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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 632-642, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380904

RESUMO

Icariin (ICA) has a significant capacity to protect against depression and hippocampal injury, but it cannot effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain. Therefore, the mechanism by which ICA protects against hippocampal injury in depression remains unclear. In this study, we performed proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid to investigate the mechanism by which ICA prevents dysfunctional hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. A rat model of depression was established through exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 6 weeks, after which 120 mg/kg ICA was administered subcutaneously every day. The results showed that ICA alleviated depressive symptoms, learning and memory dysfunction, dysfunctional neurogenesis, and neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus of rats with depression. Neural stem cells from rat embryonic hippocampi were cultured in media containing 20% cerebrospinal fluid from each group of rats and then treated with 100 µM corticosterone. The addition of cerebrospinal fluid from rats treated with ICA largely prevented the corticosterone-mediated inhibition of neuronal proliferation and differentiation. Fifty-two differentially expressed proteins regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and ICA were identified through proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. These proteins were mainly involved in the ribosome, PI3K-Akt signaling, and interleukin-17 signaling pathways. Parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry showed that Rps4x, Rps12, Rps14, Rps19, Hsp90b1, and Hsp90aa1 were up-regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and down-regulated by ICA. In contrast, HtrA1 was down-regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and up-regulated by ICA. These findings suggest that ICA can prevent depression and dysfunctional hippocampal neurogenesis through regulating the expression of certain proteins found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The study was approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine of China in March 2017.

3.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1519-1531, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548832

RESUMO

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 has developed into a pandemic. Data are required that specifically address the psychological consequences in COVID-19 confirmed patients. This study mainly aimed to examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and sleep quality among COVID-19 confirmed patients during hospitalization. Methods: An observational study was conducted in two designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. Data were collected from 190 patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection between February 10, 2020 and March 13, 2020. Results: The mean age of the 190 confirmed patients was 55.7 years (SD = 13.7), of which 96 (50.5%) were female and 88 (46.3%) had family members or acquaintances infected with COVID-19. Lymphocytopenia was presented in 62 (32.6%) patients and 25 (13.2%) patients showed oxygen desaturation. The prevalence of high PTSD symptoms was 22.6% among the 190 patients. The median time from symptom onset to first medical visit and hospitalization was 2 days (IQR, 1-5) and 16 days (IQR, 10-27), respectively. Patients' PTSD symptoms were positively related to the time from symptom onset to first medical visit (r = 0.156, p < 0.05) and hospitalization (r = 0.181, p < 0.01). There were significant correlations between sleep quality and PTSD symptoms (r = 0.312-0.547, p < 0.01). Conclusion: The prevalence of high PTSD symptoms was 22.6% among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 symptoms are beneficial to infected patients both physically and psychologically. With the recovery of physical symptoms, psychological intervention is desired to promote the trauma recovery in COVID-19 patients.

4.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 272, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether the addition of taxanes to platinum and fluoropyrimidines in adjuvant chemotherapy would result in longer survival than platinum plus fluoropyrimidines in gastric cancer patients who received D2 gastrectomy. METHODS: Data of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who received D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with platinum plus fluoropyrimidines or taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines was retrospectively collected and analyzed. 1:1 Propensity score matching analysis was used to balance baseline characteristics between two groups. Survival curves were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-five patients in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group and 177 patients in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group were included into analysis. No statistical differences in disease-free survival and overall survival were observed between two groups. After propensity score matching, 172 couples of patients were matched, the baseline characteristics were balanced. The median disease-free survival were 15.8 months (95% CI, 9.3~22.4) in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group and 22.6 months (95% CI, 15.9~29.4) in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (HR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.48~0.85; P = 0.002). The median overall survival was 25.4 months for patients in the platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (95% CI, 19.4~31.3) and 33.8 months (95% CI, 23.5~44.2) for those in the taxanes, platinum plus fluoropyrimidines group (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.87; log-rank test, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: For gastric adenocarcinoma patients, the adjuvant triplet combination of taxanes, platinum, and fluoropyrimidines regimen after D2 gastrectomy was superior to platinum plus fluoropyrimidines regimen in disease-free survival as well as overall survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This project has been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( ChiCTR1800019978 ).


