs. Many attractive applications are expected.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(27): 8199-8206, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Madelung's disease (MD) is a rare disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of adipose tissue symmetrically deposited around the neck, shoulders, or other sites around the body. Its pathological mechanism is not yet known. One of the most common comorbidities in MD patients is liver disease, especially chronic alcoholic liver disease (CALD); however, no reports exist of acute kidney injury (AKI) with MD. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 60-year-old man who presented with complaint of edema in the lower limbs that had persisted for 3 d. Physical examination showed subcutaneous masses around the neck, and history-taking revealed the masses to have been present for 2 years and long-term heavy drinking. Considering the clinical symptoms, along with various laboratory test results and imaging characteristics, a diagnosis was made of MD with acute exacerbation of CALD and AKI. The patient was treated with liver function protection and traditional Chinese medicine, without surgical intervention. He was advised to quit drinking. After 10 d, the edema had subsided, renal function indicators returned to normal, liver function significantly improved, and size of subcutaneous masses remained stable. CONCLUSION: In MD, concomitant liver or kidney complications are possible and monitoring of liver and kidney functions can be beneficial.

16.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report three-decade changes of clinical characteristics, progress of treatments and risk factors associated for mortality and enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma in China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: This multicenter study included 2552 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in 38 medical centers in 31 provinces in China from 1989 to 2017 with follow up data. Kendall's tau-b value was used to describe correlation coefficients between eras and clinical or demographic features. Hazard ratios and odds ratios were applied to measure risk factors. RESULTS: In this study, 324(13%) patients died of retinoblastoma and 1414(42%) eyes were removed. The 1-, 3-and 5- year disease-specific survival were 95%, 86% and 83%, respectively. Patients were diagnosed at a better stage by International Classification for Retinoblastoma over time (Kendall's tau-b value=-0.084, P<0.001). Pathological risk factors were also less observed in recent era. New conservative therapies were adopted and used in more patients. The eye removal rate gradually decreased (Kendall's tau-b value=-0.167, P<0.001). The disease-specific survival rate were 81%, 83% and 91% in the three eras. By multivariate cox regression, bilateral tumors and extraocular extension were risk factors for death. Among intraocular disease, group E indicated higher risk of mortality. By multivariate logistics regression, unilateral tumors, earlier era of diagnosis and extraocular extension were risk factors for eye salvage failure. Among intraocular retinoblastoma, groups D and E had higher risk of eye salvage failure. CONCLUSIONS: Patients were diagnosed at earlier stage in recent era. Conservative therapies including IAC were increasingly used. The above changes may contribute to the decreasing enucleation rate. Although no significant difference was identified in the mortality of the three eras, a decreasing trend was shown.

17.
Clin Nucl Med ; 46(11): 896-903, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET for suspicious breast findings on conventional imaging (mammography and breast ultrasound). METHODS: From September 2012 to December 2015, 37 women with 39 breast lesions on conventional imaging were enrolled and underwent proton MRS and FCH PET. The MRS parameters of choline signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), choline integral (I(cho)), and the PET parameters including SUVmax in the prone (SUV1) and supine (SUV2) positions were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves with the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity under the optimal cutoff points for the different parameters were determined. RESULTS: Twenty-three lesions (59%) were malignant, and 16 (41.0%) were benign. The malignant lesions tended to show significantly higher MRS and PET parameters than benign lesions (choline SNR, P = 0.007; I(cho), P = 0.003; SUV1 and SUV2, P < 0.0001). Fair to moderate correlations were noted between the choline SNR and PET parameters (SUV1, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.477; SUV2, ρ = 0.483), as well as I(cho) and PET parameters (SUV1, ρ = 0.493; SUV2, ρ = 0.549). The SUV2 showed the highest diagnostic performance (area under the curve, 0.918). Using 2.5 as the optimal cutoff point, the SUV2 yields 89.5% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity for differentiating malignant from benign lesions. CONCLUSION: The MRS parameters were fairly to moderately correlated with FCH PET parameters, and both could differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions with SUV2 showing best diagnostic performance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Colina , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Colina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0254892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In a recent study, attenuation imaging (ATI) with ultrasound was used as a new approach for detecting liver steatosis. However, although there are many studies on ATI and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) that prove their practicability, there are few studies comparing these two methods. As such, this study compared CAP and ATI for the detection and evaluation of liver steatosis. METHODS: A prospective analysis of 28 chronic liver disease patients who underwent liver biopsy, FibroScan® imaging, and ATI with ultrasound was conducted. The presence and degree of steatosis, as measured with the FibroScan® device and ATI, were compared with the pathological results obtained using liver biopsy. RESULTS: The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of ATI and CAP for differentiating between normal and hepatic steatosis were 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.00) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.81-0.99), respectively. ATI has a higher AUROC than CAP does in liver steatosis, at 0.99 (95% CI, 0.86-1.00) versus 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-0.98) in grade ≥ 2 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00) versus 0.88 (95% CI, 0.70-0.97) in grade = 3, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ATI and CAP results showed good consistency and accuracy for the steatosis grading when compared with the liver biopsy results. Moreover, ATI is even better than CAP in patients with moderate or severe steatosis. Therefore, ATI represents a non-invasive and novel diagnostic tool with which to support the diagnosis of liver steatosis in clinical practice.

