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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013013

RESUMO

'Huaxin' is a new high-yielding timber cultivar of Camellia oleifera of high economic value, and has been widely cultivated in the red soil hilly region of Hunan Province of the People´s Republic of China in recent years. However, its quality and production are severely affected by low temperatures during flowering. To find genes related to cold tolerance and further explore new candidategenes for chilling-tolerance, Illumina NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technology was used to perform transcriptomic analyses of C. oleifera 'Huaxin' leaves under long-term cold stress. Nine cDNA libraries were sequenced, and 58.31 Gb high-quality clean reads were obtained with an average of 5.92 Gb reads for each sample. A total of 191,150 transcripts were obtained after assembly. Among them, 100,703 unigenes were generated, and 44,610 unigenes were annotated. In total, 1564 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified both in the A_B and A_C gene sets. In the current study, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed, andrevealed a group of cold-responsive genes related to hormone regulation, photosynthesis, membrane systems, and osmoregulation; these genes encoded many key proteins in plant biological processes, such as serine/threonine-protein kinase (STPK), transcription factors (TFs), fatty acid desaturase (FAD), lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs), soluble sugars synthetases, and flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes. Some physiological indicators of C. oleifera 'Huaxin' were determined under three temperature conditions, and the results were consistent with the molecular sequencing. In addition, the expression levels of 12 DEGs were verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In summary, the results of DEGs analysis together with qRT-PCR tests contribute to the understanding of cold tolerance and further exploring new candidate genes for chilling-tolerance in molecular breeding programs of C. oleifera 'Huaxin'.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135711, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791784

RESUMO

The environmental toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently the focus of intensive research. However, the mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on denitrifying microbes have yet to be explicitly demonstrated. Herein, Pseudomonas stutzeri was used to explore the effects of AgNPs on denitrification and cytotoxicity. The denitrification efficiency decreased from 94.91% in the AgNP-free treatment to 87.66%, 60.51% and 36.10% with treatments of 3.125, 6.25 and 12.5 mg/L AgNPs, respectively. The inhibition and delay in the denitrification process from treatment with AgNPs likely occurred through alteration of the viability and metabolic activity of P. stutzeri. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the early apoptotic rates of P. stutzeri were 8.72%, 30.60%, and 48.60% with treatments of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/L AgNPs, respectively. Results for scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, ζ-potential analysis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and malondialdehyde (MDA) production assays demonstrated adsorption of AgNPs on the cell surface, which altered membrane potential and mediated lipid peroxidation; these events eventually resulted in the aberration of cell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and measurements of Ag content distribution by ICP-MS indicated that AgNPs were easily internalized by P. stutzeri, which increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the presence of AgNPs also greatly inhibited expression of genes napA, nirS, cnorB, and nosZ, thereby reducing the activities of nitrate reductase (NAR) and nitrite reductase (NIR). These findings will help further our understanding of the mechanism underlying AgNPs cytotoxicity, and provide the means to evaluate the negative effect of nanoparticles in the environment.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2939-2947, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854689

RESUMO

In order to study the effect of nanosilver on soil nitrification microorganisms and nitrogen transformation, soil culture experiments were carried out. Yellow brown soil and paddy soil were first spiked with different doses of nanosilver (10, 50, 100 mg·kg-1) and silver ions (1, 5, 10 mg·kg-1). Then, the number of nitrifying bacteria, activity of soil invertase, amoA gene abundance, NH4+-N content, NO3--N content, and soil potential ammonia oxidation rate were determined. The results showed that the number of nitrite bacteria and nitrate bacteria decreased significantly when the soils were treated with nanosilver and silver ions. Soil invertases were inhibited, and the effect on urease was greater than that on catalase. The amoA gene abundances of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) decreased, and the effect on the gene abundance of AOB was greater than that of AOA. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to the soil, nanosilver and silver ion pollutants caused NH4+-N to accumulate, and the contents of NO3--N were reduced, the rate of ammonia oxidation decreased, and the transformation of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen was inhibited. This research suggests that nanosilver and silver ions can have toxic effects on soil nitrification microorganisms and ammonium nitrogen conversion, and the degree of influence was found to be related to the soil physical and chemical properties.

