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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Subxiphoid uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy (SU-VATs) has been widely adopted because it is associated with better postoperative pain scores. Nevertheless, it also has had some limitations that have gradually been decreasing. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the change in perioperative results with SU-VATs as the learning curve developed to outline the current status and the points that should be of future concern. METHODS: Three hundred patients who underwent SU-VATs from September 2014 to May 2018 were divided chronologically into 2 groups; group 1 comprised the first 150 cases and group 2 comprised the last 150 cases. Different perioperative variables were analysed and compared between the 2 groups. In addition, the cumulative sum analysis and multivariable logistic regression were conducted to identify the cut-off point and predictors of significant improvement in operative time. RESULTS: The cumulative sum analysis showed significant improvement in the operative time after the 148th case. Group 2 showed a statistically significant decrease in operative time (104.3 ± 36.7 vs 132 ± 43.1 min; P < 0.001), amount of operative blood loss [50 (80 ml) vs 100 (50 ml); P < 0.001], chest drain duration (2.6 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.4 days; P = 0.004) and hospital stay (3.7 ± 1.7 vs 4.2 ± 1.7 days; P = 0.008). The number of dissected lymph nodes was significantly higher in the second group [11 (4) vs 9 (4); P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Limitations of SU-VATs are being overcome by the improvement in the learning curve and in the expertise of the surgeons. Our future concerns should focus on examining the long-term survival rate, the oncological efficacy and the effect on quality of life.

2.
J Mol Graph Model ; 99: 107644, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619954

RESUMO

The electronic response of both pristine and Al-doped BC3 nanosheets toward 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl ethylamine, i.e. dopamine (DA) was studied through density functional theory. Based on the adsorption energy the tendency of pristine BC3 toward DA drug insignificant and also after adsorption of DA drug the electronic properties of BC3 were changed negligibly. While doping the sheet by Al significantly increases its reactivity and sensitivity toward the DA drug. By adsorption of DA HOMO-LUMO gap dramatically decreased of from 1.34 to 1.12 eV, thereby enhancing the electrical conductivity. It indicates that the doped BC3 nanosheets may be a suitable candidate as a DA electronic sensor, unlike the pristine BC3. Furthermore, the work function of doped BC3 was changed significantly after DA adsorption. Based on these results the doped BC3 can also act as a work function-type sensor to the sensing of DA was used. Finally, the most important factor of the doped BC3 sheet is a short recovery time of 7.36 ms for the desorption process of DA.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12326, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704112

RESUMO

The clinical features of EBV-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) indicate a poorer prognosis than EBV-negative DLBCL. Currently, there is no efficacious drug for EBV-positive DLBCL. The cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been reported to be pro-apoptotic in DLBCL cell lines and is being explored as a new therapeutic strategy for this type of lymphomas. However, our previous studies showed that IL-21 stimulation of EBV-positive DLBCL cell lines leads to increased proliferation. Here, analysis of a rare clinical sample of EBV-positive DLBCL, in combination with a NOD/SCID mouse xenograft model, confirmed the effect of IL-21 on the proliferation of EBV-positive DLBCL cells. Using RNA-sequencing, we identified the pattern of differentially-expressed genes following IL-21 treatment and verified the expression of key genes at the protein level using western blotting. We found that IL-21 upregulates expression of the host MYC and AP-1 (composed of related Jun and Fos family proteins) and STAT3 phosphorylation, as well as expression of the viral LMP-1 protein. These proteins are known to promote the G1/S phase transition to accelerate cell cycle progression. Furthermore, in NOD/SCID mouse xenograft model experiments, we found that IL-21 treatment increases glucose uptake and angiogenesis in EBV-positive DLBCL tumours. Although more samples are needed to validate these observations, our study reconfirms the adverse effects of IL-21 on EBV-positive DLBCL, which has implications for the drug development of DLBCL.

