Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 229
Filtrar
1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126923, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449334

RESUMO

Areca nut (AN) is a fundamental component of betel quid (BQ), an addictive and carcinogenic mixture chewed by hundreds of millions of people in India-Asia-Pacific. Chewing of BQ is associated with oral cancers due to specific carcinogenic alkaloids (arecaidine, guvacine, guvacoline, arecoline, N-Nitrosoguvacoline) in AN. To predict the hazardous health risks of short and long-term chewing of BQ, it is crucial to identify five toxic AN alkaloids in saliva and urine of BQ chewers. This study reports a green analytical methodology comprising in-syringe assisted vortex-induced salt-enhanced liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with ultra-HPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous biomonitoring of five AN alkaloids in saliva and urine. The analytical method validation results exhibited good linearities between 0.05 and 1000 ng mL-1 with r2 > 0.9930. The detection and quantification limits were between 0.01 and 1.5 and 0.05-5 ng mL-1. Relative recoveries ranged between 87.9% and 110.1% with RSD < 9.1% for saliva samples, 81.5-115.1% with RSD < 9.7% for urine samples. The results indicated the successful identification and real-time monitoring of concentrations of five target AN alkaloids in saliva and urine of BQ chewers and demonstrated the utility of this technique as an efficient analytical protocol for routine biomonitoring of levels of toxic AN alkaloids from BQ chewers and to predict the exposure level and its harmful health risk.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151261, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715222

RESUMO

The Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (TMICS) was launched with the aim to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on infant health. A total of 1102 pregnant women were enrolled in this study from 2012 to 2015. All participants completed a structured questionnaire, and provided urine specimens. The urinary concentrations of PAE metabolites in the third trimester were measured using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Generalized additive model-penalized regression splines and logistic regression models were employed to determine the risk for low birth weight (LBW) or small for gestational age (SGA) among pregnant women exposed to PAEs. After adjustments for other covariates, each incremental unit of ln-transformed mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) for pregnant women increased the odds of SGA in male neonates by 1.44 (95% CI: 0.92-2.23). An inverse association between SGA and maternal MnBP exposure level was observed in female neonates. An increase in one ln-transformed MnBP concentration unit decreased the risk of female SGA to 0.50 (95% CI: 0.24-0.97). In the penalized regression splines, increased risks of LBW/SGA in male neonates were presented while pregnant women exposed to increased MnBP levels. However, an association in the opposite direction was observed between maternal MnBP and LBW or SGA for male and female neonates. This study indicated that high maternal MnBP exposure in the third trimester was associated with LBW or SGA for male infants. Adverse effects on susceptible populations exposed to high levels of PAEs should be of concern.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2131327, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705012

RESUMO

Importance: The prevalence of atopic dermatitis has substantially increased in recent decades, and atopic dermatitis could lead to allergic airway inflammation later in life. A previous study found that inorganic arsenic exposure was associated with allergic airway inflammation in children aged 8 to 14 years. However, the association between prenatal exposure to arsenic and other metals and the risk of atopic dermatitis among young children remains unknown. Objective: To assess the association between prenatal exposure to arsenic and other metals and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis in children at age 4 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: In total, 1152 pregnant women were enrolled in the original Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (TMICS), a multicenter birth cohort study conducted at 9 hospitals in northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan from October 2012 to May 2015. Of those, 586 mothers and children aged 4 years participated in follow-up questionnaire interviews from August 2016 to January 2019. After excluding 216 participants with missing data, the final statistical analysis of follow-up data included 370 mother and child pairs from the central and eastern regions of Taiwan. Data were analyzed from February 2 to August 12, 2021. Exposures: Arsenic, cadmium, lead, cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and zinc during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was parent-reported atopic dermatitis history among children aged 4 years. The presence of atopic dermatitis was defined as a positive response to the question, "Has your child ever had atopic dermatitis diagnosed by a physician?" During the initial TMICS study period, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and zinc were measured in maternal urine during the third trimester of pregnancy using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Estimated total inorganic arsenic exposure was calculated using a model that included data on both total arsenic and arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsenate) obtained from a previous TMICS cohort. Results: Among 370 children included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 3.94 (0.59) years; 208 children (56.2%) were male, and 267 children (72.2%) were from the central region of Taiwan. A total of 110 children (29.7%) had atopic dermatitis at age 4 years. Maternal estimated total inorganic arsenic exposure during pregnancy was associated with increased odds of atopic dermatitis among children at age 4 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.42 [95% CI, 1.33-4.39] for every doubled increase of total inorganic arsenic) after adjusting for parental allergies, child's sex, geographic area, maternal educational level, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Every increased unit in the weighted quantile sum index of maternal metal exposure was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28-2.07). Arsenic (40.1%) and cadmium (20.5%) accounted for most of the metal mixture index. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic and coexposure to inorganic arsenic and cadmium were associated with a higher risk of atopic dermatitis in young children. These findings suggest that prevention of exposure to inorganic arsenic and cadmium during pregnancy may be helpful for the control of atopic dermatitis and other potential allergies in children.