4.
J Econ Entomol ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773129

RESUMO

Hermetia illucens L. (the black soldier fly) has received increased attention because of its great potential in converting organic waste into a renewable resource. The prepupae have high proportions of proteins and fats and can serve as feedstuff for livestock and as feedstock for biodiesel production. With the goal to upgrade the conversion of low-value organic wastes into high-value proteins and fat on a large scale, the effects of the feedstuffs food waste, pig manure, chicken manure, and cow dung on the reproductive potential and nutrient composition of H. illucens were evaluated. The intrinsic rate of increase of H. illucens fed food waste (0.1249 d-1) was significantly greater than the rate of those fed pig manure (0.1167 d-1), chicken manure (0.1154 d-1), and cow dung (0.1049 d-1). The ash content of H. illucens fed food waste (30.8 g·kg-1 lyophilized prepupa matter (LPM)) was significantly lower than that of those fed chicken manure (37.6 g·kg-1 LPM) and cow dung (49.5 g·kg-1 LPM). The contents of crude fat, 372.4 g·kg-1 LPM, and protein, 436.9 g·kg-1 LPM, in prepupae fed food waste were the highest among the four treatments. The reproductive performance and prepupal nutrient composition indicated that food waste was the most suitable feed for H. illucens. The results from this study further demonstrate that the prepupae of H. illucens have great potential for use as a protein and fat source in animal feeds and as biodiesel material.

5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(1): 181-186, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049596

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is widely used as an antibacterial agent, but the specific antibacterial mechanism is still conflicting. This study aimed to investigate the size dependent inhibition of AgNPs and the relationship between inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Azotobactervinelandii and Nitrosomonaseuropaea were exposed to AgNPs with different particles size (10 nm and 50 nm). The ROS production was measured and the results showed that the generation of ROS related to the particle size and concentrations of AgNPs. At 10 mg/L of 10 nm Ag particles, the apoptosis rate of A. vinelandii and N. europaea were 20.23% and 1.87% respectively. Additionally, the necrosis rate of A. vinelandii and N. europaea reached to 15.20% and 42.20% respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy images also indicated that AgNPs caused severely bacterial cell membrane damage. Together these data suggested that the toxicity of AgNPs depends on its particle size and overproduction of ROS.


Assuntos
Azotobacter vinelandii/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nitrosomonas europaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
J Int Med Res ; 47(4): 1696-1704, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes (enamelin [ ENAM]; tuftelin 1 [ TUFT1]; matrix metallopeptidase 13 [ MMP13]; interleukin 1 beta [ IL1B]; interleukin 10 [ IL10]; interleukin 1 receptor antagonist [ IL1RN]) and dental caries in children from northwest China. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled children (12-15 years) who underwent routine dental examinations. The children were divided into two groups based on the presence of dental caries. A saliva sample was collected and seven SNPs (rs3806804A/G in ENAM, rs3811411T/G in TUFT1, rs2252070A/G and rs597315A/T in MMP13, rs1143627C/T in IL1B, rs1800872A/C in IL10 and rs956730G/A in IL1RN) were genotyped. RESULTS: A total of 357 children were enrolled in the study: 161 with dental caries and 196 without dental caries. No significant difference was found in the alleles and genotypes of five genes ( ENAM, TUFT1, MMP13, IL10 and IL1RN) between those with and without dental caries. A significant relationship was found between the IL1B rs1143627C/T polymorphism and dental caries susceptibility with those carrying the rs1143627CT genotype having a lower risk of dental caries compared with those carrying the CC genotype (odds ratio 0.557; 95% confidence interval 0.326, 0.952). CONCLUSION: The IL1B rs1143627C/T polymorphism may be associated with dental caries susceptibility in children from northwest China.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Proteínas do Esmalte Dentário/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
7.
Biosci Rep ; 39(1)2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559147