4.
Phytother Res ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716080

RESUMO

Abelmoschus manihot, also called as "Huangkui" in Chinese, is an annual flowering herb plant in the family of Malvaceae. As a traditional Chinese medicine, the ethanol extract of the flower in Abelmoschus manihot is made as Huangkui capsule and has been used for medication of the patients with kidney diseases. Its efficacy in clinical symptoms is mainly improving renal function and reducing proteinuria among the patients with chronic kidney disease, diabetic kidney disease or IgA nephropathy. The possible mechanism of Huangkui capsule treatment in kidney diseases may include reducing inflammation and anti-oxidative stress, improving immune response, protecting renal tubular epithelial cells, ameliorating podocyte apoptosis, glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferation, as well as inhibiting renal fibrosis. In this review, we first described chemical constituents and pharmacokinetic characteristics in ethanol extract of the flower of Abelmoschus manihot. We then summarized the clinical and epidemiological relevancies of kidney diseases particularly in the mainland of China and discussed the possible molecular mechanisms of Huangkui capsule in the treatment of kidney diseases. Finally, we prospected further research on cellular and molecular mechanisms and application of this Chinese natural medicine in kidney diseases.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700278

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms and their associated toxins are growing issues for many aquatic ecosystems. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a toxic and common cyanobacterial toxin, whereas glyphosate is a commonly used herbicide that is massively applied in agriculture. In this study, the effects of glyphosate on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and MC-LR synthesis and release from M. aeruginosa at different temperatures are investigated. In addition, the MC-LR pollution in the Huangpu River in Shanghai urban area is studied. Results indicated that the MC-LR concentration in the Huangpu River is related to water temperature. The laboratory experiments revealed that the growth of M. aeruginosa was slightly promoted at 15 °C and glyphosate concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/L and inhibited in the presence of glyphosate and high temperatures (20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C). The intracellular MC-LR contents were remarkably increased by glyphosate at 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C and remarkably decreased at 35 °C. Meanwhile, the extracellular MC-LR contents were remarkably increased at all temperatures and all concentrations except when treated with 1 mg/L glyphosate at 35 °C. The highest extracellular MC-LR content, which was 143.9% higher compared with that of the control, was observed at 30 °C and treatment with 10 mg/L glyphosate. These results were consistent with those of MC-LR investigation in Huangpu River. Furthermore, in accordance with the intracellular MC-LR contents, the ability of a single cell to synthesize MC-LR was enhanced at 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C and decreased at 35 °C. These results provide an understanding on the toxic effects of glyphosate on cyanobacteria and the effects of temperature on MC release. Moreover, these results will be helpful in protecting aquatic ecosystems and human health.

6.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 217, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641764

RESUMO

The emergence of social organization (eusociality) is a major event in insect evolution. Although previous studies have investigated the mechanisms underlying caste differentiation and social behavior of eusocial insects including ants and honeybees, the molecular circuits governing sociality in these insects remain obscure. In this study, we profiled the transcriptome and chromatin accessibility of brain tissues in three Monomorium pharaonis ant castes: queens (including mature and un-mated queens), males and workers. We provide a comprehensive dataset including 16 RNA-sequencing and 16 assay for transposase accessible chromatin (ATAC)-sequencing profiles. We also demonstrate strong reproducibility of the datasets and have identified specific genes and open chromatin regions in the genome that may be associated with the social function of these castes. Our data will be a valuable resource for further studies of insect behaviour, particularly the role of brain in the control of eusociality.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605368