4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573096

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually causes devastating healthy impacts on patients. However, the causes affecting the decline of kidney function are not fully revealed, especially the involvement of environmental pollutants. We have revealed that exposure to melamine, a ubiquitous chemical in daily life, is linked to adverse kidney outcomes. Hyperoxaluria that results from exposure to excessive oxalate, a potentially nephrotoxic terminal metabolite, is reportedly associated with CKD. Thus, we explored whether interaction of these two potential nephrotoxicants could enhance kidney injury. We established a renal proximal tubular HK-2 cell model and a Sprague-Dawley rat model of coexposure to melamine with sodium oxalate or hydroxy-L-proline to investigate the interacting adverse effects on kidneys. Melamine and oxalate coexposure enhanced the levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in the HK-2 cells and kidney tissues. The degrees of tubular cell apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were elevated under the coexposed condition, which may result from the diminishment of Nrf2 antioxidative capacity. To conclude, melamine and oxalate coexposure aggravates renal tubular injury via impairment of antioxidants. Accumulative harmful effects of exposure to multiple environmental nephrotoxicants should be carefully investigated in the etiology of CKD progression.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112756, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507040

RESUMO

Exposure to melamine, which is ubiquitous in daily life, is linked to adverse kidney outcomes. The melamine tolerable daily intake in humans is based on the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) established in a single-toxicant murine model. However, humans are often simultaneously exposed to multiple environmental nephrotoxicants. The NOEL of melamine during coexposure with other toxicants needs to be evaluated. Oxalate is a potentially nephrotoxic terminal metabolite, and hyperoxaluria is reportedly associated with chronic kidney disease. We explored whether these two potential nephrotoxicants can interact and enhance kidney injury. We established a Sprague-Dawley rat model of coexposure to the melamine NOEL (63 mg/kg/day) and 2% hydroxy-L-proline (HLP, an oxalate precursor) in drinking water to simulate human environmental melamine exposure. Melamine/oxalate coexposure increased proximal tubular cell mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. The degrees of mitochondrial damage, tubular cell apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were elevated in coexposed rat kidneys. The evidence indicated that exposure to the melamine NOEL can cause renal tubular injury via oxidative stress and that this effect may be enhanced via interaction of melamine with other environmental factors, such as oxalate. Thus, melamine risk assessment and toxicity prevention should be conducted carefully in different susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Oxalatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Rim , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triazinas
6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439570

RESUMO

Many studies have reported various cardiovascular autonomic responses to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution, but few have reported such responses to occupational PM exposures. Even fewer have demonstrated a relationship between PM pollution and oxidative stress in humans. This panel study evaluates the association between occupational exposure to PM in cooking oil fumes (COFs), and changes in both heart rate variability (HRV) and oxidative stress responses in 54 male Chinese cooks. Linear mixed-effects regression models were adopted to estimate the strength of the association between PM and HRV. Participants' pre- and post-workshift urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Exposure to PM in COFs from 15 min to 2 h were associated with a decrease in HRV and an increase in heart rate among cooks. The urinary 8-OHdG levels of cooks were significantly elevated after workshift exposure to COFs. The levels of PM2.5, PM1.0, and particulate benzo(a)pyrene in COFs were all positively correlated with cross-workshift urinary 8-OHdG levels. Furthermore, the levels of benzo(a)pyrene in COFs were positively correlated with cross-workshift urinary MDA levels. The effects of COFs on HRV were independent of cross-workshift urinary 8-OHdG levels. Exposure to COFs leads to disturbed autonomic function and an increased risk of oxidative DNA injury among cooks in Chinese restaurants.