Assuntos
Platina , Neoplasias Gástricas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico
5.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5038130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567111

RESUMO

The protein-kinase-R- (PKR-) like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway is a well-known promoter of cell apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether salubrinal (Sal), a selective activator of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), can induce apoptosis of human adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell via activating the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling pathway, and the potential mechanisms of this action were explored. The ACC cell lines, including SW-13 and NCI-H295 R, were used. 3-(4,5)-Dimethylthiazol(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay, cell scratch experiments, flow cytometry, and JC-1 staining assays were performed to detect the cell viability, cell migration, and cell apoptosis. The expression of PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling-pathway-related proteins and apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blot (WB). Intracellular Ca2+ ion concentration was determined by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The results showed that Sal inhibited the migration and proliferation of ACC cells. Sal remarkably increased the influx of Ca2+ ion and the apoptosis rate of ACC cells in vitro. Furthermore, the expression levels of PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling-related proteins and apoptosis-related proteins were upregulated in the treatment of Sal. The research demonstrated that Sal reduces the cell viability, increases the intracellular calcium concentration, and promotes the apoptosis of ACC cells in vitro through increasing the phosphorylation level of eIF2α and activating the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 signaling. PERK/eIF2α/ATF4 is expected to act as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512784

RESUMO

Background: Cinnamic acid (CA) has been shown to have many beneficial effects including regulating lipid metabolism and reducing obesity. However, its effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFDL) has not been investigated in detail. Thus, we performed this study in order to explore CA's effect on hepatic lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. Method: Oleic acid (OA) was used to induce lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. After coincubation with CA, the cells were stained with oil red O and the triglyceride (TG) content was assessed. Key genes in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathways were tested. Additionally, db/db and wt/wt mice were divided into three groups, with the wt/wt mice representing the normal group and the db/db mice being divided into the NAFLD and CA groups. After 4 weeks of oral treatment, all mice were sacrificed and the blood lipid profile and liver tissues were assessed. Results: CA treatment reduced the lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and in db/db mouse livers. ACLY, ACC, FAS, SCD1, PPARγ, and CD36 were significantly downregulated, while CPT1A, PGC1α, and PPARα were significantly upregulated. Conclusion: CA's therapeutic effect on NAFLD may be attributed to its ability to lower hepatic lipid accumulation, which is mediated by suppression of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid intake, as well as increased fatty acid oxidation.

7.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(4): 546-555, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effect of Shouzhangshen (Rhizoma Gymnadeniae Crassinervidis) extract against acute high altitude hypoxia-induced brain injury in mice. METHODS: Sixty C57BL/6J mice were selected and assigned to six groups (n = 10): normal control group, low-pressure hypoxia group, positive control group (dexamethasone 500 mg/kg), and three groups treated with Shouzhangshen extract (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, respectively). The Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate alterations in spatial learning and memory deficits. Nissl staining was performed to detect Nissl bodies and neuron damage. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expression in brain tissue and serum, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activity in brain tissues were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blots. RESULTS: The Morris water maze test results showed that Shouzhangshen extract can significantly reduce the latency and swimming distance to escape onto a visible platform, increase neuron density and hierarchy and the number of pyramidal neurons, and decrease the expression of HIF-1α, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and VEGF mRNAs and proteins in both brain tissue and serum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, significantly lower MDA expression and higher GSH activity were detected in the three groups treated with Shouzhangshen compared with the low-pressure hypoxia group (P < 0.05). However, no significant alteration was observed for SOD activity (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Shouzhangshen extract may have a significant effect on acute high altitude hypoxia-induced brain injury in mice.

