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2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorogenic acid (CGA), as one of the most abundant phenolic acids in nature, has been documented to be beneficial for intestinal health. However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. The adult intestinal stem cell is the critical driver of epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. RESULTS: Here, this study hypothesized that CGA exerted intestinal health effects via modulating intestinal stem cell functions. Lgr5-EGFP mice and intestinal organoids derived from the above mice were treated for 14 days and 3 days using CGA solution, respectively. Compared with the control group, CGA treatment evidently increased intestinal villous height and crypt depth in mice and augmented the area expansion and the budding number of intestinal organoids. qPCR analysis revealed that CGA treatment significantly increased the expression of genes coding intestinal stem cells marker in intestinal tissue and organoid, and upregulated the expression of genes coding secretory cell lineages and enterocytes, although not statistically significant. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further confirmed that CGA augmented the number of stem cells. In addition, Edu incorporation and Ki67 immunostaining results demonstrated that CGA treatment enhanced intestinal stem cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our findings indicate that CGA could activate intestinal stem cell and epithelial regeneration, which may contribute to the improvement of intestinal morphology or organoid growth of mice. This highlights a promising mechanism for CGA as an excellent candidate for the formulation of dietary supplements and functional foods for intestinal protection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36622331

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a crucial role in immunosuppression. However, how TAMs are transformed into immunosuppressive phenotypes and influence the tumor microenvironment (TME) is not fully understood. Here, we utilized single-cell RNA sequencing and whole-exome sequencing data of glioblastoma (GBM) tissues and identified a subset of TAMs dually expressing macrophage and tumor signatures, which were termed double-positive TAMs. Double-positive TAMs tended to be bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and were characterized by immunosuppressive phenotypes. Phagocytosis of glioma cells by BMDMs in vitro generated double-positive TAMs with similar immunosuppressive phenotypes to double-positive TAMs in the GBM TME of patients. The double-positive TAMs were transformed into M2-like macrophages and drove immunosuppression by expressing immune checkpoint proteins CD276, PD-L1, and PD-L2 and suppressing the proliferation of activated T cells. Together, glioma cell phagocytosis by BMDMs in the TME leads to the formation of double-positive TAMs with enhanced immunosuppressive phenotypes, shedding light on the processes driving TAM-mediated immunosuppression in GBM.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660824

RESUMO

While linear ubiquitin plays critical roles in multiple cell signaling pathways, few substrates have been identified. Global profiling of linear ubiquitin substrates represents a significant challenge because of the low endogenous level of linear ubiquitination and the background interference arising from highly abundant ubiquitin linkages (e.g. K48- and K63-) and from the non-specific attachment of interfering proteins to the linear polyubiquitin chain. We developed a bio-orthogonal linear ubiquitin probe by site-specific encoding of a norbornene amino acid on ubiquitin (NAEK-Ub). This probe facilitates covalent labeling of linear ubiquitin substrates in live cells and enables selective enrichment and identification of linear ubiquitin-modified proteins. Given the fact that the frequent overexpression of the linear linkage-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN correlates with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, we demonstrated the feasibility of the NAEK-Ub strategy by identifying and validating substrates of linear ubiquitination in patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). We identified STAT3 as a bona fide substrate of linear ubiquitin, and showed that linear ubiquitination negatively regulates STAT3 activity by recruitment of the phosphatase TC-PTP to STAT3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that preferential expression of OTULIN in GSCs restricts linear ubiquitination on STAT3 and drives persistent STAT3 signaling, and thereby maintains the stemness and self-renewal of GSCs.

5.
Foods ; 12(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673436

RESUMO

Plant-based meat analogs are food products that mimic the appearance, texture, and taste of real meat. The development process requires laborious experimental iterations and expert knowledge to meet consumer expectations. To address these problems, we propose a machine learning (ML)-based framework to predict the textural properties of meat analogs. We introduce the proximate compositions of the raw materials, namely protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre, ash, and moisture, in percentages and the "targeted moisture contents" of the meat analogs as input features of the ML models, such as Ridge, XGBoost, and MLP, adopting a build-in feature selection mechanism for predicting "Hardness" and "Chewiness". We achieved a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 22.9%, root mean square error (RMSE) of 10.101 for Hardness, MAPE of 14.5%, and RMSE of 6.035 for Chewiness. In addition, carbohydrates, fat and targeted moisture content are found to be the most important factors in determining textural properties. We also investigate multicollinearity among the features, linearity of the designed model, and inconsistent food compositions for validation of the experimental design. Our results have shown that ML is an effective aid in formulating plant-based meat analogs, laying out the groundwork to expediently optimize product development cycles to reduce costs.

