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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 84, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with different glucose status has not been established. This study sought to evaluate the significance of NT-proBNP in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS) and normal left-ventricular systolic function (LVSF) according to different glucose status, especially in those with abnormal glucose metabolism. METHODS: A total of 8062 patients with CCS and normal LVSF were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. Baseline plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured. The follow-up data of all patients were collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the risk of MACEs according to NT-proBNP tertiles stratified by glucose status. RESULTS: Over an average follow-up of 59.13 ± 18.23 months, 569 patients (7.1 %) suffered from MACEs, including cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high NT-proBNP levels had a significant association with MACEs in subjects with prediabetes mellitus (pre-DM) or DM, but not in patients with normoglycemia. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that NT-proBNP remained an independent predictor of MACEs in patients with pre-DM [hazard ratio (HR): 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-4.91] or DM (HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.32-4.16). Moreover, adding NT-proBNP to the original Cox model including traditional risk factors significantly increased the C-statistic by 0.035 in pre-DM and DM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that NT-proBNP could well predict worse outcomes in dysglycemic patients with CCS and normal LVSF, suggesting that NT-proBNP may help with risk stratification in this population.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(3): 272-279, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891693

RESUMO

AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia patients are characterized by early onset of coronary artery calcification and atherosclerosis, and high incidence of cardiovascular events. Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 was reported to be a predictor for cardiovascular risk in the general population. However, its prognostic value for predicting recurrent cardiovascular events in familial hypercholesterolemia patients remains undetermined. METHODS: A total of 249 patients with molecularly and/or clinically (Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score > 6) defined familial hypercholesterolemia who had experienced a first cardiovascular event were consecutively included and plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Coronary artery calcification was measured using Agatston method and coronary severity was assessed by Gensini score, respectively. All patients received standard lipid-lowering therapy and were followed-up for recurrent cardiovascular events. Univariate and multivariate regression and Cox analyses was used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 concentrations were positively associated with coronary artery calcification scores and Gensini score by both univariate and multivariate analyses. During a mean follow-up of 43 ± 19 months, 29 (11.51%) recurrent cardiovascular events occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with the highest proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels had the lowest event-free survival time. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 was independently associated with recurrent cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.88). The combination of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 to Cox prediction model led to an enhanced predictive value for recurrent cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Increased level of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 was a significant risk factor of atherosclerosis and independently predicted future recurrent cardiovascular events in familial hypercholesterolemia patients receiving standard lipid-lowering treatment.

3.
Hepatol Int ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although non-invasive liver fibrosis scores (LFSs) have already been considered as effective tools for estimating cardiovascular risk, their roles in predicting disease severity and cardiovascular event (CVEs) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not comprehensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NAFLD-FS) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) are associated with CVEs in a large cohort with long-term follow-up. METHODS: A cohort of 5143 patients with angiography-proven stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and followed up for CVEs. The degree of coronary severity was assessed using the number of diseased vessels, Gensini, Syntax, and Jeopardy scores. The predictive values of NAFLD-FS and FIB-4 scores to coronary severity, coronary calcification (CAC), and CVEs were assessed, respectively. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7 years, 435 CVEs were recorded. Both NAFLD-FS and FIB-4 were predictors for the presence of CAC. The degree of coronary stenosis was significantly higher in high NAFLD-FS categories while FIB-4 was only positively associated with the number of diseased vessels and Gensini score. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the patients with intermediate and high NAFLD-FS and FIB-4 had higher risk of CVEs and cardiovascular mortality. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, NAFLD-FS and FIB-4 were independently associated with CVEs [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.150 (1.063-1.244), p < 0.001 and 1.128 (1.026-1.240), p = 0.012]. CONCLUSION: The current data first indicated that both NAFLD-FS and FIB-4 scores were not only significantly related to coronary severity but also associated with CAC and CVEs. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: None.

