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1.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1183-1189, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782552

RESUMO

After spinal cord injury, microglia as the first responders to the lesion display both beneficial and detrimental characteristics. Activated microglia phagocyte and eliminate cell debris, release cytokines to recruit peripheral immune cells to the injury site. Excessively activated microglia can aggravate the secondary damage by producing extravagant reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies demonstrated that the voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is selectively expressed in microglia and regulates microglial activation upon injury. In mouse models of spinal cord injury, Hv1 deficiency ameliorates microglia activation, resulting in alleviated production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The reduced secondary damage subsequently decreases neuronal loss and correlates with improved locomotor recovery. This review provides a brief historical perspective of advances in investigating voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 and home in on microglial Hv1. We discuss recent studies on the roles of Hv1 activation in pathophysiological activities of microglia, such as production of NOX-dependent reactive oxygen species, microglia polarization, and tissue acidosis, particularly in the context of spinal cord injury. Further, we highlight the rationale for targeting Hv1 for the treatment of spinal cord injury and related disorders.

2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(3): 632-642, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380904

RESUMO

Icariin (ICA) has a significant capacity to protect against depression and hippocampal injury, but it cannot effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain. Therefore, the mechanism by which ICA protects against hippocampal injury in depression remains unclear. In this study, we performed proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid to investigate the mechanism by which ICA prevents dysfunctional hippocampal neurogenesis in depression. A rat model of depression was established through exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 6 weeks, after which 120 mg/kg ICA was administered subcutaneously every day. The results showed that ICA alleviated depressive symptoms, learning and memory dysfunction, dysfunctional neurogenesis, and neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus of rats with depression. Neural stem cells from rat embryonic hippocampi were cultured in media containing 20% cerebrospinal fluid from each group of rats and then treated with 100 µM corticosterone. The addition of cerebrospinal fluid from rats treated with ICA largely prevented the corticosterone-mediated inhibition of neuronal proliferation and differentiation. Fifty-two differentially expressed proteins regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and ICA were identified through proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. These proteins were mainly involved in the ribosome, PI3K-Akt signaling, and interleukin-17 signaling pathways. Parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry showed that Rps4x, Rps12, Rps14, Rps19, Hsp90b1, and Hsp90aa1 were up-regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and down-regulated by ICA. In contrast, HtrA1 was down-regulated by chronic unpredictable mild stress and up-regulated by ICA. These findings suggest that ICA can prevent depression and dysfunctional hippocampal neurogenesis through regulating the expression of certain proteins found in the cerebrospinal fluid. The study was approved by the Experimental Animal Ethics Committee of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine of China in March 2017.

3.
J Proteome Res ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734728

RESUMO

Modern shotgun proteomics experiments generate gigabytes of spectra every hour, only a fraction of which were utilized to form biological conclusions. Instead of being stored as flat files in public data repositories, this large amount of data can be better organized to facilitate data reuse. Clustering these spectra by similarity can be helpful in building high-quality spectral libraries, correcting identification errors, and highlighting frequently observed but unidentified spectra. However, large-scale clustering is time-consuming. Here, we present ClusterSheep, a method utilizing Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to accelerate the process. Unlike previously proposed algorithms for this purpose, our method performs true pairwise comparison of all spectra within a precursor mass-to-charge ratio tolerance, thereby preserving the full cluster structures. ClusterSheep was benchmarked against previously reported clustering tools, MS-Cluster, MaRaCluster, and msCRUSH. The software tool also functions as an interactive visualization tool with a persistent state, enabling the user to explore the resulting clusters visually and retrieve the clustering results as desired.

