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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 6, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germacrone (GM) is a terpenoid compound which is reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. However, its role in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains largely unknown. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: control group, TBI group [controlled cortical impact (CCI) model], CCI + 5 mg/kg GM group, CCI + 10 mg/kg GM group and CCI + 20 mg/kg GM group. GM was administered via intraperitoneal injection. The neurological functions (including motor coordination, spatial learning and memory abilities) and brain edema were measured. Nissl staining was used to detect the neuronal apoptosis. Colorimetric assays and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to determine the expression levels of oxidative stress markers including myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the expressions of inflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, protein levels of Nrf2 and p-p65 were detected by Western blot assay. RESULTS: GM significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction, spatial learning and memory deficits of the mice induced by TBI and it also reduced neuronal apoptosis and microglial activation in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, GM treatment reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress compared to those in the CCI group in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GM up-regulated the expression of antioxidant protein Nrf2 and inhibited the expression of inflammatory response protein p-p65. CONCLUSIONS: GM is a promising drug to improve the functional recovery after TBI via repressing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

2.
Syst Biol Reprod Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406916

RESUMO

Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by the granulosa cells of the pre-antral and small antral follicles in the ovary. AMH serum levels are significantly higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) due to an increased antral follicle counts (AFC) and a higher production of AMH per antral follicle. This research is a cohort study design with a sample size of 60 female patients with (n = 30) and without PCOS (n = 30) in which the relationship between AMH serum level and other hormonal markers was explored. The following measurements were taken from the patients on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle: AMH, glucose, index of insulin resistance (HOMA/IR), body mass index (BMI), testosterone and cholesterol, lipoproteins, and triglycerides. The study proposes diagnostic criteria for PCOS. A twofold increase in the AMH serum levels was observed in the PCOS group when compared to the control group. The following incremental increases were seen in AMH serum levels: testosterone (18.4%); fasting blood glucose (18%); fasting insulin (83.86%); HOMA/IR (64.23%); mean cholesterol (30%); mean triglycerides (17%); and BMI (26.75%). All differences were considered significant at p ˂ 0.005. The results from the study concluded that monitoring the level of AMH allows for the prediction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technology cycles. Monitoring of anti-Mullerian hormone levels may provide an additional marker for determining treatment strategies when presented with additional risks associated with overweight, hirsutism, type II diabetes, infertility, and cardiovascular disease.

3.
Org Lett ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404250

RESUMO

An unprecedented iridium-catalyzed asymmetric [4 + 3] cycloaddition of racemic 4-indolyl allylic alcohols with azomethine ylides is reported. The ability of acid promoter zinc triflate to perform multiple roles is the key factor for the success of this strategy. This method provides scalable and efficient access to biologically important azepino[3,4,5-cd] indoles in good yields with generally excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to >20:1 dr and >99% ee). Mild reaction conditions, easily accessible substrates and chiral catalyst, and broad substrate scope highlight the practicality of this methodology.

4.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 37(1): 2-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412963

RESUMO

Estrogens exert rapid, extranuclear effects by their action on the plasma membrane estrogen receptors (mERs). Gα protein associated with the cell membrane is involved in many important processes regulated by estrogens. However, the Gα's role in the mER-mediated signaling and the signaling pathways involved are poorly understood. This review aims to outline the Gα's role in the mER-mediated signaling. Immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, and RNA interference were carried out using vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and human breast carcinoma cell lines as experimental models. Electrophysiology and immunocytochemistry were carried out using guinea pigs as animal models. Recent advances suggest that the signaling of mERα through Gα is required for vascular EC migration or endothelial H2S release, while Gα13 is involved in estrogen-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Besides, the Gαq-coupled PLC-PKC-PKA pathway is critical for the neural regulation of energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the contributions of Gα to mER-mediated signaling, including cardiovascular protection, breast cancer metastasis, neural regulation of homeostatic functions, and osteogenesis.