7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 472, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With a rapidly aging population, there is an increasing need for do-not-resuscitate (DNR) and advance care planning (ACP) discussions. This study investigated the factors associated with signing DNR documents of older patients in the geriatric ward. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a geriatric ward in a tertiary hospital in Southern Taiwan. Three hundred and thirty-seven hospitalized older patients aged ≥65 years in the geriatric ward from 2018 to 2019. The Hospital Information System and electronic medical records were accessed to obtain details regarding patients' demographics, daily living activities, serum albumin level, nutrition screening score, intensive care unit transferal, resuscitation procedure, days of hospital stay, and survival status on discharge, and DNR status was recorded retrospectively. Patients were classified into DNR and non-DNR groups, with t-tests and Chi-square tests applied to compare the differences between groups. Logistic regression was performed to predict factors related to the DNR documents. RESULTS: A total of 337 patients were included, 66 of whom had signed a DNR during hospitalization. After multivariate logistic regression, age 85 or more compared to age 65-74 (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 5.94), poor nutrition with screening score two or more (aOR 2.71), albumin level less than 3 (aOR 3.24), Charlson Comorbidity Index higher than 2 (aOR 2.46) and once transferred to ICU (aOR 5.11) were independently associated with DNR documentation during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors related to DNR documents for geriatric patients were identified which could provide clinical information for physicians, patients, and their families to discuss DNR and ACP.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(6): 831-840, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384653

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Previous studies have found a higher risk in nurses but no clear relationship among other health professionals. This study aims to investigate the risks of incident breast cancer among female health professionals compared with that among nonhealth professionals in Taiwan. METHODS: This longitudinal observational cohort study included >35 years (1979-2016) of data from 4 nationwide population-based databases in Taiwan and identified matched cohorts with 1-to-2 propensity score matching between 277,543 health professionals and 555,086 nonhealth professionals. This study calculated total person-years for study subjects and compared breast cancer incidence between matched health and nonhealth professionals. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and competing risk analyses were used, stratified by birth age, job tenure categories, and types of health professional license. Statistical analyses were conducted in 2019-2020. RESULTS: Health professionals had a significantly higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio=1.34, 95% CI=1.28-1.41; subdistribution hazard ratio=1.36, 95% CI=1.30, 1.42). Elevated risk of breast cancer incidence was associated with birth age, job tenure, and several health professional license types, including physician, pharmacist, registered nurse, midwife, medical technologist, and psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated breast cancer risk was found overall in female health professionals. Regular ultrasonography for younger women and mammography for those aged >45 years may be necessary in the annual labor physical examination for female health professionals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205756

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly aggressive tumor known to have locally advanced and metastatic features which cause a dismal prognosis. We sought to determine whether elafin, a non-invasive and secretory small-molecule marker, could be used to predict prognosis in locoregional ESCC patients in human and in vitro studies. In our human study, 119 subjects were identified as having incident and pathologically-proved ESCC with stage I-IIIA tumors from southern Taiwan between 2000 and 2016. We measured their serum elafin levels at baseline and followed them until the date of cancer death or until January 2020, the end of this study. Those with high serum elafin levels were found to have a 1.99-fold risk (95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.38) shorter survival than those who did not. In our in vitro experiments, elevated elafin levels were found to drive ESCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while attenuation of elafin level by shRNA abrogated those effects. We concluded that elafin promotes ESCC motility and invasion and leads to a worse clinical prognosis in ESCC patients without distant metastasis.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 418: 126267, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111746