4.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 745621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805156

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a major cause of low back pain (LBP), but there is still a lack of effective therapy. Multiple studies have reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation exert an enormous function on the occurrence and development of IDD. Autophagy can effectively repair ER stress and maintain ECM homeostasis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can specifically induce autophagy. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that EPA can promote autophagy, reduce ECM degradation and ER stress in vitro, thereby reducing cell apoptosis, and the protective effects of EPA in an IDD-rat model in vivo. Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to detect the autophagic flux, ER stress, ECM degradation, and apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) treated by EPA. We also used puncture-induced IDD rats as experimental subjects to observe the therapeutic effect of EPA on IDD. Our findings indicated that EPA can effectively improve the autophagy activity in NPCs, inhibit the endoplasmic reticulum stress process, reduce the degree of cell apoptosis, and exert protective effects on the anabolism and catabolism of ECM. In addition, in vivo investigations demonstrated that EPA ameliorated the progression of puncture-induced IDD in rats. In conclusion, this study revealed the intrinsic mechanisms of EPA's protective role in NPCs and its potential therapeutic significance for the treatment of IDD.

5.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(12): 3398-3399, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805516

RESUMO

Pseudorhaetus sinicus is a stag beetle common to China and Vietnam, but whose distribution is limited within China. Little is known about the molecular biological characteristics of this species, so we characterized its complete mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession number MZ504793.1). The mitogenome consists of a circular DNA molecule of 18,126 bp, with 67.693% AT content. It contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. The PCGs have typical ATN (Met) start codons and TAN stop codons. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that P. sinicus is closely related to Prosopocoilus confucius. This newly described mitochondrial genome provides a valuable resource for the phylogenetic analysis of Lucanidae beetles.

6.
J Inorg Biochem ; 226: 111654, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740036

RESUMO

Here we show that Preyssler-type polyoxotungstates (Preyssler-type POTs, [NaP5W30O110]-14) complexed with peptides can prevent the dysbiotic expansion of anaerobic bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. In a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, symptom remission of C57BL/6 J mice with colitis is achieved by orally treated with POT complexes. Ten days of daily administration of POT complexes reduces 5% body weight loss and the mRNA levels of proinflammatory markers (77% reduction for Il6, 73% reduction for Tnf, 91% reduction for Cxcl1) in the caecum and proximal colon. Bacterial population analysis reveals that these Enterobacteriaceae population in the caecal content decline by one order of magnitude after administration of POT complexes. POT complexes exert anti-inflammatory effects indirectly on the host immune system by inhibition of malignant expansion of anaerobic Enterobacteriaceae during gut inflammation. Furthermore, POTs show negligible effect on bacterial growth in vitro, healthy mice and their microbiota composition under homeostatic conditions. Rationally designed POT complexes will provide distinctive approach to improve enteric bacteria dysbiosis-associated gut inflammation by balancing bacterial communities.

7.
Gene ; : 146059, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify RA-associated genes and to ascertain epigenetic factors and functional mechanisms underlying RA pathogenesis. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome- and proteome- wide gene expressions were profiled in a case-control study sample. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered and validated independently. In-house PBMC genome-wide SNP genotyping data, miRNA expression data and DNA methylation data in the same sample were utilized to identify SNPs [expression quantitative trait locus (eQTLs) and protein quantitative trait locus (pQTLs)], miRNAs, and DNA methylation positions (DMPs) regulating key DEG of interest. Lentivirus transfection was conducted to study the effects of RPN2 on T lymphocyte activation, proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokine expression. Rpn2 protein level in plasma was quantitated by ELISA to assess its performance in discriminating RA cases and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-two DEGs were discovered in PBMCs. The most significant DEG, i.e., RPN2, was validated to be up-regulated with RA in PBMCs. A complex regulatory network for RPN2 gene expression in PBMCs was constructed, which consists of 38 eQTL and 53 pQTL SNPs, 3 miRNAs and 2 DMPs. Besides, RPN2 expression was significantly up-regulated with RA in primary T lymphocytes, as well as in PHA-activated T lymphocytes. RPN2 over-expression in T lymphocytes significantly inhibited apoptosis and IL-4 expression and promoted proliferation and activation. PBMCs-expressed RPN2 mRNA and plasma Rpn2 protein demonstrated superior and modest performances in discriminating RA cases and controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RPN2 gene influences T lymphocyte growth and activation and is involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Rpn2 may serve as a novel protein biomarker for RA diagnosis.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(22): e023077, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726065