6.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) can protect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against high glucose-induced apoptosis and examine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into 5 groups: control group (5.5 mmol/L glucose), high glucose (HG, 40 mmol/L) treatment group, Rb1 (50 µ mol/L) treatment group, Rb1 plus HG treatment group, and Rb1 and 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine (3-TYP, 16 µ mol/L) plus HG treatment group. Cell viability was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assay. Mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected by MitoSox Red mitochondrial superoxide indicator and dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay, respectively. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and fluorescent dye staining were used to measure the apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential of HUVECs, respectively. The protein expressions of apoptosis-related proteins [Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c (Cyt-c)], mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins [proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A)], acetylation levels of forkhead box O3a and SOD2, and sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) signalling pathway were measured by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Rb1 ameliorated survival in cells in which apoptosis was induced by high glucose (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Upon the addition of Rb1, mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde levels were decreased (P<0.01), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Rb1 preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced the release of Cyt-c from the mitochondria into the cytosol (P<0.01). In addition, Rb1 upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis-associated proteins (P<0.01). Notably, the cytoprotective effects of Rb1 were correlated with SIRT3 signalling pathway activation (P<0.01). The effect of Rb1 against high glucose-induced mitochondria-related apoptosis was restrained by 3-TYP (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Rb1 could protect HUVECs from high glucose-induced apoptosis by promoting mitochondrial function and suppressing oxidative stress through the SIRT3 signalling pathway.

7.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(1): 46-60, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127524

RESUMO

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 (Cas9) has high specificity to its target DNA as a gene editing tool. This characteristic makes it useful for DNA detection. Combining the advantages of CRISPR/Cas9 and PCR, this study establishes a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based DNA detection method, named CRISPR/Cas9-typing PCR version 4.0 (ctPCR4.0). This method can detect target DNA in one pot with high specificity and sensitivity. In a homogenous reaction, the target DNA is first cleaved by a pair of Cas9- single-guide RNA complexes and thus releases two single strands with free 3' ends, allowing a pair of oligonucleotides to anneal with the strands. The annealed oligonucleotides provide templates for DNA polymerization from the free 3' ends. A universal primer annealing site is thus produced at the end of two single strands. The target DNA is then amplified by PCR using a universal primer. This method was first verified by accurately detecting the cloned L1 fragments of 10 genotypes of high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs). This method was then validated by detecting the L1 fragments of two highest-risk HPVs, HPV 16 and HPV 18, in the genomic DNA of two HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells, HeLa and SiHa. Finally, this method was further validated by accurately detecting 10 high-risk HPVs in 30 clinical samples.

8.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 7-14, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 CheckMate 078 study, nivolumab showed significant overall survival (OS) benefit and superior tolerability versus docetaxel in a predominantly Chinese patient population with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, data on long-term outcomes with immunotherapy in Asian patients are limited. We report 2-year efficacy and safety data. METHODS: Patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC and disease progression after platinum-doublet chemotherapy were randomized 2:1 to nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks; n = 338) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks; n = 166) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other protocol-defined reasons. The primary endpoint was OS; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, objective response rate, and safety. RESULTS: After 25.9 months minimum follow-up, 21 patients (6 %) remained on nivolumab versus 0 on docetaxel. Median OS was 11.9 months with nivolumab versus 9.5 months with docetaxel (HR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.61-0.93); 2-year OS rates were 28 % versus 18 %, respectively. Survival benefits were observed across a variety of predefined subgroups. At 2 years, 39 % and 0 % of responders had ongoing responses with nivolumab and docetaxel, respectively. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 12 % of patients with nivolumab versus 47 % with docetaxel, leading to discontinuation in 4 % and 5 % of patients, respectively. No new treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSION: At 2 years, nivolumab maintained a favorable safety profile and continued to demonstrate superior OS versus docetaxel in this predominantly Chinese patient population with previously treated NSCLC. These data are consistent with long-term outcomes from the global CheckMate 017/057 studies.