RESUMO

Heavy metal ions (HMIs) pollution is always a serious issue worldwide. Therefore, monitoring HMIs in environmental water is an important and challenging step to ensure environmental health and human safety. In this study, we spotlight an effortless, single-step in-situ electrochemical polymerization deposition technique to fabricate a novel, low-cost, efficient, nano-engineered poly(melamine)/graphitic-carbon nitride nanonetwork (PM/g-C3N4) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPE) for sensitive, selective, and simultaneous electrochemical monitoring of toxic HMIs in environmental waters. g-C3N4 nanomaterial was prepared using melamine as a precursor via pyrolysis technique. As-prepared g-C3N4 and melamine monomer were electrochemically in-situ polymerized/deposited over pre-anodized SPE (ASPE) using cyclic voltammetry technique. XRD, XPS, and SEM were engaged to characterize the developed electrode. The fabricated PM/g-C3N4/ASPE was applied as an environmental sensor to selective and simultaneous electrochemical detection of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions using differential pulse voltammetry technique. The developed sensor displayed excellent selectivity and sensitivity towards Pb2+ and Cd2+ with limit of detections of 0.008 µM and 0.02 µM, respectively. The fabricated PM/g-C3N4/ASPE sensor exhibits superior stability, repeatability, good anti-interference, and applicability for recognition of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions in real water samples. These results proved that developed environmental sensor is low-cost, efficient, practical platform for rapid, selective, simultaneous monitoring of HMIs in the environment.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Nitrilas , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Humanos
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12955, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155234

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases are increasing faster in HIV/AIDS patients than in the general population. We studied the association between hypertension and other possible confounding factors on viral load and CD4-cell counts in hypertensive and non-hypertensive HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at a large hospital in Eswatini over a 4-year period. We performed a retrospective longitudinal review of the medical records of 560 ART patients divided into non-hypertension and hypertension groups (n = 325 and n = 235) from July 27 to September 8, 2018. Generalized Estimated Equation was used to analyze the longitudinal data. Hypertensive patients were more likely to have improved CD4-cell counts than non-hypertensive patients (OR = 1.83, [1.37-2.44]). ART patients with hypertension were more likely to have detectable viral loads, though not significant (OR = 1.37 [0.77-2.43]). In non-hypertensive patients, second line ART was significantly associated with viral load (OR = 8.61 [2.93-25.34]) and adverse side effects (OR = 3.50 [1.06-11.54]), while isoniazid preventive therapy was significantly associated with CD4-cell counts (OR = 1.68 [1.16-2.45]). In hypertensive patients, factors associated with viral load were WHO HIV stage (OR = 2.84 [1.03-7.85]) and adherence (OR = 8.08 [1.33-49.04]). In both groups, CD4-cell counts significantly and steadily increased over time (p-value < 0.001). Results show a significant association between hypertension and CD4 cell counts but not viral load. In ART patients with and without hypertension, the factors associated with prognostic markers were different. More attention may need to be paid to ART patients with well controlled HIV status to monitoring and controlling of hypertension status.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
12.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(6): 2189-2199, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938965

RESUMO

Aristolochic acid (AA-I) induces upper urothelial tract cancer (UUTC) and bladder cancer (BC) in humans. AA-I forms the 7-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N6-yl)aristolactam I (dA-AL-I) adduct, which induces multiple A:T-to-T:A transversion mutations in TP53 of AA-I exposed UTUC patients. This mutation is rarely reported in TP53 of other transitional cell carcinomas and thus recognized as an AA-I mutational signature. A:T-to-T:A transversion mutations were recently detected in bladder tumors of patients in Asia with known AA-I-exposure, implying that AA-I contributes to BC. Mechanistic studies on AA-I genotoxicity have not been reported in human bladder. In this study, we examined AA-I DNA adduct formation and mechanisms of toxicity in the human RT4 bladder cell line. The biological potencies of AA-I were compared to 4-aminobiphenyl, a recognized human bladder carcinogen, and several structurally related carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA), which are present in urine of smokers and omnivores. AA-I (0.05-10 µM) induced a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. AA-I (100 nM) DNA adduct formation occurred at over a thousand higher levels than the principal DNA adducts formed with 4-ABP or HAAs (1 µM). dA-AL-I adduct formation was detected down to a 1 nM concentration. Studies with selective chemical inhibitors provided evidence that NQO1 is the major enzyme involved in AA-I bio-activation in RT4 cells, whereas CYP1A1, another enzyme implicated in AA-I toxicity, had a lesser role in bio-activation or detoxification of AA-I. AA-I DNA damage also induced genotoxic stress leading to p53-dependent apoptosis. These biochemical data support the human mutation data and a role for AA-I in BC.