8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7960-7969, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic joint disease. The study aimed to explore the effects of microRNA (miR)-449 and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Synovial tissue was collected from 20 patients with RA and 20 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent joint replacement surgery. RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) and OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) were isolated and cultured. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of miR-449 and HDAC1 in synovial tissues and cells. Western blot was performed to detect the cellular expression levels of HDAC1 protein, and apoptosis and invasion-related proteins. The proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of RASFs were detected by MTT assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometry. The dual-luciferase reporter gene was used to test the targeting relationship between inflammatory miR-449 and HDAC1. RESULTS: Compared with normal synovial tissue and OASFs, the levels of HDAC1 messenger RNA in RA synovial tissue and RASF cells were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the expression levels of miR-449 were significantly decreased (P<0.01). The dual-luciferase reporter gene experiment confirmed that miR-449 could specifically bind to the 3' untranslated region of HDAC1 to inhibit its luciferase activity (P<0.05). HDAC1 inhibition or miR-449 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of RASFs (P<0.001), while inducing their apoptosis (P<0.001). HDAC1 overexpression reversed the biological effects of miR-449 on RASFs (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: miR-449 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of RASFs and induces their apoptosis by targeting HDAC1, thereby exerting a protective effect against RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , MicroRNAs , Apoptose/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Fibroblastos , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética
9.
Pharm Biol ; 59(1): 1065-1076, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383630

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Chinese herbal formula JiaWeiSiNiSan (JWSNS) has been widely used to prevent stress-induced neuropsychiatric ailments in clinics and proven to have therapeutic anti-stress effects on rats. However, the mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Based on the proteomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), this study explores the possible mechanism and target proteins of JiaWeiSiNiSan raising stress resilience and preventing stress damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 6-week Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (CUMS) model was applied on adult Wistar male rats to observe the effects of JWSNS on improving mental stress resilience. Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) proteomics and bioinformatics analysis were used to screen and analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in CSF. Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM) was used to validate target DEPs. RESULTS: Significantly decreased sucrose preference, locomotion activity level and accuracy of T-maze, as well as increased immobility time, were observed in CUMS rats compared to CON rats while JWSNS improved above depression-like behaviours. The quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analysis showed that JWSNS decreased the expression of Rps4x, HSP90AA1, Rps12, Uba1, Rsp14, Tuba1b in CUMS rats CSF (p < 0.05, FDR < 0.5). Immunofluorescence results showed that the number of BrdU/DCX positive cells (p < 0.01) and the relative number of neurons (p < 0.01) in the hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG) of the JSWNS group significantly increased, compared with the CUMS group. CONCLUSIONS: JWSNS could increase mental stress resilience and prevent stress damage by regulating proteins in CSF. This study provides a scientific basis for further study on Chinese formulas preventing mental illness.

10.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 649874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335224

RESUMO

Presbycusis (PC) is characterized by preferential hearing loss at high frequencies and difficulty in speech recognition in noisy environments. Previous studies have linked PC to cognitive impairment, accelerated cognitive decline and incident Alzheimer's disease. However, the neural mechanisms of cognitive impairment in patients with PC remain unclear. Although resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have explored low-frequency oscillation (LFO) connectivity or amplitude of PC-related neural activity, it remains unclear whether the abnormalities occur within all frequency bands or within specific frequency bands. Fifty-one PC patients and fifty-one well-matched normal hearing controls participated in this study. The LFO amplitudes were investigated using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) at different frequency bands (slow-4 and slow-5). PC patients showed abnormal LFO amplitudes in the Heschl's gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), frontal eye field and key nodes of the speech network exclusively in slow-4, which suggested that abnormal spontaneous neural activity in PC was frequency dependent. Our findings also revealed that stronger functional connectivity between the dlPFC and the posterodorsal stream of auditory processing, as well as lower functional coupling between the PCC and key nodes of the DMN, which were associated with cognitive impairments in PC patients. Our study might underlie the cross-modal plasticity and higher-order cognitive participation of the auditory cortex after partial hearing deprivation. Our findings indicate that frequency-specific analysis of ALFF could provide valuable insights into functional alterations in the auditory cortex and non-auditory regions involved in cognitive impairment associated with PC.

11.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 3252-3262, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238128

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male reproductive tract malignant tumor, accurate evaluation of PCa characterization and prognostic prediction at diagnosis are vital for the effective administration of the disease, especially at the molecular level. In this study, 48 CpG sites with differential methylation associated with overall survival (OS) were screened out between PCa and normal adjacent tissues. 16 CpG sites were selected by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and the risk score formula for methylated-based classifier was established. For 16-lncRNAs-CpG-classifier, the area under the curve (AUC) were 0.890, 0.917, and 0.932 at 3 years, 5 years and 7 years, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that patients with high-risk scores had worse OS than those with low-risk scores. Prognostic methylation model of lncRNAs was identified from the whole genome in patients with PCa. This novel finding provides a novel insight for screening biomarkers of a prognosis for PCa.