9.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 66-70, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dacomitinib is a potent, irreversible and pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, evidence of its activity on brain metastasis is lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NSCLC patients diagnosed at Hunan Cancer Hospital between July, 2019 and July, 2020 with enhanced MRI-detected brain metastasis prior to treatment and laboratory-confirmed EGFR mutations were reviewed. In total, 14 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with brain metastasis were treated with first-line dacomitinib. The first radiographic review of chest CT and brain MRI was after one month and thereafter every 2 months. The objective response rate (ORR) and the depth of the brain metastasis response were determined via RECIST 1.1 and RANO-LM criteria. RESULTS: In total, 14 of 59 EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients who received first-line dacomitinib therapy had brain metastasis before treatment. Among these patients, 5 were given a dacomitinib starting dose of 45 mg once daily, while 9 received 30 mg daily until disease progression or unbearable toxicity. Eight patients harbored EGFR 19del, 5 had EGFR L858R, and one patient had EGFR G719A and I706 T co-mutations. The median duration of follow-up was 4.5 months. All patients received at least one review. The ORR was 92.9 % (13/14) and the disease control rate (DCR) was 100 %. A measurable response of the intracranial metastases was observed in 12 of 14 patients (85.7 %), including 12 of 13 (92.3 %) with brain parenchymal metastasis, but the one patient with meningeal metastasis did not respond well. All patients (100 %) had grade 1-2 adverse effects, but none discontinued treatment or required a dosage adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: This case series study of 14 patients has shown that dacomitinib has potent efficacy for central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in EGFR-positive NSCLC. More data are required to confirm its advantages and optimize its clinical application.

10.
Physiol Plant ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280114

RESUMO

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis), a high-value bamboo used to produce food (young shoots), building, and industrial goods. To explore key candidate genes regulating signal transduction and metabolic processes during the initiation of stem elongation in moso bamboo, a transcriptome analysis of the shoots during three successive early elongation stages was performed. From cluster and differential expression analyses, 2984 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected for an enrichment analysis. The DEGs were significantly enriched in the plant hormone signal transduction, sugar and starch metabolism, and energy metabolism pathways. Consequently, the DEG expression patterns of these pathways were analyzed, and the plant endogenous hormone and carbon metabolite (including sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch) contents for each growth stage, of the shoot, were determined. The cytokinin-signaling pathway was continuously active in the three successive elongation stages, in which several cytokinin-signaling genes played indispensable roles. Additionally, many key DEGs regulating sugar, starch metabolism, and energy conversion, which are actively involved in energy production and substrate synthesis during the continuous growth of the shoots, were found. In summary, our study lays a foundation for understanding the mechanisms of moso bamboo growth and provides useful gene resources for breeding through genetic engineering.

11.
Brain Res ; 1752: 147216, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333054

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia is the most common cause of hippocampal neuronal death and the most prevalent cause of stroke with high mortality rate. Ferroptosis has been suggested to affect the role of hippocampal neurons. This study explores the influence of lentivirus infection-induced ferritin overexpression in hippocampal neuronal injury and death through simulations in August Copenhagen Irish rat models. Twenty-four-hour cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in the rats after 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ferritin overexpression was induced through lentivirus infection. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test and tau hyperphosphorylation test were performed on hippocampal neurons to establish a MCAO model. The effect of ferritin overexpression on hippocampal neuronal death was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining and annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry. The MWM test revealed that MCAO modeling decreased the cognitive and locomotor capacity of the rats, whereas ferritin overexpression partially reversed the effect of MCAO. In addition, the hyperphosphorylation of tau caused by MCAO was reduced by ferritin. Pathogenic changes, impaired viability, increased apoptosis, and elevated caspase-9 cleavage in hippocampal neurons were clearly recovered by ferritin. Moreover, robust reactive oxygen species production and glutathione consumption, which was induced by MCAO modeling, were ameliorated by ferritin. Furthermore, two key modulators of ferroptosis, p53 and SLC7A11, were demonstrated to be upregulated by MCAO modeling and downregulated by ferritin. Ferritin reduction is essential for cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal ferroptosis mediated via p53 and SLC7A11.