19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2729-2736, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664445

RESUMO

Leaf mass per area (LMA) is an important parameter in the construction of the ecosystem process models. Accurate prediction of the dynamic validation of canopy LMA is of significance to improve the accuracy of ecosystem process models. We conducted vertical whorl-by-whorl sampling and analyzed LMA in different seasons for Larix olgensis plantation in Maoershan in Shangzhi, Heilongjiang Province, China. We analyzed the vertical and developmental variations of LMA and their main effective factors, established the dynamic prediction model of LMA for young L. olgensis plantation. The results showed that the LMA decreased with the increases of relative depth into crown (RDINC) in the vertical direction of the crown. The range of LMA in the vertical direction after leaf expanded was significantly larger than that during leaf expanding. During the different development periods of leaves, LMAs increased first and then remained stable, and this trend gra-dually weakened with the increases of crown depth. The Ra2 values were lower than 0.6 when RDINC or DOY were used as the single variable to model LMA, but were increased by 0.19 when both of them being used, and the model performed well in validation (ME=0.54 g·m-2, MAE=5.74 g·m-2). LMA varied across different crown whorls and different leaf development periods. The LMA model constructed with RDINC and DOY could well describe the vertical and temporal variations of LMA. The simulation of crown LMA provided a basis for clarifying crown development and a foundation for the establishment of ecological process model.


Assuntos
Larix , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano
20.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To propose an updated definition of proximal tibia and fibula fracture (PTFF) and establish a three-dimensional (3D) structure-based classification of PTFF. METHODS: In total, 1358 adult patients (837 males and 521 females; 43.61 ± 15.13 years, 1364 affected knees) who were diagnosed with PTFF at the departments of orthopaedic surgery of four hospitals from January 2010 to December 2019 were enrolled. The new classification of PTFF, termed Wu classification, included three parts: classification of columns in the horizontal plane, regions in the frontal plane, and segments in the sagittal plane. All PTFFs were classified according to Schatzker, Luo, and Wu classification systems. Additionally, the incidence and characteristics of PTFFs were analyzed. RESULTS: The major internal structural fractures of PTFF were tibial plateau fracture (TPF) only (725, 53.15%), TPF and proximal fibular fracture (274, 20.09%), and isolated avulsion fracture of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (189, 13.86%). Approximately a quarter of PTFF cases could not be classified using Schatzker or Luo classifications, but all PTFF cases could be classified using Wu classification. The most frequent PTFFs included all four columns in region IV, segment 2 (235, 17.23%); the posterolateral and posteromedial columns in region II, segment 2 (191, 14.00%); and the lateral and posterolateral columns in region IV, segment 2 (136, 9.97%). Isolated avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was categorized as three injury types, most of which involved the lateral and medial columns in region II, segment 1 (40/63, 64%). More than 97% of cases of isolated fractures of the PCL involved the posterolateral and posteromedial columns in region II, segment 2. The most frequent combined avulsion fracture of the ACL and PCL included all four columns in region II, segment 2 (18/24, 75%). All of the isolated avulsion fractures of the ACL were located in segment 1, and all those of the PCL in segment 2. The most common type of isolated proximal fibular fracture involved the posterolateral column in region III, segment 2 (23/26, 88%). The most frequent combined TPF and proximal fibular fracture involved all four columns in region IV, segment 2 (107/274, 39.05%). CONCLUSIONS: All cases of PTFF could be classified by the new 3D Wu classification which should be beneficial for clinical diagnosis, guidance of treatment, statistical analysis, academic communication, and prognosis, and the most frequent PTFF involved all four columns in region IV, segment 2.

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