RESUMO

Golgi mannosidase II (GMII) catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of two mannosyl residues from GlcNAcMan5GlcNAc2 to produce GlcNAcMan3GlcNAc2, the precursor for all complex N-glycans, including the branched N-glycans associated with cancer. Inhibitors of GMII are potential cancer therapeutics, but their usefulness is limited by off-target effects, which produce α-mannosidosis-like symptoms. Despite many structural and mechanistic studies of GMII, we still lack a potent and selective inhibitor of this enzyme. Here, we synthesized manno-epi-cyclophellitol epoxide and aziridines and demonstrate their covalent modification and time-dependent inhibition of GMII. Application of fluorescent manno-epi-cyclophellitol aziridine derivatives enabled activity-based protein profiling of α-mannosidases from both human cell lysate and mouse tissue extracts. Synthesized probes also facilitated a fluorescence polarization-based screen for dGMII inhibitors. We identified seven previously unknown inhibitors of GMII from a library of over 350 iminosugars and investigated their binding modalities through X-ray crystallography. Our results reveal previously unobserved inhibitor binding modes and promising scaffolds for the generation of selective GMII inhibitors.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486459

RESUMO

Arginine vasopressin (Avp) is a conserved pleiotropic hormone that is known to regulate both water reabsorption and ion balance; however, many of the mechanisms underlying its effects remain unclear. Here, we used zebrafish embryos to investigate how Avp modulates ion and acid-base homeostasis. After incubating embryos in double-deionized water for 24 h, avp mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated. Knockdown of Avp protein expression by an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) reduced the expression of ionocyte-related genes and downregulated whole-body Cl- content and H+ secretion, while Na+ and Ca2+ levels were not affected. Incubation of Avp antagonist SR49059 also downregulated the mRNA expression of sodium chloride cotransporter 2b (ncc2b), which is a transporter responsible for Cl- uptake. Correspondingly, avp morphants showed lower NCC and H+-ATPase rich (HR) cell numbers, but Na+/K+-ATPase rich (NaR) cell numbers remained unchanged. avp MO also downregulated the numbers of foxi3a- and p63-expressing cells. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) and its receptor, calcitonin receptor-like 1 (crlr1), were downregulated in avp morphants, suggesting that Avp might affect Cgrp and Crlr1 for modulating Cl- balance. Together, our results reveal a molecular/cellular pathway through which Avp regulates ion and acid-base balance, providing new insights into its function.

9.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 152, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation and progression of cancer are driven by the co-evolution of cancer cells and their dysregulated tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies on immunotherapy demonstrate the efficacy in reverting the anti-tumoral function of T cells, highlighting the therapeutic potential in targeting certain cell types in TME. However, the functions of other immune cell types remain largely unexplored. RESULTS: We conduct a single-cell RNA-seq analysis of cells isolated from tumor tissue samples of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and identify subtypes of tumor-infiltrated B cells and their diverse functions in the progression of NSCLC. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry experiments on two independent cohorts confirm the co-existence of the two major subtypes of B cells, namely the naïve-like and plasma-like B cells. The naïve-like B cells are decreased in advanced NSCLC, and their lower level is associated with poor prognosis. Co-culture of isolated naïve-like B cells from NSCLC patients with two lung cancer cell lines demonstrate that the naïve-like B cells suppress the growth of lung cancer cells by secreting four factors negatively regulating the cell growth. We also demonstrate that the plasma-like B cells inhibit cancer cell growth in the early stage of NSCLC, but promote cell growth in the advanced stage of NSCLC. The roles of the plasma-like B cell produced immunoglobulins, and their interacting proteins in the progression of NSCLC are further validated by proteomics data. CONCLUSION: Our analysis reveals versatile functions of tumor-infiltrating B cells and their potential clinical implications in NSCLC.

10.
FASEB J ; 2020 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592196

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common cause of disability, which often leads to sensorimotor cortex dysfunction above the spinal injury site. However, the cerebral regional effects on metabolic information after SCI have been little studied. Here, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into acute and chronic treatment groups and sham groups with day-matched periods. The Basso, Beatte, and Bresnahan scores method were utilized to evaluate the changes in behaviors during the recovery of the animals, and the metabolic information was measured with the 1 H-observed/13 C-edited NMR method. Total metabolic concentrations in every region were almost similar in both treated groups. However, the metabolic kinetics in most regions in the acute group were significantly altered (P < .05), particularly in the cortical area, thalamus and medulla (P < .01). After long-term recovery, some metabolic kinetics were recovered, especially in the temporal cortex, occipital cortex, and medulla. The metabolic kinetic changes revealed the alteration of metabolism and neurotransmission in different brain regions after SCI, which present evidence for the alternation of brain glucose oxidation. Therefore, this shows the significant influence of SCI on cerebral function and neuroscience research. This study also provides the theoretical basis for clinical therapy after SCI, such as mitochondrial transplantation.