12.
EMBO J ; : e105926, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258500

RESUMO

B-cell receptor (BCR) knock-in (KI) mouse models play an important role in vaccine development and fundamental immunological studies. However, the time required to generate them poses a bottleneck. Here we report a one-step CRISPR/Cas9 KI methodology to combine the insertion of human germline immunoglobulin heavy and light chains at their endogenous loci in mice. We validate this technology with the rapid generation of three BCR KI lines expressing native human precursors, instead of computationally inferred germline sequences, to HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies. We demonstrate that B cells from these mice are fully functional: upon transfer to congenic, wild type mice at controlled frequencies, such B cells can be primed by eOD-GT8 60mer, a germline-targeting immunogen currently in clinical trials, recruited to germinal centers, secrete class-switched antibodies, undergo somatic hypermutation, and differentiate into memory B cells. KI mice expressing functional human BCRs promise to accelerate the development of vaccines for HIV and other infectious diseases.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115584, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254621

RESUMO

Exposure to phthalates during gestation has been associated with decreased birth weight among offspring. However, the associations between preconception phthalate metabolites in follicular fluid (FF) and offspring birth weight among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) remain largely unknown. Here, we explored the associations between preconception phthalate metabolite concentrations in FF and the birth weights of singletons and twins among women undergoing IVF. We recruited 147 female participants who gave birth to 90 singletons and 57 twin infants at the Reproductive Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, between November and December 2016. Each participant was asked to complete a questionnaire at the time of recruitment and provide a FF sample on the day of oocyte retrieval. The FF concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Birth outcomes were abstracted from medical records. The associations between phthalate metabolites in FF and birth weights of the singleton and twin groups were evaluated using generalized linear models (GLMs). We found that birth weight in the twin group had negative dose-response associations with maternal preconception monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) in FF (both P for trends < 0.05) and that birth weight in the singleton group had positive dose-response associations with monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono(2-ethyl-5 hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) in FF (both P for trends < 0.05). These associations persisted when we modeled as continuous variables. In addition, we observed male-specific association between decreased twin birth weight and MEOHP and MBzP and a female-specific associations between increased singleton birth weight and MEP, MEHHP and the sum of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (∑DEHP) (all P for interactions < 0.05). Preconception phthalate metabolites in maternal FF may affect the birth weights of both singleton and twin newborns.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Peso ao Nascer , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Líquido Folicular , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
14.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2001820, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: ADJUVANT-CTONG1104 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01405079), a randomized phase III trial, showed that adjuvant gefitinib treatment significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) versus vinorelbine plus cisplatin (VP) in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive resected stage II-IIIA (N1-N2) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report the final overall survival (OS) results. METHODS: From September 2011 to April 2014, 222 patients from 27 sites were randomly assigned 1:1 to adjuvant gefitinib (n = 111) or VP (n = 111). Patients with resected stage II-IIIA (N1-N2) NSCLC and EGFR-activating mutation were enrolled, receiving gefitinib for 24 months or VP every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary end point was DFS (intention-to-treat [ITT] population). Secondary end points included OS, 3-, 5-year (y) DFS rates, and 5-year OS rate. Post hoc analysis was conducted for subsequent therapy data. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 80.0 months. Median OS (ITT) was 75.5 and 62.8 months with gefitinib and VP, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.36; P = .674); respective 5-year OS rates were 53.2% and 51.2% (P = .784). Subsequent therapy was administered upon progression in 68.4% and 73.6% of patients receiving gefitinib and VP, respectively. Subsequent targeted therapy contributed most to OS (HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.38) compared with no subsequent therapy. Updated 3y DFS rates were 39.6% and 32. 5% with gefitinib and VP (P = .316) and 5y DFS rates were 22. 6% and 23.2% (P = .928), respectively. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant therapy with gefitinib in patients with early-stage NSCLC and EGFR mutation demonstrated improved DFS over standard of care chemotherapy. Although this DFS advantage did not translate to a significant OS difference, OS with adjuvant gefitinib was one of the longest observed in this patient group compared with historic data.