RESUMO

Background Remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RLIPoC) has been demonstrated to protect against ischemic stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of RLIPoC mediating cross-organ protection remain to be fully elucidated. Methods and Results Ischemic stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes. RLIPoC was performed with 3 cycles of 10-minute ischemia followed by 10-minute reperfusion of the bilateral femoral arteries immediately after middle cerebral artery reperfusion. The percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the spleen, blood, and brain was detected using flow cytometry, and the number of Tregs in the ischemic hemisphere was counted using transgenic mice with an enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged Foxp3. Furthermore, the metabolic status was monitored dynamically using a multispectral optical imaging system. The Tregs were conditionally depleted in the depletion of Treg transgenic mice after the injection of the diphtheria toxin. The inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis were investigated using immunofluorescent staining. Infarct volume and neurological deficits were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging and the modified neurological severity score, respectively. The results showed that RLIPoC substantially reduced infarct volume, improved neurological function, and significantly increased Tregs in the spleen, blood, and ischemic hemisphere after middle cerebral artery occlusion. RLIPoC was followed by subsequent alteration in metabolites, such as flavin adenine dinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate, both in RLIPoC-conducted local tissues and circulating blood. Furthermore, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate can mimic RLIPoC in increasing Tregs. Conversely, the depletion of Tregs using depletion of Treg mice compromised the neuroprotective effects conferred by RLIPoC. Conclusions RLIPoC protects against ischemic brain injury, at least in part by activating and maintaining the Tregs through the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate pathway.

9.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783964

RESUMO

SNP rs3755955 (major/minor allele: G/A) located in Iduronidase-Alpha-L- (IDUA) gene was reported to be significant for human bone mineral density (BMD). This follow-up study was to uncover the underlying association mechanism through molecular and cellular functional assays relevant to bone. We tested the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs3755955 (defined allele G as wild-type and allele A as variant-type) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic functions, as well as protein phosphorylation in stably transfected human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cell and mononuclear-macrophage (RAW264.7) cell. In hFOB cells, transfection with variant-type IDUA significantly decreased osteoblastic gene expression (OPN, COL1A1 and RANKL) (p < 0.01), impeded cell proliferation (p < 0.05), stimulated cell apoptosis (p < 0.001) and decreased ALP enzyme activity, as compared with that of wild-type IDUA transfection. In RAW264.7 cells, transfection with variant-type IDUA significantly inhibited cell apoptosis (p < 0.01), promoted osteoclastic precursor cell migration (p < 0.0001), growth (p < 0.01), osteoclastic gene expression (TRAP, RANK, Inte-αv and Cath-K) (p < 0.05) and TRAP enzyme activity (p < 0.001), as compared with that of wild-type IDUA transfection. In both hFOB and RAW264.7 cells, the total protein and IDUA protein-specific phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by variant IDUA transfection, as compared with that of wild-type IDUA transfection (p < 0.05). Variant allele A of phosSNP rs3755955 in IDUA gene regulates protein phosphorylation, inhibits osteoblast function and promotes osteoclastic activity. The SNP rs3755955 could alter IDUA protein phosphorylation, significantly regulates human osteoblastic and osteoclastic gene expression, and influences the growth, differentiation and activity of osteoblast and osteoclast, hence to affect BMD.

10.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E868-E869, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623255

RESUMO

Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an aortic catastrophe with low prevalence. Giant CAA is even more uncommon, requiring surgical intervention. Giant CAA usually originates from the proximal segments of the right coronary and the anterior descending arteries. Here we report a rare case of giant left CAA with fistula formation treated with successful surgery.