11.
J Microbiol ; 58(7): 531-542, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524345

RESUMO

Among the major bacterial secretions, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are significant and highly functional. The proteins and other biomolecules identified within OMVs provide new insights into the possible functions of OMVs in bacteria. OMVs are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, toxins and virulence factors that play a critical role in bacteria-host interactions. In this review, we discuss some proteins with multifunctional features from bacterial OMVs and their role involving the mechanisms of bacterial survival and defence. Proteins with moonlighting activities in OMVs are discussed based on their functions in bacteria. OMVs harbour many other proteins that are important, such as proteins involved in virulence, defence, and competition. Overall, OMVs are a power-packed aid for bacteria, harbouring many defensive and moonlighting proteins and acting as a survival kit in case of an emergency or as a defence weapon. In summary, OMVs can be defined as bug-out bags for bacterial defence and, therefore, survival.

12.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(6): 460-473, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478492

RESUMO

Plant breeding is well recognized as one of the most important means to meet food security challenges caused by the ever-increasing world population. During the past three decades, plant breeding has been empowered by both new knowledge on trait development and regulation (e.g., functional genomics) and new technologies (e.g., biotechnologies and phenomics). Gene editing, particularly by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) and its variants, has become a powerful technology in plant research and may become a game-changer in plant breeding. Traits are conferred by coding and non-coding genes. From this perspective, we propose different editing strategies for these two types of genes. The activity of an encoded enzyme and its quantity are regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional, as well as translational and post-translational, levels. Different strategies are proposed to intervene to generate gene functional variations and consequently phenotype changes. For non-coding genes, trait modification could be achieved by regulating transcription of their own or target genes via gene editing. Also included is a scheme of protoplast editing to make gene editing more applicable in plant breeding. In summary, this review provides breeders with a host of options to translate gene biology into practical breeding strategies, i.e., to use gene editing as a mechanism to commercialize gene biology in plant breeding.

13.
Int J Mol Med ; 46(3): 965-976, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582994

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to have regulatory roles in the osteogenic differentiation of various mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), although their regulatory role on human adipose­derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological function and underlying molecular mechanism of miRNAs in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs using microarray assay. hADSCs differentiated into osteoblasts under culture with osteogenic medium, with an increase observed in calcium deposits and alkaline phosphatase activity. The mRNA levels of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin and osteocalcin increased, whereas Runt­related transcription factor­2 expression decreased during osteogenic differentiation. In addition, miR­143 was markedly downregulated during osteogenic differentiation, while miR­143 overexpression inhibited and miR­143 knockdown enhanced this process. miR­143 overexpression also blocked extracellular signal­regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway activation, while miR­143 inhibition enhanced it. The promoting effects of miR­143 knockdown on the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs were partly diminished by the mitogen­activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors U0126 and PD98059. Bioinformatics analysis further revealed that miR­143 targets k­Ras and directly binds to the 3'­untranslated region of its mRNA. Inhibition of miR­143 enhanced the activation of the k­Ras/MEK/ERK pathway during osteogenic differentiation, whereas miR­143 overexpression had the opposite effect. Collectively, these results demonstrated that miR­143 negatively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs through the k­Ras/MEK/ERK pathway, providing further insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558142

RESUMO

A transition-metal-free C(sp2 )-C(sp2 ) bond formation reaction by the cross-coupling of diazo quinones with catechol boronic esters was developed. With this protocol, a variety of biaryls and alkenyl phenols were obtained in good to high yields under mild conditions. The reaction tolerates various functionalities and is applicable to the derivatization of pharmaceuticals and natural products. The synthetic utility of the method was demonstrated by the short synthesis of multi-substituted triphenylenes and three bioactive natural products, honokiol, moracin M, and stemofuran A. Mechanistic studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the reaction involves attack of the boronic ester by a singlet quinone carbene followed by a 1,2-rearrangement through a stepwise mechanism.