15.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1841935, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194320

RESUMO

Computerized image analysis for whole-slide images has been shown to improve efficiency, accuracy, and consistency in histopathology evaluations. We aimed to assess whether immunohistochemistry (IHC) image quantitative features can reflect the immune status and provide prognostic information for colorectal cancer patients. A fully automated pipeline was designed to extract histogram features from IHC digital images in a training set (N = 243). A Hist-Immune signature was generated with selected features using the LASSO Cox model. The results were validated using internal (N = 147) and external (N = 76) validation sets. The five-feature-based Hist-Immune signature was significantly associated with overall survival in training (HR 2.72, 95% CI 1.68-4.41, P < .001), internal (2.86, 1.28-6.39, 0.010), and external (2.30, 1.02-6.16, 0.044) validation sets. The full model constructed by integrating the Hist-Immune signature and clinicopathological factors had good discrimination ability (C-index 0.727, 95% CI 0.678-0.776), confirmed using internal (0.703, 0.621-0.784) and external (0.756, 0.653-0.859) validation sets. Our findings indicate that the Hist-Immune signature constructed based on the quantitative features could reflect the immune status of patients with colorectal cancer, which might advocate change in risk stratification and consequent precision medicine.

16.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 164-171, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data complement conventional clinical endpoints when comparing adjuvant gefitinib with chemotherapy in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. This study aimed to assess changes in HRQoL with adjuvant gefitinib vs chemotherapy in this patient group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the phase III ADJUVANT trial, patients with completely resected, stage II-IIIA (N1-N2), EGFR-mutant NSCLC were randomized (1:1) to receive either gefitinib for 24 months or vinorelbine plus cisplatin (VP) every 3 weeks for four cycles. HRQoL was assessed as a secondary endpoint using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung Cancer (FACT-L), Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) questionnaires, and Trial Outcome Index (TOI) composite score. HRQoL dynamics, improvements, and time to deterioration were compared between groups. RESULTS: At baseline, 104 of 106, and 80 of 87 patients receiving gefitinib and VP, respectively, completed two questionnaires (FACT-L and LCSS). Baseline scores were balanced between groups. Although HRQoL fluctuated and gradually improved in both groups, longitudinally higher scores were reported with gefitinib than VP (FACT-L, odds ratio 418.16, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.75-63509.05, p =  0.019; LCSS, 1.13, 1.04-1.22, p =  0.003; TOI, 88.39, 4.40-1775.05, p =  0.003). Time to deterioration in HRQoL was delayed with gefitinib compared with VP (FACT-L, median 69 vs 6 weeks, hazard ratio 0.62, 95 % CI 0.42-0.90, p =  0.013; LCSS, median 45 vs 6 weeks, 0.63, 0.43-0.93, p =  0.020; TOI, median 164 vs 9 weeks, 0.51, 0.33-0.77, p =  0.001). CONCLUSION: Adjuvant gefitinib is associated with improved HRQoL over VP, supporting its use in patients with stage II-IIIA (N1-N2), EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 99, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is critical to promote maternal and child health. China has set national targets to further improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. We aimed to examine associations between the provision of early essential newborn care (EENC) and breastfeeding outcomes among full term vaginally delivered neonates in the first 6 months of life. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental study in eight maternal and children's hospitals in Mianyang City and Deyang City in Sichuan Province of western China. Four hospitals were randomly selected as the intervention group with the implementation of EENC while others as the control group receiving routine care. We assessed effects of EENC on breastfeeding initiation time, duration of first-time breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding rates up to 6 months of age. Data were collected after delivery, at hospital discharge, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post birth in the baseline phase from May to June 2017 and post-EENC phase from October to December 2017. We performed univariate analyses to ascertain differences between the two groups, and difference in difference (DID) models to explore the net effects. RESULTS: Of the 1349 enrolled mother and newborn pairs in our study, 1131 (83.9%) were followed up at 1 month of age, 1075 (79.7%) at 3 months, and 981 (72.7%) at 6 months. EENC was associated with earlier median time to initiate breastfeeding (25 min vs. 33 min, P <  0.01), an increased chance of successful first-time breastfeeding (OR 5.53; 95% CI 2.69, 11.40), longer duration of skin to skin contact (SSC) (21.53 min; 95% CI 18.17, 24.89) and longer duration of the first breastfeed (4.16 min; 95% CI 2.10, 6.22), and an increased likelihood of being exclusively breastfed at discharge (74.5% vs. 55.0%, P <  0.001), 3 months (OR 3.20; 95% CI 1.01, 10.15), and 6 months (OR 4.91; 95% CI 1.71, 14.13) of age. CONCLUSIONS: EENC enhances breastfeeding initiation and increases exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months of age. Our evidence suggests that nationwide scale up of EENC would increase the exclusive breastfeeding rate in the first 6 months of life.