13.
Environ Int ; 156: 106652, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034116

RESUMO

Environmental melamine exposure has been associated with deteriorating kidney function in early-stage chronic kidney disease patients. In this study, a benchmark dose (BMD) approach was used to establish melamine exposure threshold in 293 patients with eGFR≥30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The patients were enrolled 2006-2010 and followed-up for a median of 7.0 years to monitor kidney outcomes. Average daily intakes (AvDI) of melamine were estimated using one-spot urine samples collected at enrollment. BMDs and corresponding one-sided 95% lower bound (BMDLs) were derived using established dose-response models relating estimated AvDIs and dichotomous kidney outcomes: doubling of serum creatine levels, eGFR decreased > 3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, and >30% decline in eGFR during the first 2 years. In addition, survival time to doubling of serum creatinine and eGFR decline over time were assessed as continuous endpoints. Given a benchmark response of 0.10, BMDLs ranged from 0.74 to 2.03 µg/kg_bw/day after Bayesian model averaging, a range one to two orders lower than the current WHO recommended tolerable daily intake of 200 µg/kg_bw/day and the US FDA's 63 µg/kg_bw/day. Our results suggest that early-stage CKD patients should strictly refrain from using melamine tableware and related melamine-made products.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Rim , Triazinas/toxicidade
14.
Gerontology ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882496

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dementia is one of the major causes of disability and dependency among older people worldwide. Alz-heimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia among the elderly, has great impact on the health-care system of developed nations. Several risk factors are suggestive of an increased risk of AD, including APOE-ε4, male, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low social engagement. However, data on risk factors of AD progression are limited. Air pollution is revealed to be associated with increasing dementia incidence, but the relationship between air pollution and clinical AD cognitive deterioration is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a case-control and city-to-city study to compare the progression of AD patients in different level of air-polluted cities. Clinical data of a total of 704 AD patients were retrospectively collected, 584 residences in Kaohsiung and 120 residences in Pingtung between 2002 and 2018. An annual interview was performed with each patient, and the Clinical Dementia Rating score (0 [normal] to 3 [severe stage]) was used to evaluate their cognitive deterioration. Air pollution data of Kaohsiung and Pingtung city for 2002-2018 were retrieved from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Annual Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) and concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were obtained. RESULTS: The PSI was higher in Kaohsiung and compared with Pingtung patients, Kaohsiung patients were exposed to higher average annual concentrations of CO, NO2, PM10, and SO2. AD patients living in Kaohsiung suffered from faster cognitive deterioration in comparison with Pingtung patients (log-rank test: p = 0.016). When using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, higher levels of CO, NO2, PM10, and SO2 exposure were associated with increased risk of AD cognitive deterioration. Among all these air pollutants, high SO2 exposure has the greatest impact while O3 has a neutral effect on AD cognitive deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution is an environment-related risk factor that can be controlled and is associated with cognitive deterioration of AD. This finding could contribute to the implementation of public intervention strategies of AD.