12.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(4): 317-325, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori may have a protective effect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We integrated epidemiological data to identify the correlation between IBD and H. pylori. Moreover, we analyzed whether IBD medication and classification affect H. pylori, and whether eradication of H. pylori leads to recurrence of IBD. METHODS: Articles published up to May 1, 2019, in three main databases including PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched. Study types included cross-sectional studies, retrospective studies and perspective studies, and data were combined and analyzed. Spearman correlation analysis and meta-analysis were performed after collecting and collating the relevant data. Sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were used to evaluate reliability and heterogeneity. RESULTS: Fifty-nine studies on IBD prevalence, 127 studies on H. pylori prevalence, and 23 studies for meta-analysis were included. IBD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) were negatively correlated to H. pylori prevalence (all P<0.001). The meta-analysis results showed that compared to controls, the odds of having H. pylori infection were 0.44, 0.36, 0.54 for IBD, CD and UC, respectively (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.34-0.59; OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.26-0.49; OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.4-0.72). Moreover, IBD patients were 1.41 times (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.25-1.58) more likely to relapse after eradication of H. pylori. Finally, H. pylori infection was not related to IBD medication and classification. CONCLUSION: H. pylori prevalence was negatively correlated to IBD and H. pylori had a protective effect against IBD. Furthermore, eradication of H. pylori can lead to recurrence of IBD.

13.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 180, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282126

RESUMO

Disturbed blood flow (d-flow) has been known to induce changes of the cells in the arterial wall, increasing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, the heterogeneity of the vascular cell populations under d-flow remains less understood. To generate d-flow in vivo, partial carotid artery ligation (PCL) was performed. Seven days after ligation, single-cell RNA sequencing of nine left carotid arteries (LCA) from the PCL group (10,262 cells) or control group (14,580 cells) was applied and a single-cell atlas of gene expression was constructed. The integrated analysis identified 15 distinct carotid cell clusters, including 10 d-flow-relevant subpopulations. Among endothelial cells, at least four subpopulations were identified, including Klk8hi ECs, Lrp1hi ECs, Dkk2hi ECs, and Cd36hi ECs. Analysis of GSVA and single-cell trajectories indicated that the previously undescribed Dkk2hi ECs subpopulation was mechanosensitive and potentially transformed from Klk8hi ECs under d-flow. D-flow-induced Spp1hi VSMCs subpopulation that appeared to be endowed with osteoblast differentiation, suggesting a role in arterial stiffness. Among the infiltrating cell subpopulations, Trem2hi Mφ, Birc5hi Mφ, DCs, CD4+ T cells, CXCR6+ T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes were identified under d-flow. Of note, the novel Birc5hi Mφ was identified as a potential contributor to the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerosis. Finally, Dkk2hi ECs, and Cd36hi ECs were also found in the proatherosclerotic area of the aorta where the d-flow occurs. In conclusion, we presented a comprehensive single-cell atlas of all cells in the carotid artery under d-flow, identified previously unrecognized cell subpopulations and their gene expression signatures, and suggested their specialized functions.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148348, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174615

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source profiles can be used for a number of purposes, such as creating speciated air pollutant emission inventories and providing inputs to receptor and air quality models. In this study, we first collected and schematically evaluated more than 500 Chinese domestic source profiles from literature and field measurements, and then established a most up-to-date dataset of VOCs source profiles in China by integrating 363 selective VOCs profiles into 101 sector-based source profiles. The profile dataset covers eight major source categories and contains 447 VOCs species including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) species and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) species. The results shown that (1) VOCs composition characteristics exhibit variations for most Level-II source sectors and Level-III sub-sectors even under the same Level-I source category; (2) OVOCs, which were significantly missing in previous profiles, account for more than 95% in cooking and 20- 40% in non-road mobile, biomass burning and solvent use sources; (3) aromatics account for 20%-40% in most emission sources except cooking source, alkenes and alkynes account for ~20% in combustion sources (stationary combustion, mobile source and biomass burning), alkanes are abundant in gasoline-related emission sources(on-road mobile source and fuel oil storage and transportation); (4) missing OVOCs species could bring 30%-50% to ozone formation potentials in most emission sources; and (5) there are considerable differences in VOCs chemical groups and individual species for most emission sources between this dataset and the widely used U.S. SPECIATE database, indicating the importance of developing domestic VOCs source profiles. The dataset developed in this study can help support reactive VOCs species-based ozone control strategy and provide domestic profile data for source apportionment and air quality modeling in China and other countries or regions with similar emission source characteristics.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2499-2506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163269