18.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 9(5): 68, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to evaluate aprepitant usage in the context of routine clinical practice with dose/regimens at the discretion of prescribers for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) treatments. METHODS: In this single arm, multicenter prospective study 1,000 patients with solid malignancies were enrolled across 21 centers in China. The primary endpoint was the rate of adverse events (AEs), including drug related AEs and serious AEs (SAEs). Secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of patients achieving complete response (CR; no vomiting, no nausea, and no use of rescue medication) within 120 h after highly emetogenic chemotherapy, the rates of no nausea and no vomiting, as well as quality of life (QoL). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine factors associated with the overall (0-120 h), acute (0-24 h) and delayed (25-120 h) CR. RESULTS: Of the 1,000 highly emetogenic chemotherapy treated patients enrolled in the study ≥1 AE, ≥1 drug related AE, ≥1 SAE and drug related SAE rates in 998 patients were 45.9%, 2.5%, 4.0% and 0.1%, respectively. Approximately half of the patients (455/990, 46.0%) received aprepitant as part of a 3-drug anti-CINV regimen consistent with prescribing guidelines. The overall CR (0 to 120 h) for anti-emetic drug use was 41.0%, with an acute CR of 66.0% and a delayed CR of 46.5%. The rates of no vomiting and no nausea after solely aprepitant anti-emetic therapy from 0 to 120 h were 70.9% and 43.0%, for dual anti-emetic therapy 86.9% and 64.6%, and for triple therapy 86.4% and 69.5%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that triple anti-emetic therapy (P=0.038), male gender (P<0.001) and a history of chemotherapy (P=0.016) were significantly associated with the overall acute CR. CONCLUSIONS: Especially as a combination treatment, aprepitant is safe and efficient for preventing CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

19.
Plant Sci ; 300: 110636, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180714

RESUMO

Cucumber fruit wart composed of tubercule and spine (trichome on fruit) is not only an important fruit quality trait in cucumber production, but also a well-studied model for plant cell-fate determination. The development of spine is closely related to the initiation and formation of tubercule. The spine differentiation regulator CsGL1 has been proved to be epistatic to the tubercule initiation factor CsTu, which is the only connection to be identified between spine and tubercule formations. Our previous studies found that the MIXTA-LIKE transcription factor CsMYB6 can suppress fruit spine initiation, which is independent of CsGL1. How the formation of spine and tubercule is regulated at the molecular level by CsMYB6 remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized cucumber 35S:CsMYB6 transgenic plants, which displayed an obvious reduction in the number and size of fruit spines and tubecules. Molecular analyses showed that CsMYB6 directly interacted with the key spine formation factor CsTTG1 in regulating the formation of fruit spine, and CsTu in regulating the initiation of fruit tubercule, respectively. Based on these evidences, a novel regulatory network is proposed by which CsMYB6/CsTTG1 and CsMYB6/CsTu complexes play an important role in regulating epidermal development, including spine formation and tubercule initiation in cucumber.

20.
ACS Omega ; 5(42): 27502-27513, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134713

RESUMO

This study is a bioinformatics assay on the microbial genome of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The study focuses on the problem of quorum sensing as a result of adverse factors such as chemotherapy and antibiotic therapy. In patients with severe intestinal diseases, two strains of microorganisms were identified that were distinguished as new. Strains were investigated by conducting genome sequencing. The current concepts concerned with the quorum sensing system regulation by stationary-phase sigma factor and their coregulation of target genes in B. thetaiotaomicron were considered. The study suggested using bioinformatics data for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. In the course of the study, 402 genes having a greater than twofold change were identified with the 95% confidence level. The shortest and longest coding genes were predicted; the noncoding genes were detected. Biological pathways (KEGG pathways) were classified into the following categories: cellular processes, environmental information processing, genetic information processing, human disease, metabolism, and organismic systems. Among notable changes in the biofilm population observed in parallel to the planktonic B. thetaiotaomicron was the expression of genes in the polysaccharide utilization loci that were involved in the synthesis of O-glycans.

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