6.
Environ Sci Ecotechnol ; 14: 100232, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36685748

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have become cause for growing concern in the Arctic ecosystems, partly due to their stable levels despite global emission reduction. Wildfire is considered one of the primary sources that influence PAH levels and trends in the Arctic, but quantitative investigations of this influence are still lacking. This study estimates the global emissions of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a congener of PAHs with high carcinogenicity, from forest and grassland fires from 2001 to 2020 and simulates the contributions of wildfire-induced BaP emissions from different source regions to BaP contamination in the Arctic. We find that global wildfires contributed 29.3% to annual averaging BaP concentrations in the Arctic from 2001 to 2020. Additionally, we show that wildfires contributed significantly to BaP concentrations in the Arctic after 2011, enhancing it from 10.1% in 2011 to 83.9% in 2020. Our results reveal that wildfires accounted for 94.2% and 50.8% of BaP levels in the Asian Arctic during boreal summer and autumn, respectively, and 74.2% and 14.5% in the North American Arctic for the same seasons. The source-tagging approach identified that local wildfire biomass emissions were the largest source of BaP in the Arctic, accounting for 65.7% of its concentration, followed by those of Northern Asia (17.8%) and Northern North America (13.7%). Our findings anticipate wildfires to play a larger role in Arctic PAH contaminations alongside continually decreasing anthropogenic emissions and climate warming in the future.

7.
iScience ; 26(1): 105706, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36619969

RESUMO

Atmospheric emission sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in China's eastern seaboard regions cause heavy POP contamination in the Bohai Sea (BS), China. Because many rivers are emptying into the BS, terrestrial runoff has been considered a dominant pathway of POPs onto the BS. Here, we explored the contribution of atmospheric transport and terrestrial runoff to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) to the BS by using an atmospheric transport model and a terrestrial runoff model. We examined the sensitivity and response of OPFR in the BS seawater to its atmospheric transport, deposition, and riverine discharge via terrestrial runoff. Both terrestrial runoff and atmospheric transport model simulations reveal that the atmospheric transport and deposition, including dry, wet, and diffusive gaseous deposition, dominate OPFR input into the BS. The total OPFR fluxes entering the BS via the atmospheric pathway and riverine input were 70.4 and 2.8 t/yr in 2013, respectively.

8.
Ecol Indic ; 146: 109862, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624881

RESUMO

To prevent the spread of COVID-19, China enacted a series of strict policies, which reduced anthropogenic activities to a near standstill. This provided a precious window to explore its effects on the spatio-temporal distribution of air pollution in Beijing, China. In this study, continuous wavelet transforms and spatial interpolation methods were used to explore the spatiotemporal variations in air pollutants and their lockdown effects. The results indicate that except O3, the annual average concentration of NO2, PM2.5 and SO2 showed a decreasing trend during 2016 and 2019; NO2, PM2.5 and SO2 show a trend of "low in summer and high in winter"; the diurnal variation of NO2 concentration was mainly related to the rush hours of traffic volume, with the first peak at the morning peak (7:00), and then accumulating gradually to second peak (22:00). The continuous wavelet analysis shows that PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 had four primary periods, while O3 only had two primary periods. The high NO2 concentration areas were mainly in Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang and Fengtai, while the low concentration areas were located in the northern areas, such as Miyun and Huairou; the PM2.5 concentration decreased from south to north; this characteristic presented more obviously in winter. Compared to the pre-lockdown, NO2 and SO2 decreased considerably during lockdown, whereas PM2.5 and O3 increased dramatically. The contribution rates of transportation activities to the NO2, O3, PM2.5 and SO2 were estimated be 9.4 % ∼ 17.2 %, -76.4 % ∼ -42.9 %, -39.5 % ∼ -22.8 % and 5.7 % ∼ 43.7 %, respectively; the contribution rates of industrial activities were 19.9 % ∼ 26.7 %, 7.8 % ∼ 30.9 %, 1.6 % ∼ 36.2 % and -10.5 % ∼ 15.9 %, respectively. Considering meteorological factors, we inferred that pauses in anthropogenic activities indeed help improving air pollution, but it is difficult to offset the impact of extreme weather. These findings can enhance our understanding on the sources of air pollution, and can therefore provide insights on urban air pollution mitigation.