11.
Foods ; 10(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681327

RESUMO

Since the deep cause for the anti-oxidation of carnosic acid (CA) against oleic acid (OA) remains unclear, we focused on exploring the CA inhibition mechanism via a combined experimental and computational study. Atomic charge, total molecular energy, phenolic hydroxyl bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE), the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and the lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO) energy were first discussed by the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level, a density functional method. A one-step hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) was proposed for the anti-oxidation of CA towards OA, and the Rancimat method was carried out for analyzing the thermal oxidation stability. The results indicate that the two phenolic hydroxyl groups located at C7(O15) and C8(O18) of CA exert the highest activity, and the chemical reaction heat is minimal when HAT occurs. Consequently, the activity of C7(O15) (303.27 kJ/mol) is slightly lower than that of C8(O18) (295.63 kJ/mol), while the dissociation enthalpy of phenol hydroxyl groups is much lower than those of α-CH2 bond of OA (C8, 353.92 kJ/mol; C11, 353.72 kJ/mol). Rancimat method and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) demonstrate that CA outcompetes tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), a synthetic food grade antioxidant, both in prolonging the oxidation induction period and reducing the reaction rate of OA. The Ea (apparent activation energies of reaction) of OA, TBHQ + OA, and CA + OA were 50.59, 57.32 and 66.29 kJ/mol, revealing that CA could improve the Ea and thermal oxidation stability of OA.

12.
Opt Express ; 29(18): 28388-28405, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614971

RESUMO

Ghost imaging is widely used in underwater active optical imaging because of its simple structure, long distance, and non-local imaging. However, the complexity of the underwater environment will greatly reduce the imaging quality of ghost imaging. To solve this problem, an underwater ghost imaging method based on the generative adversarial networks is proposed in the study. The generator of the proposed network adopts U-Net with the double skip connections and the attention module to improve the reconstruction quality. In the network training process, the total loss function is the sum of the weighted adversarial loss, perceptual loss, and pixel loss. The experiment and simulation results show that the proposed method effectively improves the target reconstruction performance of underwater ghost imaging. The proposed method promotes the further development of active optical imaging of underwater targets based on ghost imaging technology.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715909, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630390

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT) represent two distinct modalities that offer a chance for long-term cure in a diverse array of malignancies and have experienced many breakthroughs in recent years. Herein, we review the CD27-CD70 co-stimulatory pathway and its therapeutic potential in 1) combination with checkpoint inhibitor and other immune therapies and 2) its potential ability to serve as a novel approach in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention. We further review recent advances in the understanding of GVHD as a complex immune phenomenon between donor and host immune systems, particularly in the early stages with mixed chimerism, and potential novel therapeutic approaches to prevent the development of GVHD.

14.
Nat Chem ; 13(11): 1126-1132, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635812

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major carbonaceous component of many planetary atmospheres, which includes the Earth throughout its history. Carbon fixation chemistry-which reduces CO2 to organics, utilizing hydrogen as the stoichiometric reductant-usually requires high pressures and temperatures, and the yields of products of potential use to nascent biology are low. Here we demonstrate an efficient ultraviolet photoredox chemistry between CO2 and sulfite that generates organics and sulfate. The chemistry is initiated by electron photodetachment from sulfite to give sulfite radicals and hydrated electrons, which reduce CO2 to its radical anion. A network of reactions that generates citrate, malate, succinate and tartrate by irradiation of glycolate in the presence of sulfite was also revealed. The simplicity of this carboxysulfitic chemistry and the widespread occurrence and abundance of its feedstocks suggest that it could have readily taken place on the surfaces of rocky planets. The availability of the carboxylate products on early Earth could have driven the development of central carbon metabolism before the advent of biological CO2 fixation.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 523: 208-215, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We identified proteins significant for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and to clarify mechanisms mediated by underlying proteins that may involve in the pathogenesis of RA. METHODS: Proteome-wide protein expressions were profiled by employing label-free quantitative proteomics methodology (Easy-nLC1000 and Q-exactive). The t-test was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEP, p ≤ 0.05) between RA case and control samples. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses and Protein-Protein Interaction analyses were performed to annotate functions of DEPs. The selected DEP was validated in independent samples using Simple Western assay. Plasma protein level of α2 component of integrin (ITGA2) was measured by using ELISA. The DEP, ITGA2, was assessed for its effects on T cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammatory cytokine expression. RESULTS: Sixty-four DEPs (p < 0.05) were identified in PBMCs. The selected ITGA2 (Fold Change, FC = 2.20, p = 1.49E-02) was validated to be up-regulated (FC = 12.33, p = 4.90E-2) with RA, and plasma ITGA2 protein level significantly elevated in RA patients vs. controls. Over-expression of ITGA2 could promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of Jurkat T cell, and induce IL-8, IFN-γ and TNF-α expression in Jurkat T cells. CONCLUSIONS: ITGA2 protein was significantly over-expressed in PBMCs in RA patients, and affects T cell growth and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in T cells.