4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778872

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the association between T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) has not been thoroughly evaluated. Our study aimed to assess the effect of T2DM on CAD severity and hard cardiovascular endpoints in a HeFH cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 432 patients with HeFH with a molecular and/or clinical Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score ≥6 (definite and probable) were enrolled. Patients were divided into a T2DM group (n = 99) and a non-T2DM group (n = 333). The severity of coronary stenosis was assessed by the number of diseased vessels and Gensini, SYNTAX, and Jeopardy scores. Hard endpoints included a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiac death. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to evaluate the effect of T2DM on hard cardiovascular endpoints. The prevalence of CAD was higher in patients with T2DM compared with those without (96.0% vs. 77.5%, respectively; P < 0.001). Patients with T2DM demonstrated a greater number of diseased vessels (P = 0.029) and more severe coronary lesions with high Gensini, SYNTAX, and Jeopardy score tertiles (P = 0.031, P = 0.001, and P = 0.024, respectively). During a median of 3.75 years up to a maximum of 9 years of follow-up, hard endpoints occurred in 13 of 99 patients with T2DM and 16 of 333 without T2DM at baseline. Compared with patients without T2DM, patients with T2DM were at a significantly greater risk of hard endpoints [multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-4.84; P = 0.025]. Additionally, patients with T2DM and good glucose control (HbA1c < 7.0%) were at a lower risk of hard endpoints compared with those with poor glucose control (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, HR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.56; P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: We conclude that T2DM is an independent predictor of CAD severity when assessed by number of diseased vessels, Gensini, SYNTAX, Jeopardy scores, and hard cardiovascular endpoints, suggesting that T2DM could be further used for risk stratification of patients with HeFH.

5.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver fibrosis score (LFS) has been used for predicting the cardiovascular outcomes (CVOs) in diverse populations. However, the association of LFS with CVOs in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) remains undetermined. We aimed to examine the prognostic value of LFS in patients with prior MI in a prospective cohort. METHODS: A total of 3718 patients with previous MI were consecutively enrolled from March 2009 to January 2019. Five LFSs including the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, non-alcohol fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS), Forns score, HUI score and BARD score were used. The CVOs covered major adverse cardiac event (MACEs), cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 47.4 ± 24.8 months, 431 (11.6%) MACEs occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that higher LFSs resulted in a significantly higher probability of CVOs. Compared to the lowest score group, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of the highest group of FIB-4, NFS, Forns score, HUI score and BARD score were 1.75 (1.32-2.33), 2.37 (1.70-3.33), 2.44 (1.61-3.73), 1.58 (1.16-2.14) and 1.27 (1.03-1.57) respectively. These LFSs were also independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Similar results were observed across subgroups analysis. The addition of LFSs to a prediction model significantly increased the C-statistic for CVOs. CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly demonstrated that LFS could be used as a risk stratification tool for predicting CVOs in patients with previous MI, which should be evaluated further.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e018869, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506689

RESUMO

Background Previous studies have suggested a strong association of liver fibrosis scores (LFSs) with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with different cardiovascular diseases. Nonetheless, it is basically blank regarding the prognostic significance of LFSs in patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study sought to examine the potential role of LFSs in predicting long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients with stable coronary artery disease after elective PCI. Methods and Results In this multicenter, prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 4003 patients with stable coronary artery disease undergoing PCI. Eight currently available noninvasive LFSs were assessed for each subject. All patients were followed up for the occurrence of cardiovascular events including cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke. During an average follow-up of 5.0±1.6 years, 315 (7.87%) major cardiovascular events were recorded. Subjects who developed cardiovascular events were more likely to have intermediate or high LFSs, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score; fibrosis-4 score; body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes mellitus score (BARD); and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio. Furthermore, compared with subjects with low scores, those with intermediate plus high score levels had significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratios ranging 1.57-1.92). Moreover, the addition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score; fibrosis-4 score; or body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes mellitus score into a model with established cardiovascular risk factors significantly improved the prediction ability. Conclusions High LFSs levels might be useful for predicting adverse prognosis in patients with stable coronary artery disease following PCI, suggesting the possibility of the application of LFSs in the risk stratification before elective PCI.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e037340, 2021 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impacts of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) dyslipidaemia on prognosis in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different glucose metabolism status. DESIGN: An observational cohort study. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3057 patients with stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and divided into three groups according to different glucose metabolism status. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD) was defined as TG ≥1.7 mmol/L and HDL-C <1.0 mmol/L for men or <1.3 mmol/L for women. The patients were further classified into six subgroups by status of AD. All subjects were followed up for the cardiovascular events (CVEs). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 308 (10.1%) CVEs occurred. No significant difference in the occurrence of CVEs was observed between normal glucose regulation (NGR) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) groups (HR: 1.25, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.76) while DM group presented 1.45-fold higher risk of CVEs (HR: 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.05). When the participants were categorised according to combined status of two parameters, the cardiovascular risk was significantly elevated in pre-DM or DM plus AD group compared with the NGR plus non-AD group (HR: 1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.80 and HR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.98). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that the presence of AD might affect the prognosis in patients with DM or pre-DM and stable CAD.