RESUMO

Purpose: Melanosis coli (MC) is a disorder of pigmentation of the wall of the colon, often identified at the time of colonoscopy. The aim of the present study is to identify candidate biomarkers for MC. Methods: The transcriptome data for MC (GSE78933) with five MC tissues and five corresponding normal tissues is obtained from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. R/Bioconductor package limma was used to screen differently expressed genes (DEGs). ClueGO of cytoscape was applied for Gene Ontology (GO) functional and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Based on STRING V10 database, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. The pathological tissue and normal tissue from 23 MC patients and 23 controls were collected, respectively. The relative expression of hub nodes was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. For regulating the expression of these genes, overexpression vector was constructed or siRNA transfection was used. Finally, apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: Total 1342 DEGs were screened, including 786 up-regulated and 556 down-regulated genes. These genes were mainly enriched in stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway, polysaccharide biosynthetic process, intracellular, and oxidative phosphorylation. PPI network was then constructed with 426 DEGs and 895 interactions. Thereinto, G-protein subunit γ 5 (GNG5), lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 (LPAR3), mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8), NHP2L1, proteasome 26S subunit, ATPase 6 (PSMC6), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit ß (PIK3CB) were hub nodes with higher degree. RT-PCR and Western blot results showed that GNG5, LPAR3, MAPK8, and PSMC6 were differently expressed with significance. The expression of these screened genes is also related with cell apoptosis. Conclusion: GNG5, LPAR3, MAPK8, and PSMC6 might be candidate biomarkers associated with apoptosis in MC.


Assuntos
ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , Doenças do Colo/genética , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Melanose/genética , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Subunidades gama da Proteína de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
8.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209020, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566461