15.
Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol ; 76(Pt 6): 565-580, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496218

RESUMO

The lysosomal glycoside hydrolase ß-glucocerebrosidase (GBA; sometimes called GBA1 or GCase) catalyses the hydrolysis of glycosphingolipids. Inherited deficiencies in GBA cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher disease (GD). Consequently, GBA is of considerable medical interest, with continuous advances in the development of inhibitors, chaperones and activity-based probes. The development of new GBA inhibitors requires a source of active protein; however, the majority of structural and mechanistic studies of GBA today rely on clinical enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) formulations, which are incredibly costly and are often difficult to obtain in adequate supply. Here, the production of active crystallizable GBA in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system is reported, providing a nonclinical source of recombinant GBA with comparable activity and biophysical properties to ERT preparations. Furthermore, a novel crystal form of GBA is described which diffracts to give a 0.98 Šresolution unliganded structure. A structure in complex with the inactivator 2,4-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-ß-D-glucopyranoside was also obtained, demonstrating the ability of this GBA formulation to be used in ligand-binding studies. In light of its purity, stability and activity, the GBA production protocol described here should circumvent the need for ERT formulations for structural and biochemical studies and serve to support GD research.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. We aimed to describe the characteristics of liver function in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection. METHODS: We enrolled all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV co-infection admitted to Tongji Hospital from February 1 to February 29, 2020. Data of demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The characteristics of liver function and its relation with the severity and prognosis of disease were described. RESULTS: Of 105 SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV co-infected patients, elevated levels of liver test were seen in several patients at admission, including elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (22,20.95%), aspartate aminotransferase (29, 27.62%), total bilirubin (7, 6.67%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (7, 6.67%) and alkaline phosphatase (1, 0.95%). The values of the indices mentioned above increased substantially during hospitalization (all P<0.05). 14 (13.33%) patients developed liver injury. Most of them (10, 71.43%) recovered after 8 (range 6-21) days. Notably, 4 (28.57%) patients rapidly progressed to acute-on-chronic liver failure. The proportion of severe COVID-19 was higher in patients with liver injury (P= 0.042). Complications including ACLF, acute cardiac injury and shock happened more frequently in patients with liver injury (all P<0.05). The mortality was higher in individuals with liver injury (28.57% vs 3.30%, P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Liver injury in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and chronic HBV co-infection was associated with severity and poor prognosis of disease. During the treatment of COVID-19 in chronic HBV-infected patients, liver function should be taken seriously and evaluated frequently.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(10): 9633-9657, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413870

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the progression of CRC. Previous studies have indicated that miR-214-3p is abnormally expressed in various malignant tumors. However, the biological function it plays in CRC and the potential mechanism are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that miR-214-3p was obviously downregulated in CRC. Moreover, we found a strong correlation between the miR-214-3p level and tumor size and lymphatic metastasis. Furthermore, when miR-214-3p was decreased by an Lv-miR-214-3p inhibitor, the proliferation and migration of SW480 and HCT116 cells were significantly increased. As expected, the ability of proliferation and migration was significantly suppressed when miR-214-3p was overexpressed in DLD1 cells. According to the dual-luciferase reporter results, PLAGL2 was found to be a direct downstream molecule of miR-214-3p. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) confirmed that MYH9, a well-known cytoskeleton molecule in CRC, was a direct targeting gene of PLAGL2. Silencing PLAGL2 or MYH9 could reverse the effect of a miR-214-3p inhibitor on CRC cells. In summary, our studies proved that low expression of miR-214-3p and overexpression of downstream PLAGL2 in CRC indicated a poor prognosis. MiR-214-3p suppressed the malignant behaviors of colorectal cancer by regulating the PLAGL2/MYH9 axis. MiR-214-3p might be a novel therapeutic target or prognostic marker for CRC.