9.
Thromb J ; 21(1): 3, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antithrombin (AT) is the main physiological anticoagulant involved in hemostasis. Hereditary AT deficiency is a rare autosomal dominant thrombotic disease mainly caused by mutations in SERPINC1, which was usually manifested as venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In this study, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and screened for mutant genes in two pedigrees with hereditary AT deficiency, and the functional effects of the pathogenic mutations were evaluated. METHODS: Candidate gene variants were analyzed by next-generation sequencing to screen pathogenic mutations in probands, followed by segregation analysis in families by Sanger sequencing. Mutant and wild-type plasmids were constructed and transfected into HEK293T cells to observe protein expression and cellular localization of SERPINC1. The structure and function of the mutations were analyzed by bioinformatic analyses. RESULTS: The proband of pedigree A with AT deficiency carried a heterozygous frameshift mutation c.1377delC (p.Asn460Thrfs*20) in SERPINC1 (NM000488.3), a 1377C base deletion in exon 7 resulting in a backward shift of the open reading frame, with termination after translation of 20 residues, and a different residue sequence translated after the frameshift. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the missing amino acid sequence caused by the frameshift mutation might disrupt the disulfide bond between Cys279 and Cys462 and affect the structural function of the protein. This newly discovered variant is not currently included in the ClinVar and HGMD databases. p.Arg229* resulted in a premature stop codon in exon 4, and bioinformatics analysis suggests that the truncated protein structure lost its domain of interaction with factor IX (Ala414 site) after the deletion of nonsense mutations. However, considering the AT truncation protein resulting from the p.Arg229* variant loss a great proportion of the molecule, we speculate the variant may affect two functional domains HBS and RCL and lack of the corresponding function. The thrombophilia and decreased-AT-activity phenotypes of the two pedigrees were separated from their genetic variants. After lentiviral plasmid transfection into HEK293T cells, the expression level of AT protein decreased in the constructed c.1377delC mutant cells compared to that in the wild-type, which was not only reduced in c.685C > T mutant cells but also showed a significant band at 35 kDa, suggesting a truncated protein. Immunofluorescence localization showed no significant differences in protein localization before and after the mutation. CONCLUSIONS: The p.Asn460Thrfs*20 and p.Arg229* variants of SERPINC1 were responsible for the two hereditary AT deficiency pedigrees, which led to AT deficiency by different mechanisms. The p.Asn460Thrfs*20 variant is reported for the first time.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 447: 130799, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680900

RESUMO

Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) shows high effectiveness in the catalyzed removal of contaminants in wastewater treatment. However, the uncontrolled interfacial electron transfer behavior and formation of surface iron oxide (FeOx) layer led to severe electron wasting and occasionally form highly toxic intermediates. Here, we constructed magnetic mesoporous SiO2 shell on surface of nZVI to stimulate a magnetic spatial confinement effect and regulate the electron transfer pattern. Therein, Fe atom facilely spread out from the nZVI core, orderly release electron to surface adsorbed H2O molecule, which is efficiently transformed into active hydrogen (H*). Meanwhile, in-situ Raman revealed that Fe atoms were involved in the formation of penetrable γ-FeOOH rather than FeOx layer, enabling the continuous inward diffusion of H2O and outward diffusion of H* . Employing the catalyzed removal of halogenated phenols as demo reaction, the presence of magnetic mesoporous SiO2 shell utilized the reaction between electrons and H2O to switch the reaction pathway from the reduction/oxidation hybrid process to hydrodehalogantion, and increased the conversion of halogenated phenols-to-phenols by 5.53 times. This study shows the forehand of improving the decontamination performance of nZVI through sophisticated designed surface coating, as well as fine regulating the environmental behavior of magnetic material via micro-magnetic field.