RESUMO

The influence of nanomaterials on the ecological environment is becoming an increasingly hot research field, and many researchers are exploring the mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity on microorganisms. Herein, we studied the effect of two different sizes of nanosilver (10 nm and 50 nm) on the soil nitrogen fixation by the model bacteria Azotobacter vinelandii. Smaller size AgNPs correlated with higher toxicity, which was evident from reduced cell numbers. Flow cytometry analysis further confirmed this finding, which was carried out with the same concentration of 10 mg/L for 12 h, the apoptotic rates were20.23% and 3.14% for 10 nm and 50 nm AgNPs, respectively. Structural damage to cells were obvious under scanning electron microscopy. Nitrogenase activity and gene expression assays revealed that AgNPs could inhibit the nitrogen fixation of A. vinelandii. The presence of AgNPs caused intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and electron spin resonance further demonstrated that AgNPs generated hydroxyl radicals, and that AgNPs could cause oxidative damage to bacteria. A combination of Ag content distribution assays and transmission electron microscopy indicated that AgNPs were internalized in A. vinelandii cells. Overall, this study suggested that the toxicity of AgNPs was size and concentration dependent, and the mechanism of antibacterial effects was determined to involve damage to cell membranes and production of reactive oxygen species leading to enzyme inactivation, gene down-regulation and death by apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Azotobacter vinelandii/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Prata/toxicidade , Azotobacter vinelandii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Azotobacter vinelandii/metabolismo , Azotobacter vinelandii/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fixação de Nitrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Prata/química
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 18(1): 100, 2018 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a major issue affecting children's oral health and clinical management. This study investigates the association between children's DFA and family related factors, including parents' DFA, parenting styles, family structure (nuclear or single-parent family), and presence of siblings. METHODS: A total of 405 children (9-13 years old) and their parents were recruited from 3 elementary schools in Hong Kong. Child's demographic and family-related information was collected through a questionnaire. Parents' and child's DFA were measured by using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), respectively. Parenting styles were gauged by using the Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). RESULTS: DFA was reported by 33.1% of children. The mean (SD) CFSS-DS score was 29.1 (11.0). Children with siblings tended to report DFA (37.0% vs. 24.1%; p = 0.034) and had a higher CFSS-DS score (29.9 vs. 27.4; p = 0.025) as compared with their counterpart. Children from single-parent families had lower CFSS-DS score as compared with children from nuclear families (ß = - 9.177; p = 0.029). Subgroup analysis showed a higher CFSS-DS score among boys with siblings (ß = 7.130; p = 0.010) as compared with their counterpart; girls' from single-parent families had a lower CFSS-DS score (ß = - 13.933; p = 0.015) as compared with girls from nuclear families. Children's DFA was not associated with parents' DFA or parenting styles (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Family structure (nuclear or single-parent family) and presence of siblings are significant determinants for children's DFA. Parental DFA and parenting style do not affect children's DFA significantly.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Características da Família , Adolescente , Criança , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filho Único , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Irmãos , Família de Pais Solteiros , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Addict Behav ; 73: 216-235, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors. METHODS: Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized. RESULTS: A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face-to-face MI for treating and preventing substance abuse. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of SMS-based MI, Internet MI, group MI and other alternative modes. Studies with methodological rigor and incorporating MI fidelity measures have great potential to advance the understanding in this field.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Telemedicina/métodos , Telefone
11.
J Adolesc Health ; 61(3): 378-384, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28532895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling strategy to help people change their behaviors. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of MI in improving adolescents' oral health. METHODS: Fifteen secondary schools were randomly assigned to three groups: (I) prevailing health education, (II) MI, and (III) MI coupled with interactive dental caries risk assessment (MI + RA). Adolescents (n = 512) with unfavorable oral health behaviors (infrequent toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) were recruited; 161, 163, and 188 in groups I-III, respectively. Participants in the three groups received their respective interventions. At baseline and after 6 and 12 months, participants completed a questionnaire on their oral health self-efficacy and behaviors. Their oral hygiene (dental plaque score) and dental caries (number of decayed surfaces/teeth status) were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with group I, subjects in groups II and III were more likely to reduce their snacking frequency (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals {CIs}]: 7.12 [1.80-28.16] and 11.17 [2.90-42.98], respectively) and increase their toothbrushing frequency (odds ratios [95% CIs]: 5.26 [2.28-12.16] and 11.45 [4.99-26.26], respectively) after 12 months. Taking group I as a reference, groups II and III had lower number of new carious teeth △D ICDAS II 1-6MFT (ß [95% CI]: -.24 [-.44 to -.04] and -.31 [-.51 to -.11], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MI was more effective than prevailing health education strategy in eliciting positive changes in adolescents' oral health behaviors and preventing dental caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Saúde Bucal , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escovação Dentária
12.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 29(4): 351-4, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21932650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal disease. METHODS: 173 patients with gastrointestinal disease were grouped according to age, gender, periodontal status and types of gastrointestinal disease. H. pylori were detected from saliva samples of all patients by in vitro cultur. The H. pylori-positive rates in different groups were statistically analysed. RESULTS: The H. pylori-positive rate in all patients was 40.46% and the difference between male and female showed significant (P<0.05). The H. pylori-positive rate was 56.72% in the age range 45-64, which was significantly higher than two younger age groups (P<0.05). The H. pylori-positive rate in patients with atrophic gastritis was 77.78%, of which the difference was significantly higher than superficial gastritis group and gastric and duodenal ulcer group respectively (P<0.05). The H. pylori-positive rate in healthy periodontia group was 15.38%, while that in periodontitis group was 72.73% (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: H. pylori is a conditional pathogen. The H. pylori-positive rate from saliva is closely related to the types of gastrointestinal disease in patients, and it is correlated with the periodontal diseases as well. These findings suggest that the oral cavity with periodontal diseases is an ecological niche of H. pylori which might be an important cause for occurrence and re-occurrence of gastrointestinal disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adulto , Feminino , Gastrite , Gastroenteropatias , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite , Saliva
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 626(2): 174-9, 2008 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18790118

RESUMO

A novel and simple spectrophotometric method for the determination of Captopril with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate is established in this paper. The detailed reaction mechanism is proposed and discussed. It is based on the fact that captopril can catalyze the reaction between sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and hydroxyl ion to form 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in buffer solution of pH 13.00. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.64-80 mugmL(-1) at the maximal absorption wavelength of 442 nm. The equation of linear regression is A=0.05815+0.00589C (mugmL(-1)), with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.9981. The detection limit is 0.3 mugmL(-1), R.S.D. is 0.77% and the recovery rate is in range of 96.0-103.8%. Furthermore, the method has been validated and successfully applied to the determination of captopril in pharmaceutical samples.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/análise , Captopril/análise , Naftoquinonas/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Captopril/química , Catálise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidróxidos/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho
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