16.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574244

RESUMO

Partridge tea (Mallotus oblongifolius (Miq.) Müll.Arg.) is a local characteristic tea in Hainan, the southernmost province of China, and the quality of partridge tea may be affected by the producing areas. In this study, stable isotope and targeted metabolomics combined chemometrics were used as potential tools for analyzing and identifying partridge tea from different origins. Elemental analysis-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometrywas used to analyze the characteristics of C/N/O/H stable isotopes and 54 chemical components, including polyphenols and alkaloids in partridge tea samples from four regions in Hainan (Wanning, Wenchang, Sanya and Baoting). The results showed that there were significant differences in the stable isotope ratios and polyphenol and alkaloid contents of partridge tea from different origins, and both could accurately classify partridge tea from different origins. The correct separation and clustering of the samples were observed by principal component analysis and the cross-validated Q2 values by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were 0.949 (based on stable isotope) and 0.974 (based on polyphenol and alkaloid), respectively. Potential significance indicators for origin identification were screened out by OPLS-DA and random forest algorithm, including three stable isotopes (δ13C, δ D, and δ18O) and four polyphenols (luteolin, protocatechuic acid, astragalin, and naringenin). This study can provide a preliminary guide for the origin identification of Hainan partridge tea.

17.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The thrombosis of the main and intrahepatic branches of the portal vein (TMIP) is potentially lethal and deemed a common complication following laparoscopic splenectomy and azygoportal disconnection (LSD) in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH). The predictors of TMIP after LSD remain unclear. The aim of this prospective study was to explore the predictive and risk factors for TMIP after LSD in cirrhotic patients with PH caused only by hepatitis B virus. METHODS: From September 2014 to March 2017, we enrolled 115 patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and PH who successfully underwent LSD. Patients were subdivided into a TMIP group and a non-TMIP group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted on 24 items of demographic and preoperative data, to explore the risk factors of TMIP. RESULTS: Twenty-nine (25.22%) patients developed TMIP on postoperative day (POD) 7 and 26 (22.81%) patients developed TMIP on POD 30. From POD 7 to POD 30, 12 patients who did not have TMIP at POD 7 were newly diagnosed with TMIP, with portal vein diameter 15.05 ± 2.58 mm. Another 14 patients in whom TMIP had resolved had portal vein diameter 14.02 ± 1.76 mm. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression revealed that portal vein diameter ≥ 13 mm [relative risk (RR) 5.533, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.222-25.042; P = 0.026] and portal vein diameter ≥ 15 mm (RR 3.636, 95% CI 1.466-9.021; P = 0.005) were significant independent risk factors for TMIP on POD 7 and 30, respectively. CONCLUSION: Portal vein diameter ≥ 13 mm and ≥ 15 mm were significant independent predictors for TMIP after LSD in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and PH on POD 7 and POD 30, respectively. TRIAL REGISTRATION: We registered our research at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ . The name of research registered is "Warfarin Prevents Portal Vein Thrombosis in Patients After Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Azygoportal Disconnection." The trial registration identifier at clinicaltrials.gov is NCT02247414.