RESUMO

Purpose: Current data on the occurrence of EFBs in relation to different time periods are scant. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence, type and location of EFBs in people who presented at our center on weekdays, weekends and holidays. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients (n=1353) received rigid esophagoscopy for foreign body extraction under general anesthesia from January 2018 to 2020 December. Results: The occurrence of EFB ingestion was significantly higher (p<0.05) on holidays (2.75/day) than on weekdays (0.91/day) and weekends (1.46/day). Patients were much older on holidays, with a mean age of 58.18 ± 17.34 years, than patients on weekdays (54.71 ± 16.71 years) and weekends (55.05 ± 17.36 years). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that EFB ingestion is most likely to occur on weekends and holidays, and elderly patients should be advised to chewing slowly and eating non-nuclear jujube, especially during holidays, to minimize their risk.

16.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(4): 231-236, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As COVID-19 spreads globally and affects people's health, there are concerns that the pandemic and control policies may have psychological effects on young people (age from 17 to 35 years). This psychological impact might vary in different countries, and thus we compared the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress, loneliness and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among young people in the United Kingdom (UK) and China at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data of this study came from two sources. One source was the first wave of COVID-19 study in Understanding Society, a special wave of the UK household longitudinal study, which provided the high-quality, national-wide representative panel data. The sample comprised 1054 young people. The other source was an online survey on the mental health of 1003 young people from Shanghai, a highly developed area in China. The questionnaire included questions on the prevalence of common mental disorders (cut-off score ≥ 4), loneliness and potential PTSS (cut-off ≥ 33). Univariable analyses were conducted to test the differences in the self-reported prevalence of psychological distress and loneliness between the two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were run to explore the predictors of psychological distress and loneliness among all the young people from England and Shanghai. RESULTS: Among the samples with self-reported psychological distress, the UK sample accounted for 34.4% (n=1054) and the Chinese sample accounted for 14.1% (n=1003). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Additionally, 57.1% of people in the UK and 46.7% in China reported that they sometimes or often felt lonely, of which the difference is statistically significant (p < 0.001). Regression analysis of the entire samples showed that nationality, gender, psychotherapy and loneliness were significant predictors of 12-item General Health Questionnaire scores, while the variables of age and living alone were not. Significant predictors of self-reported loneliness were the nationality, gender, age, living alone and psychotherapy. In China, 123 (12.3%) young people, 49 men (11.3%) and 74 women (13.0%), met the criteria of PTSS symptoms (cut-off scores ≥ 33). These scores were only collected in China. CONCLUSION: This evidence suggests that mental health and loneliness reported by young people were lower in China than that in the UK during the studied period. More research is needed to understand these differences. If the differential negative psychological impacts are confirmed, country-specific measures of prevention and intervention should be adopted to improve the mental health of young people under the ongoing impact of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Solidão , Saúde Mental , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chin J Traumatol ; 24(4): 221-230, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant global mental health concern, especially in the military. This study aims to estimate the efficacy of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of military-related PTSD, by synthesizing evidences from randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Five electronic databases (Pubmed, EBSCO Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomized controlled trials focusing on the treatment effect of mindfulness meditation on military-related PTSD. The selection of eligible studies was based on identical inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information about study characteristics, participant characteristics, intervention details, PTSD outcomes, as well as potential adverse effects was extracted from the included studies. Risk of bias of all the included studies was critically assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. R Statistical software was performed for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1902 records were initially identified and screened. After duplicates removal and title & abstract review, finally, 19 articles in English language with 1326 participants were included through strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The results revealed that mindfulness meditation had a significantly larger effect on alleviating military-related PTSD symptoms compared with control conditions, such as treatment as usual, present-centered group therapy and PTSD health education (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.33; 95% CI [-0.45, -0.21]; p < 0.0001). Mindfulness interventions with different control conditions (active or non-active control, SMD = -0.33, 95% CI [-0.46, -0.19]; SMD = -0.49, 95% CI [-0.88, -0.10], respectively), formats of delivery (group-based or individual-based, SMD = -0.30, 95% CI [-0.42, -0.17], SMD = -0.49, 95% CI [-0.90, -0.08], respectively) and intervention durations (short-term or standard duration, SMD = -0.27, 95% CI [-0.46, -0.08], SMD = -0.40, 95% CI [-0.58, -0.21], respectively) were equally effective in improving military-related PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Findings from this meta-analysis consolidate the efficacy and feasibility of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of military-related PTSD. Further evidence with higher quality and more rigorous design is needed in the future.