15.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12214, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational characteristics in the food and beverage service industry (FBSI) have been found to be associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study aimed to examine gender and site-specific incident risks of MSDs among FBSI workers in Taiwan using a national population-based database. METHODS: We conducted a 15-year population-based cohort study among 224 506 FBSI workers in Taiwan using data from five large nationwide databases to estimate direct standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for identifying specific MSDs related to overexertion and repetitiveness during work. Overall, MSDs risks were also investigated by gender, sub-industrial categories, and certificate types. RESULTS: We found SIRs for overall MSDs for male and female workers of 1.706 (95% CI, 1.688-1.724) and 2.198 (95% CI, 2.177-2.219), respectively. Our findings indicate significantly increased WMSD risk for both men and women, including median/ulnar nerve disorders (ICD-9 354.0-354.2); spondylosis and allied disorders (ICD-9 721); intervertebral disc disorders (ICD-9 722); disorders of the back (ICD-9 724); peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes (ICD-9 726); synovium, tendon, and bursa disorders (ICD-9 727); and soft tissues of the peripheral system disorders (ICD-9 729). Food stall workers and workers with Chinese cuisine or baking licenses were at higher risk among sub-industrial categories and certificate types. CONCLUSION: This large-scale study revealed that FBSI workers were at higher risk for several MSDs than the general population. This information could help prioritize MSD problems and identify a high-risk population. Relevant policy and ergonomic improvements and interventions could be implemented for health promotion in this industry.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 94(6): 1363-1373, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain many carcinogens. We investigated the association between COFs and incidence risk of colorectal cancer and female breast in chefs. METHODS: We identified Chinese food chefs and non-Chinese food chefs from Taiwan's national database of certified chefs in 1984-2007. In total, 379,275 overall and 259,450 females had not been diagnosed as having any cancer before chef certification. We followed these chefs in Taiwan's Cancer Registry Database (1979-2010) and Taiwan's National Death Statistics Database (1985-2011) for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and female breast cancer. RESULTS: A total of 4,218,135 and 2,873,515 person-years were included in our analysis of colorectal cancer and female breast cancer incidence, respectively. Compared to non-Chinese food chefs, the Chinese food chefs had an adjusted IRR for colorectal cancer of 1.65 (95% CI 1.17-2.33). The risk of colorectal cancer was even higher among female Chinese food chefs certified for more than 5 years (adjusted incident rate ratio (IRR) = 2.39, 95% CI 1.38-4.12). For female breast cancer, the risk was also significant (adjusted IRR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.10-1.78) and the risks were even higher in female Chinese food chefs certified for more than 5 years (adjusted IRR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.37-2.22). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that Chinese food chefs had an increased risk of colorectal cancer and female breast cancer, particularly female chefs who had worked for more than 5 years. Future human and animal studies are necessary to re-confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Culinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Fumaça , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Res ; 195: 110815, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524332

RESUMO

Uncontrolled cooking emissions from commercial kitchens are problematic due to their corresponding health effects and malodors. To reduce cooking emissions, medium and large commercial kitchens install air pollution control devices, such as electrostatic precipitators and wet scrubbers, while small-scale commercial cooking workplaces, such as street-food stalls, use smaller, simpler, and less costly filtration and absorption devices. However, these smaller devices may be poorly designed and recirculate cooking emissions in the workplace. The objectives of this study were to design and implement a novel fume collector and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing aldehydes and the corresponding environmental burden emitted by food stalls. Two stalls, which had malodor problems despite the use of fume collectors, volunteered to participate in the study. To increase the efficiency of the existing fume collectors, a new collector was designed comprising two buckets connected in series, each with pollutant absorption (NaClO-surfactant mixed solution) and particulate filtration (activated-carbon filters) components. Total aldehyde concentrations measured at the exhaust outlets of the original and new collectors were 342.2 and 80.8 µg/m3 for stall A, and 622.7 and 283.1 µg/m3 for stall B, respectively. The corresponding concentration reductions for stall A and B were 76% and 55%, and the emission rate reductions were 91% (from 749 to 71 g/yr) and 76% (from 1040 g/yr to 248 g/h), respectively. These results demonstrate that the effectiveness of the novel collector at removing cooking fumes was significantly improved. The high efficiency and low-cost nature of the collector make it highly applicable in small-scale commercial kitchens and street-food stalls.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Aldeídos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Filtração , Gases , Emissões de Veículos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because there are no published biochemical reference intervals (RI) for pregnant Taiwanese women, we used an established islandwide birth cohort, the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study, to establish RIs for important biochemical parameters in women during their 3rd trimester in Taiwan. Additionally, we compared the differences in these biochemical parameters between early third trimester (weeks 28 to 31) and late third trimester (weeks 37 to 40) of pregnant women as well as the differences in them between the third trimester and after delivery. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, we recruited a total of 2,136 pregnant women from nine hospitals located in northern (n = 3), central (n = 3), southern (n = 2), and eastern Taiwan (n = 1) to receive regular prenatal health examinations during their third trimester (weeks 28 to 40). After exclusion, samples obtained from 993 eligible pregnant women were analyzed. RESULTS: There were increases in both lower and upper normal limits for blood neutrophil, thyroid profile (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and decreases for RBC, hemoglobin (Hb), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine (Cr) during their third trimesters. Women in their late third trimester (n = 378) had higher median RBC, Hb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Cr, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and lower median platelet and insulin, compared with those in their early third trimester (n = 490). Twenty-three of the women had both third trimester and post-pregnancy data. After delivery, the women had lower median AST, ALT, insulin, T3, T4, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone and higher median Cr, free T4, FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH), compared to their third trimesters. CONCLUSIONS: Gestation-related changes in important biochemical parameters should be considered when evaluating clinical laboratory values in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Testes de Química Clínica/normas , Testes Hematológicos/normas , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/normas , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/normas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Gestantes , Valores de Referência , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/normas
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353098