12.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117198, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603270

RESUMO

Facing increasing trade policy uncertainty, deeply understanding the impacts of trade policy shocks on the economy and energy is of vital realistic importance for China to respond to these shocks, strengthen economic resilience, and promote high-quality development. This study develops an integrating input-output model with economy and energy, and evaluates the extreme effects of trade policy uncertainty on the macro-economy, industry development, and energy consumption in China, based on bottom-line thinking. The results are shown as follows. Firstly, under extreme scenarios, trade restriction policies would harm China's economy with a maximum GDP decline of 5.65%. However, China's countermeasures against trade restrictions could reduce economic losses by an average of 2.07%. Secondly, the industries would be hit by trade policy uncertainty in varying degrees. Trade policy uncertainty would strike the textile and apparel industry, machinery industry and other manufacturing 7.64% greater than other industries on average. Thirdly, under extreme scenarios, trade restriction policies would decrease China's energy consumption with a maximum drop of 6.91%; China's countermeasures against this could raise energy consumption by an average of 2.46%. Fourth, the fossil energy consumption reduced by trade policy uncertainty would be 3.95% more than the non-fossil energy consumption on average.

13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 302: 120421, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604083

RESUMO

Cellulose is regarded as the most abundant biomass, and nanocellulose derived from it has numerous applications in environmentally friendly materials. However, owing to the abundant hydroxyl groups on surface, nanocellulose is prone to agglomeration when transported, stored, or made into materials, which destroys material performance and limits its use. In this study, a feasible method was presented for regulating the hydrogen bonding strength between cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) by adding a minute quantity of rare earth ions Y3+ during cellulose nanofibrillation. It was found that the strength of hydrogen bonding between CNFs can be regulated by controlling the quantity of Y3+ in the system. The dispersibility and stability of CNFs, as well as the mechanical properties of CNFs films and CNFs-reinforced papers can be improved by 43.07 % and by 64.05 % after adding only 0.05 or 0.075 wt% Y3+. The possible mechanism of CNFs hydrogen bonding network reconstruction was proposed.


Assuntos
Celulose , Nanofibras , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Íons
14.
Brain Behav ; : e2888, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Periodontitis has been implicated in the incidence of ischemic stroke. However, the generalizability of results to individuals with different subtypes of periodontitis is unknown. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) with ischemic stroke and its subtypes in the Mendelian randomization framework. METHODS: The genetic proxies of CP were derived from large-scale summary statistics from the UK Biobank datasets (950 cases and 455,398 controls). The genetic associations of AgP were selected from another large genome-wide association study of European ancestry (851 cases and 6836 controls). The instruments of ischemic stroke (34,217 cases and 406,111 controls) and its subtypes were selected from the MEGASTROKE consortium of European ancestry. The inverse variant weighted method was performed to determine the causal inference and a comprehensive set of sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: In population-wide genetic analysis, there was no association of genetically predicted AgP (odds ratio [OR], 0.982; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.956-1.009; p = .197) with ischemic stroke or its subtypes. For patients with CP, there was also no significant causal inference on ischemic stroke (OR, 1.017; 95% CI, 0.992-1.043; p = .184). However, regarding the stroke subtypes, the genetic analysis provided evidence of a causal relationship of CP with cardioembolic stroke (OR, 1.052; 95% CI, 1.002-1.104; p = .042), but not with large artery atherosclerosis (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 0.944-1.069; p = .875) or small vessel occlusion (OR, 1.039; 95% CI, 0.981-1.101; p = .193). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that there was a potential causal effect of CP on cardioembolic stroke.

15.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2205566, 2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599707

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-enclosed structures that deliver biomolecules for intercellular communication. Developing visualization methods to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of EVs' behaviors will facilitate their understanding and translation. With a quantum dot (QD) labeling strategy, a single particle tracking (SPT) platform is proposed here for dissecting the dynamic behaviors of EVs. The interplays between tumor cell-derived small EVs (T-sEVs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are specifically investigated based on this platform. It is revealed that, following a clathrin-mediated endocytosis by ECs, T-sEVs are transported to the perinuclear region in a typical three-stage pattern. Importantly, T-sEVs frequently interact with and finally enter lysosomes, followed by quick release of their carried miRNAs. This study, for the first time, reports the entire process and detailed dynamics of T-sEV transportation and cargo-release in ECs, leading to better understanding of their proangiogenic functions. Additionally, the QD-based SPT technique will help uncover more secrets of sEV-mediated cell-cell communication.