18.
Cell ; 184(13): 3438-3451.e10, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139177

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, causing a global pandemic. Bat-origin RaTG13 is currently the most phylogenetically related virus. Here we obtained the complex structure of the RaTG13 receptor binding domain (RBD) with human ACE2 (hACE2) and evaluated binding of RaTG13 RBD to 24 additional ACE2 orthologs. By substituting residues in the RaTG13 RBD with their counterparts in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, we found that residue 501, the major position found in variants of concern (VOCs) 501Y.V1/V2/V3, plays a key role in determining the potential host range of RaTG13. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 could induce strong cross-reactive antibodies to RaTG13 and identified a SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), CB6, that could cross-neutralize RaTG13 pseudovirus. These results elucidate the receptor binding and host adaption mechanisms of RaTG13 and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance of coronaviruses (CoVs) carried by animal reservoirs to prevent another spillover of CoVs.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/fisiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Quirópteros/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Quirópteros/imunologia , Quirópteros/metabolismo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/imunologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 560602, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093250

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 has taken a huge toll on medical resources and the economy and will inevitably have an impact on public mental health. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as the most common mental illness after an epidemic, must be seriously addressed. This study aimed to investigate the subjective fear of the Chinese general public during COVID-19 and to explore how it affected the development of PTSD. Methods: An online questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,009 people from January 30 to February 14, 2020 (about 1 month after the COVID-19 outbreak). The subjective fear was measured by a self-reported single-choice question. Four items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were selected to measure the subjects' sleep quality. Their post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Pearson correlation, hierarchical multivariate regression analysis, multiple mediator model, and bootstrapping were used in statistical analyses. Results: Different people showed different levels of subjective fear in response to the outbreak. There was a significant positive correlation between subjective fear and the total score of PCL-5 (R = 0.513, P < 0.01), meaning that the higher the degree of subjective fear, the more severe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress are. Subjective fear was an important predictor of PTSS, accounting for 24.3% of the variance. The total effect of subjective fear on PCL-5 scores was significant (total effect = 7.426, SE = 0.405, 95% CI = 6.631-8.221). The total indirect effect of subjective fear on PCL-5 scores through sleep quality was also significant (total indirect effect = 1.945, SE = 0.258, 95% CI = 1.436-2.470). Conclusions: Subjective fear has an important predictive effect on PTSS. In addition to the direct effect, our findings firstly demonstrate the mediating role of sleep quality in the relationship between subjective fear and PTSS.

20.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 75, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138308

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: Non-magnetic bimetallic MOF-derived porous carbon-wrapped TiO2/ZrTiO4 composites are firstly used for efficient electromagnetic wave absorption. The electromagnetic wave absorption mechanisms including enhanced interfacial polarization and essential conductivity are intensively discussed. Modern communication technologies put forward higher requirements for electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorption materials. Metal-organic framework (MOF) derivatives have been widely concerned with its diverse advantages. To break the mindset of magnetic-derivative design, and make up the shortage of monometallic non-magnetic derivatives, we first try non-magnetic bimetallic MOFs derivatives to achieve efficient EMW absorption. The porous carbon-wrapped TiO2/ZrTiO4 composites derived from PCN-415 (TiZr-MOFs) are qualified with a minimum reflection loss of - 67.8 dB (2.16 mm, 13.0 GHz), and a maximum effective absorption bandwidth of 5.9 GHz (2.70 mm). Through in-depth discussions, the synergy of enhanced interfacial polarization and other attenuation mechanisms in the composites is revealed. Therefore, this work confirms the huge potentials of non-magnetic bimetallic MOFs derivatives in EMW absorption applications.

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