8.
Coron Artery Dis ; 32(1): 78-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been emerged as a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), but there is currently insufficient data on the relationship between Lp(a) and premature CAD (PCAD). Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between Lp(a) and PCAD in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: Data on 2433 individuals (male <55 years old and female <65 years old) who underwent coronary angiography from March 2016 to February 2019 were included in this study and were divided into the PCAD group (n = 1751) and non-CAD group (n = 682) according to the angiography results. Their clinical and laboratory parameters were collected, and plasma Lp(a) level was measured by immunoturbidimetry. The severity of CAD was evaluated using Gensini score (GS) and divided into three subgroups. The relationship between plasma Lp(a) levels and the presence and severity of PCAD was analyzed. RESULTS: The level of plasma Lp(a) in the PCAD group was significantly higher than that in the non-CAD group (P < 0.001). The plasma Lp(a) concentration in the highest GS group was significantly higher than that in the lowest GS group (P < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that elevated plasma Lp(a) levels were correlated with higher GS (b = 0.41, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that elevated plasma Lp(a) levels were independently associated with PCAD (odds ratio = 2.91, P < 0.001). Moreover, elevated plasma Lp(a) levels correlated with higher GS (b = 0.41, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, Lp(a) concentration was associated with the presence and severity of PCAD, suggesting that Lp(a) may be a marker or target for patients with PCAD.

9.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339063

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been documented to be associated with atherothrombotic diseases. However, the prognostic impact of Lp(a) on long-term clinical outcomes among patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) remains unclear. In this prospective cohort study, we consecutively enrolled 3,864 post-MI patients to assess the cardiovascular events (CVEs), including MI, ischemic stroke, and cardiac mortality. Lp(a) levels were determined using an immunoturbidimetry assay and the participants were categorized according to Lp(a) quartiles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median follow-up of 4.1 years, 331 (8.6%) CVEs were identified. Lp(a) was significantly higher in patients with CVEs (25.17 [11.13-47.83] vs. 18.18 [7.90-40.30] mg/dL, p = 0.001). The cumulative rates of CVEs and cardiac mortality were significantly higher in patients with high Lp(a) levels (both log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a significant correlation between Lp (a) levels treated as a natural logarithm-transformed continuous variable and increased CVEs (adjusted HR:1.22, 95% CI:1.09-1.35, p = 0.001) or cardiac mortality (HR:1.30, 95% CI:1.14-1.48, p < 0.001). The addition of Lp(a) to a prognostic model revealed a significant improvement in C-statistic, net reclassification, and integrated discrimination. In conclusion, elevated levels of Lp(a) were indeed associated with long-term worse outcomes in patients with prior MI, suggesting a novel hint that the measurement of Lp(a) might help in risk stratification and future management in those high-risk individuals.

10.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated that small dense LDL-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) is related to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, its prognostic role in hypertensive patients with CAD has been undetermined. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between sdLDL-C with disease severity, hypertensive status and clinical outcome in patients with CAD. METHODS: A total of 4594 patients with angiography-proven CAD were consecutively enrolled and categorized into subgroups according to blood pressure status. Serum sdLDL-C levels were measured by direct quantitative measurement using automated chemistry analyzers. The severity of coronary artery lesions were determined by Gensini score, Syntax score and the number of lesion vessels. The associations of sdLDL-C with disease severity, hypertensive status and cardiovascular events (CVEs) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients with hypertension had higher sdLDL-C levels than ones without (P = 0.010). In hypertensive patients, sdLDL-C was positively associated with the severity of CAD (P < 0.05). In addition, hypertensive patients with poorly controlled hypertension had higher sdLDL-C levels than those with well controlled (P < 0.05). Moreover, 149 CVEs occurred in patients with poorly controlled hypertension and Cox regression analysis indicated that elevated sdLDL-C levels were independently associated with CVEs in hypertensive patients with poorly controlled hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.673, 95% confidence interval: 1.105-2.535, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: The current data, for the first time, showed that serum sdLDL-C levels were correlated with hypertension control, disease severity and worse outcomes in hypertensive patients with CAD, suggesting that paying more attention on sdLDL-C in these patients were warranted.