17.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactate is an important metabolite derived from glycolysis under physiological and pathological conditions. The Warburg effect reveals the vital role of lactate in cancer progression. Numerous studies have reported crucial roles for lactate in cancer progression and cell fate determination. Lactylation, a novel posttranslational modification (PTM), has provided a new opportunity to investigate metabolic epigenetic regulation, and studies of this process have been initiated in a wide range of cancer cells, cancer-associated immune cells, and embryonic stem cells. CONCLUSION: Lactylation is a novel and interesting mechanism of lactate metabolism linked to metabolic rewiring and epigenetic remodeling. It is a potential and hopeful target for cancer therapy. Here, we summarize the discovery of lactylation, the mechanisms of site modification, and progress in research on nonhistone lactylation. We focus on the potential roles of lactylation in cancer progression and cell fate determination and the possible therapeutic strategies for targeting lysine lactylation. Finally, we suggest some future research topics on lactylation to inspire some interesting ideas.

18.
Nature ; 613(7943): 324-331, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599989

RESUMO

Pathogens generate ubiquitous selective pressures and host-pathogen interactions alter social behaviours in many animals1-4. However, very little is known about the neuronal mechanisms underlying pathogen-induced changes in social behaviour. Here we show that in adult Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites, exposure to a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) modulates sensory responses to pheromones by inducing the expression of the chemoreceptor STR-44 to promote mating. Under standard conditions, C. elegans hermaphrodites avoid a mixture of ascaroside pheromones to facilitate dispersal5-13. We find that exposure to the pathogenic Pseudomonas bacteria enables pheromone responses in AWA sensory neurons, which mediate attractive chemotaxis, to suppress the avoidance. Pathogen exposure induces str-44 expression in AWA neurons, a process regulated by a transcription factor zip-5 that also displays a pathogen-induced increase in expression in AWA. STR-44 acts as a pheromone receptor and its function in AWA neurons is required for pathogen-induced AWA pheromone response and suppression of pheromone avoidance. Furthermore, we show that C. elegans hermaphrodites, which reproduce mainly through self-fertilization, increase the rate of mating with males after pathogen exposure and that this increase requires str-44 in AWA neurons. Thus, our results uncover a causal mechanism for pathogen-induced social behaviour plasticity, which can promote genetic diversity and facilitate adaptation of the host animals.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Feromônios , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Organismos Hermafroditas/fisiologia , Feromônios/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Receptores de Feromônios/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo
19.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647424

RESUMO

There are currently approximately 4,000 mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein gene and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to spread rapidly worldwide. Universal vaccines with high efficacy and safety urgently need to be developed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 variants pandemic. Here, we described a novel self-assembling universal mRNA vaccine containing a heterologous receptor-binding domain (HRBD)-based dodecamer (HRBDdodecamer) against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (B.1.1.28.1), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529). HRBD containing four heterologous RBD (Delta, Beta, Gamma, and Wild-type) can form a stable dodecameric conformation under T4 trimerization tag (Flodon, FD). The HRBDdodecamer -encoding mRNA was then encapsulated into the newly-constructed LNPs consisting of a novel ionizable lipid (4N4T). The obtained universal mRNA vaccine (4N4T-HRBDdodecamer) presented higher efficiency in mRNA transfection and expression than the approved ALC-0315 LNPs, initiating potent immune protection against the immune escape of SARS-CoV-2 caused by evolutionary mutation. These findings demonstrated the first evidence that structure-based antigen design and mRNA delivery carrier optimization may facilitate the development of effective universal mRNA vaccines to tackle SARS-CoV-2 variants pandemic.

20.
Small ; : e2207517, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650989

RESUMO

Aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted burgeoning interests owing to the prospect in large-scale and safe energy storage application. Although manganese oxides are one of the typical cathodes of ZIBs, their practical usage is still hindered by poor service life and rate performance. Here, a MnO2 -carbon hybrid framework is reported, which is obtained in a reaction between the dimethylimidazole ligand from a rational designed MOF array and potassium permanganate, achieving ultralong-cycle-life ZIBs. The unique structural feature of uniform MnO2 nanocrystals which are well-distributed in the carbon matrix leads to a 90.4% capacity retention after 50 000 cycles. In situ characterization and theoretical calculations verify the co-ions intercalation with boosted reaction kinetics. The hybridization between MnO2 and carbon endows the hybrid with enhanced electrons/ions transport kinetics and robust structural stability. This work provides a facile strategy to enhance the battery performance of manganese oxide-based ZIBs.

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