18.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(4): E675-E679, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is an indispensable step in the surgical treatment of an acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD), which could greatly affect the postoperative outcome. We modified the HCA technique and validated the feasibility and superiority of the new approach relative to the conventional method. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients with ATAAD were enrolled in this study between May 2016 and April 2018. Of those, 36 patients in the Conventional treatment group had circulatory arrest at 25°C for about 16-28 minutes, while 52 patients in the Modification group underwent a circulatory arrest at 28°C for only 1-3 minutes. The preoperative clinical data and postoperative clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. No intraoperative mortality occurred in any of the cases. No significant differences were observed in the aortic cross-clamp times during the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) between the two groups. In the Modification group, several indicators, such as mechanical ventilation time, postoperative 48-h drainage volume, blood transfusion volume, the ICU-stay time and postoperative hospital stay, were reduced significantly as compared with those in the Conventional group. Whereas three postoperative deaths in the hospital occurred in the Conventional treatment group, all the patients in the Modification group were cured. There is no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups. The patients had a 100% follow up with a mean of 17 ± 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate hypothermia with a short circulatory arrest is a safe and effective HCA approach that provides satisfactory early and near-midterm results in the patients who received ATAAD treatment.

19.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 201, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is mainly an anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) autoantibodies-mediated idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Systemic and local inflammatory responses play a key role in the pathophysiology of NMOSD. However, the role of the crucial immunomodulators CD4+CD25+ forkhead box P3+ (Foxp3) regulatory T cells (Tregs) has not been investigated in NMOSD. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with anti-AQP4-postive NMOSD undergoing an attack and 21 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Frequencies of T cell subsets and Tregs in the peripheral blood were assessed by flow cytometry. Additionally, a model of NMOSD using purified immunoglobulin G from anti-AQP4-antibodies-positive patients with NMOSD and human complement injected into brain of female adult C57BL/6J mice was established. Infiltrated Tregs into NMOSD mouse brain lesions were analyzed by flow cytometry, histological sections, and real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Astrocyte loss, demyelination, and inflammatory response were also evaluated in our NMOSD mouse model. Finally, we examined the effects of both depletion and adoptive transfer of Tregs. RESULTS: The percentage of Tregs, especially naïve Tregs, among total T cells in peripheral blood was significantly decreased in NMOSD patients at acute stage when compared to HCs. Within our animal model, the number and proportion of Tregs among CD4+ T cells were increased in the lesion of mice with NMOSD. Depletion of Tregs profoundly enhanced astrocyte loss and demyelination in these mice, while adoptive transfer of Tregs attenuated brain damage. Mechanistically, the absence of Tregs induced more macrophage infiltration, microglial activation, and T cells invasion, and modulated macrophages/microglia toward a classical activation phenotype, releasing more chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, Tregs transfer ameliorated immune cell infiltration in NMOSD mice, including macrophages, neutrophils, and T cells, and skewed macrophages and microglia towards an alternative activation phenotype, thereby decreasing the level of chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: Tregs may be key immunomodulators ameliorating brain damage via dampening inflammatory response after NMOSD.

20.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 9: 727886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504834

RESUMO

Nanozymes own striking merits, including high enzyme-mimicking activity, good stability, and low cost. Due to the powerful and distinguished functions, nanozymes exhibit widespread applications in the field of biosensing and immunoassay, attracting researchers in various fields to design and engineer nanozymes. Recently, nanozymes have been innovatively used to bridge nanotechnology with analytical techniques to achieve the high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. However, the applications of nanozymes in food applications are seldom reviewed. In this review, we summarize several typical nanozymes and provide a comprehensive description of the history, principles, designs, and applications of nanozyme-based analytical techniques in food contaminants detection. Based on engineering and modification of nanozymes, the food contaminants are classified and then discussed in detail via discriminating the roles of nanozymes in various analytical methods, including fluorescence, colorimetric and electrochemical assay, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, magnetic relaxing sensing, and electrochemiluminescence. Further, representative examples of nanozymes-based methods are highlighted for contaminants analysis and inhibition. Finally, the current challenges and prospects of nanozymes are discussed.

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