11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 373, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and fibrinogen (Fib) are both associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The atherogenicity of Lp(a) can be partly due to the potentially antifibrinolytic categories. We hypothesize that patients with higher Lp(a) and Fib may have worse outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective study, we consecutively enrolled 8,417 Chinese patients with stable CAD from March 2011 to March 2017. All subjects were divided into 9 groups according to Lp(a) (Lp(a)-Low, Lp(a)-Medium, Lp(a)-High) and Fib levels (Fib-Low, Fib-Medium, Fib-High) and followed up for CVEs, including nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and C-statistic analyses were performed. RESULTS: During a median of 37.1 months' follow-up, 395 (4.7%) CVEs occurred. The occurrence of CVEs increased by Lp(a) (3.5 vs. 5.3 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.001) and Fib (4.0 vs. 4.4 vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) categories. When further classified into 9 groups by Lp(a) and Fib levels, the CVEs were highest in the 9th (Lp(a)-High and Fib-High) compared with the 1st (Lp(a)-Low and Fib-Low) group (7.2 vs. 3.3%, p < 0.001). The highest risk of subsequent CVEs was found in the 9th group (HRadjusted 2.656, 95% CI 1.628-4.333, p < 0.001), which was more significant than Lp(a)-High (HRadjusted 1.786, 95% CI 1.315-2.426, p < 0.001) or Fib-High (HRadjusted 1.558, 95% CI 1.162-2.089, p = 0.003) group. Moreover, adding the combined Lp(a) and Fib increased the C-statistic by 0.013. CONCLUSION: Combining Fib and Lp(a) enhance the prognostic value for incident CVEs beyond Lp(a) or Fib alone.

13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 167, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels is a predictor for cardiovascular outcomes has currently been controversial. No data is currently available regarding the relation of PCSK9 to cardiovascular metabolic markers (CVMMs) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes or without diabetes. METHODS: A total 1225 untreated patients with stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and their baseline plasma PCSK9 levels were determined by ELISA. Patients were divided into high and low PCSK9 groups according to PCSK9 median. All patients followed up for the occurrence of MACEs and received standard therapy after admission. The associations of PCSK9 with CVMMs and MACEs were evaluated. RESULTS: PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with multiple CVMMs including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c at baseline (all p < 0.05). During a median follow-up of 3.3 years, 103 (8.4%) events occurred. PCSK9 levels were higher in patients with events compared to those without (p < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed that patients in high PCSK9 group had lower event-free survival than that in low group (p < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that PCSK9 levels were independently associated with MACEs in diabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.361, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.037-1.785, p < 0.05). When added the combination of PCSK9 levels and diabetic status to stratifying factors, patients in high PCSK9 group appeared to have extremely high risk of subsequent MACEs with diabetes (adjusted HR: 5.233, 95% CI: 2.546-10.757, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly showed that elevated PCSK9 levels were related to multiple CVMMs and MACEs in stable CAD with diabetes, suggesting that plasma PCSK9 measurement could help to identify diabetic patients with CAD at higher cardiovascular risk. More studies may be needed to confirm our findings.

14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 465, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total leukocyte and differential Leukocyte counts are prognostic indictors in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, there is no data available regarding their prognostic utility in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of different leukocyte parameters in predicting the mortality among very old patients with AMI. METHODS: A total of 523 patients aged over 80 years with AMI were consecutively enrolled into this study. Leukocyte and its subtypes were obtained at admission in each patient. The primary study endpoint was cardiovascular mortality. Patients were followed up for an average of 2.2 years and 153 patients died. The associations of leukocyte parameters with mortality were assessed using Cox regression analyses. The concordance index was calculated to test the model efficiency. RESULTS: In multivariable regression analysis, neutrophils-plus-monocytes-to-lymphocytes ratio (NMLR) and neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (NLR) were two most significant predictors of mortality among all the leukocyte parameters (HR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.75-5.35; HR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.59-4.88, respectively, all p < 0.001, adjusted for age, male gender, body mass index, family history of CAD, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, creatinine, left ventricular ejection fraction, troponin I, use of statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and percutaneous coronary intervention). Furthermore, adding NMLR and NLR into the Cox model increased the C-statistic by 0.038 and 0.037 respectively, which were more significant than that of other leukocyte parameters. Besides, addition of NMLR and NLR to the Canada Acute Coronary Syndrome Risk Score model also increased the C-statistic by 0.079 and 0.077 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data firstly indicated that most leukocyte subtypes were independent markers for the mortality in very old patients with AMI, while NMLR and NLR appeared to be more effective.