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell neoplasms (ESCNs) are the most common second primary neoplasm in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and few studies have focused on metachronous ESCNs. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for metachronous ESCNs and to provide a reasonable endoscopic follow-up plan for HNSCC patients. We extended our prospective cohort since October 2008 by recruiting incident HNSCC patients. All enrolled patients were interviewed to collect information on substance use (smoking, alcohol, and betel nut) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with Lugol chromoendoscopy results for synchronous ESCNs soon after HNSCC diagnosis. Endoscopic screenings for metachronous ESCNs were performed 6 to 12 months after the previous examinations. A total of 1042 incident HNSCC patients were enrolled, but only 175 patients met all the criteria and were analyzed. A total of 20 patients had metachronous ESCNs (20/175, 11.4%). Only the initial Lugol-voiding lesion (LVL) classification significantly predicted the development of metachronous ESCNs. Patients with an LVL classification of C/D had a higher risk of developing metachronous ESCNs than those with an LVL classification of A/B (adjusted odds ratio: 5.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.52-16.67). The mean interval for developing metachronous ESCNs was 33 months, but the shortest interval for developing metachronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was 12 months. Lugol chromoendoscopy screening among incident HNSCC patients predicts the risk of developing metachronous ESCNs. A closer follow-up with an endoscopy every 6 months is recommended for those with LVL classifications of C and D.

20.
Process Biochem ; 98: 233-240, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843849

RESUMO

As the new cases of COVID-19 are growing every daysince January 2020, the major way to control the spread wasthrough early diagnosis. Prevention and early diagnosis are the key strategies followed by most countries. This study presents the perspective of different modes of transmission of coronavirus,especially during clinical practices and among the pediatrics. Further, the diagnostic methods and the advancement of the computerized tomography have been discussed. Droplets, aerosol, and close contact are thesignificantfactors to transfer the infection to the suspect. This study predicts the possible transmission of the virus through medical practices such as ophthalmology, dental, and endoscopy procedures. With regard to pediatric transmission, as of now, only afew child fatalities had been reported. Childrenusually respond to the respiratory virus; however, COVID-19 response ison the contrary. The possibility of getting infected is minimal for the newborn. There has been no asymptomatic spread in children until now. Moreover, breastfeedingwould not transmit COVID-19, which is encouraging hygiene news for the pediatric. In addition, the current diagnostic methods for COVID-19 including Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG)and chest computed topography(CT) scan, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) andimmunochromatographic fluorescence assay, are also discussed in detail. The introduction of artificial intelligence and deep learning algorithmhas the ability to diagnose COVID-19 in precise. However, the developments of a potential technology for the identification of the infection, such as a drone with thermal screening without human intervention, need to be encouraged.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...