19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(15)2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471916

RESUMO

The thermotolerant yeast Ogataea parapolymorpha (formerly Hansenula polymorpha) is an industrially relevant production host that exhibits a fully respiratory sugar metabolism in aerobic batch cultures. NADH-derived electrons can enter its mitochondrial respiratory chain either via a proton-translocating complex I NADH-dehydrogenase or via three putative alternative NADH dehydrogenases. This respiratory entry point affects the amount of ATP produced per NADH/O2 consumed and therefore impacts the maximum yield of biomass and/or cellular products from a given amount of substrate. To investigate the physiological importance of complex I, a wild-type O. parapolymorpha strain and a congenic complex I-deficient mutant were grown on glucose in aerobic batch, chemostat, and retentostat cultures in bioreactors. In batch cultures, the two strains exhibited a fully respiratory metabolism and showed the same growth rates and biomass yields, indicating that, under these conditions, the contribution of NADH oxidation via complex I was negligible. Both strains also exhibited a respiratory metabolism in glucose-limited chemostat cultures, but the complex I-deficient mutant showed considerably reduced biomass yields on substrate and oxygen, consistent with a lower efficiency of respiratory energy coupling. In glucose-limited retentostat cultures at specific growth rates down to ∼0.001 h-1, both O. parapolymorpha strains showed high viability. Maintenance energy requirements at these extremely low growth rates were approximately 3-fold lower than estimated from faster-growing chemostat cultures, indicating a stringent-response-like behavior. Quantitative transcriptome and proteome analyses indicated condition-dependent expression patterns of complex I subunits and of alternative NADH dehydrogenases that were consistent with physiological observations.IMPORTANCE Since popular microbial cell factories have typically not been selected for efficient respiratory energy coupling, their ATP yields from sugar catabolism are often suboptimal. In aerobic industrial processes, suboptimal energy coupling results in reduced product yields on sugar, increased process costs for oxygen transfer, and volumetric productivity limitations due to limitations in gas transfer and cooling. This study provides insights into the contribution of mechanisms of respiratory energy coupling in the yeast cell factory Ogataea parapolymorpha under different growth conditions and provides a basis for rational improvement of energy coupling in yeast cell factories. Analysis of energy metabolism of O. parapolymorpha at extremely low specific growth rates indicated that this yeast reduces its energy requirements for cellular maintenance under extreme energy limitation. Exploration of the mechanisms for this increased energetic efficiency may contribute to an optimization of the performance of industrial processes with slow-growing eukaryotic cell factories.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(11): e015226, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431189

RESUMO

Background FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21), a novel hepatokine regulating lipid metabolism, has been linked to atherosclerotic disease. However, whether this relationship exists in patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unclear. We assessed the association between serum FGF21 levels and atherosclerosis in patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and investigated whether baseline FGF21 could predict incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in a 7-year prospective cohort. Methods and Results Baseline serum FGF21 was measured in a cross-sectional cohort of 371 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (determined by hepatic magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and in a population-based prospective cohort of 705 patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Study. In the cross-sectional study, FGF21 was significantly higher in patients with than in those without subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (P<0.01). The association remained significant after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In the prospective cohort, 80 patients developed atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease during follow-up. Baseline FGF21 was significantly higher in those who developed ischemic heart disease or cerebral infarction than in those who did not. Using a cutoff serum concentration of 232.0 pg/mL, elevated baseline FGF21 independently predicted incident total atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events, ischemic heart disease, and cerebral infarction in a nondiabetic population (all P<0.05), and significantly improved the discriminatory and reclassifying abilities of our prediction model after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that FGF21 levels are elevated in patients without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with subclinical atherosclerosis. Baseline FGF21 is an independent predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and represents a novel biomarker for primary prevention in the general population.

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