15.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 156, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have higher prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are a useful marker for predicting ASCVD. We hypothesized that FFAs could predict both coronary and carotid lesions in an individual with type 2 DM (T2DM). The present study, hence, was to investigate the relation of plasma FFA level to the presence and severity of coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Three hundred and two consecutive individuals with T2DM who have received carotid ultrasonography and coronary angiography due to chest pain were enrolled in this study. Plasma FFAs were measured using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Coronary and carotid severity was evaluated by Gensini score and Crouse score respectively. Subsequently, the relation of FFA levels to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) in whole individuals were also assessed. RESULTS: Increased plasma FFA levels were found in the groups either CAD or CAP compared to those without. Patients with higher level of FFAs had a higher CAD (89.9%) and elevated prevalence of CAP (69.7%). And also, patients with higher level of FFAs had a higher Gensini and Crouse scores. Multivariate regression analysis showed that FFA levels were independently associated with the presence of CAD and CAP (OR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.27-2.65, P = 0.001; OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.22-2.14, P = 0.001, respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.68 and 0.65 for predicting the presence of CAD and CAP in patients with DM respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study firstly indicated that elevated FFA levels appeared associated with both the presence and severity of CAD and CAP in patients with T2DM, suggesting that plasma FFA levels may be a useful biomarker for improving management of patients with T2DM.

16.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 152, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines highlighted the association between atherosclerosis and triglyceride-enriched lipoproteins in patients with impaired glucose metabolism. However, evidence from prospective studies for long-term prognostic utility of low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (LDL-TG) in real-world patients with prediabetes (Pre-DM) or diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of LDL-TG on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with stable CAD under different glucose metabolism status. METHODS: A total of 4381 patients with CAD were consecutively enrolled and plasma LDL-TG level was measured by an automated homogeneous assay. They were categorized according to both status of glucose metabolism [DM, Pre-DM, normal glycaemia regulation (NGR)] and tertiles of LDL-TG. All subjects were followed up for the occurrence of MACEs. RESULTS: During a median of 5.1 (interquartile range 3.9 to 5.9) years' follow-up, 507 (11.6%) MACEs occurred. Cubic spline models showed a significant association between LDL-TG and MACEs in DM and Pre-DM but not in NGR. When the combined effect of elevated LDL-TG and glucose disorders was considered for risk stratification, the medium tertile of LDL-TG plus DM, and the highest tertile of LDL-TG plus Pre-DM or plus DM subgroups were associated with significantly higher risk of MACEs after adjustment of confounders including triglyceride [hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.843 (1.149-2.955), 1.828 (1.165-2.867), 2.212 (1.396-3.507), all p < 0.05]. Moreover, adding LDL-TG into the original model increased the C-statistic from 0.687 to 0.704 (∆C-statistic = 0.016, p = 0.028) and from 0.734 to 0.749 (∆C-statistic = 0.014, p = 0.002) in Pre-DM and DM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this longitudinal cohort study on real-world practice, higher LDL-TG was associated with worse outcomes among Pre-DM and DM patients with stable CAD.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766283

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in China is unclear. Materials and Methods: In China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry, 13,002 patients with age 18-80 were consecutively enrolled with first-onset AMI who were naïve to statin before admission from January 1st, 2013 to October 31st, 2014. According to Dutch Lipid Clinical Network Criteria (DLCNC), the patients were divided to heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) (definite/probable HeFH, possible HeFH) or non-HeFH group. Results: The number of the patients in the three groups was as following, 62 in definite/probable HeFH group, 484 in possible HeFH group, 12,456 in non-HeFH group. The prevalence of HeFH is 4.2% (including 0.47% of definite/probable HeFH, 3.73% of possible FH). The average age of onset of first-time AMI was 54 ± 12, 56 ± 12, 63 ± 12 years old (p < 0.0001) in definite/probable HeFH group, possible HeFH group and non-HeFH group, respectively. The percentage of Killip III or above (8.1 vs. 4.3 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.1629), cardiac arrest (1.6 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.6990), and TIMI 0-2 grade after primary percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI) (0 vs. 6.8 vs. 4.3%, p = 0.5866) was not significantly different in definite/probable HeFH group, possible HeFH group and non-HeFH group, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of HeFH in Chinese patients with AMI is 4.2%. The patients were significantly younger in HeFH group, when compared with those with non-HeFH. However, no significant differences were found in the severity of clinical manifestations in both HeFH and non-HeFH group.

18.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 16(9): 837-851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statins have been established as the standard of care for dyslipidemia and preventing cardiovascular diseases while posing few safety concerns. However, misconceptions about statin intolerance lead to their underuse, indicating a need to improve the understanding of the safety of this treatment. AREAS COVERED: We searched PubMed and reviewed literatures related to statin intolerance published between February 2015 and February 2020. Important large-scale or landmark studies published before 2015 were also cited as key evidence. EXPERT OPINION: Optimal lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statins substantially reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. Muscle adverse events (AEs) were the most frequently reported AEs by statin users in clinical practice, but they usually occurred at a similar rate with statins and placebo in randomized controlled trials and had a spurious causal relationship with statin treatment. We proposed a rigorous definition for identifying true statin intolerance and present the criteria for defining different forms of muscle AEs and an algorithm for their management. True statin intolerance is uncommon, and every effort should be made to exclude false statin intolerance and ensure optimal use of statins. For the management of statin intolerance, statin-based approaches should be prioritized over non-statin approaches.

19.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 104, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The atherogenicity of remnant cholesterol (RC) has been underlined by recent guidelines, which was linked to coronary artery disease (CAD), especially for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of plasma RC in the patients with CAD under different glucose metabolism status. METHODS: Fasting plasma RC were directly calculated or measured in 4331 patients with CAD. Patients were followed for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and categorized according to both glucose metabolism status [DM, pre-DM, normoglycemia (NG)] and RC levels. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 5.1 years, 541 (12.5%) MACEs occurred. The risk for MACEs was significantly higher in patients with elevated RC levels after adjustment for potential confounders. No significant difference in MACEs was observed between pre-DM and NG groups (p > 0.05). When stratified by combined status of glucose metabolism and RC, highest levels of calculated and measured RC were significant and independent predictors of developing MACEs in pre-DM (HR: 1.64 and 1.98; both p < 0.05) and DM (HR: 1.62 and 2.05; both p < 0.05). High RC levels were also positively associated with MACEs in patients with uncontrolled DM. . CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale and long-term follow-up cohort study, data firstly demonstrated that higher RC levels were significantly associated with the worse prognosis in DM and pre-DM patients with CAD, suggesting that RC may be a target for patients with impaired glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Remanescentes de Quilomícrons/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Lipid Res ; 61(9): 1254-1262, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641433

RESUMO

TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL)-related biomarkers, including TRL-cholesterol (TRL-C), remnant-like lipoprotein particle-cholesterol (RLP-C), and apoC-III have been associated with atherosclerosis. However, their prognostic values have not been fully determined, especially in patients with previous CAD. This study aimed to examine the associations of TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III with incident cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the setting of secondary prevention of CAD. Plasma TRL-C, RLP-C, and total apoC-III were directly measured. A total of 4,355 participants with angiographically confirmed CAD were followed up for the occurrence of CVEs. During a median follow-up period of 5.1 years (interquartile range: 3.9-6.4 years), 543 (12.5%) events occurred. Patients with incident CVEs had significantly higher levels of TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III than those without events. Multivariable Cox analysis indicated that a log unit increase in TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III increased the risk of CVEs by 49% (95% CI: 1.16-1.93), 21% (95% CI: 1.09-1.35), and 40% (95% CI: 1.11-1.77), respectively. High TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III were also independent predictors of CVEs in individuals with LDL-C levels ≤1.8 mmol/l (n = 1,068). The addition of RLP-C level to a prediction model resulted in a significant increase in discrimination, and all three TRL biomarkers improved risk reclassification. Thus, TRL-C, RLP-C, and apoC-III levels were independently associated with incident CVEs in Chinese CAD patients undergoing statin therapy.

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