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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(4): 043901, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794795

RESUMO

Strong mode coupling and Fano resonances arisen from exceptional interaction between resonant modes in single nanostructures have raised much attention for their advantages in nonlinear optics, sensing, etc. Individual electromagnetic multipole modes such as quadrupoles, octupoles, and their counterparts from mode coupling (toroidal dipole and nonradiating anapole mode) have been well investigated in isolated or coupled nanostructures with access to high Q factors in bound states in the continuum. Albeit the extensive study on ordinary dielectric particles, intriguing aspects of light-matter interactions in single chiral nanostructures is lacking. Here, we unveil that extraordinary multipoles can be simultaneously superpositioned in a chiral nanocylinder, such as two toroidal dipoles with opposite moments, and electric and magnetic sextupoles. The induced optical lateral forces and their scattering cross sections can thus be either significantly enhanced in the presence of those multipoles with high-Q factors, or suppressed by the bound states in the continuum. This work for the first time reveals the complex correlation between multipolar effects, chiral coupling, and optical lateral force, providing a distinct way for advanced optical manipulation.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785260

RESUMO

This study investigated the kinetics of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) in telbivudine (LdT)-treated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients whose treatment was subsequently adjusted with the adding on adefovir or by switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as rescue. Of 295 CHB patients initially treated with LdT, 102 of them who subsequently receiving either adding-on adefovir (group A, n = 58) or switching to TDF (group B, n = 44) for more than 24 months were enrolled. Serial eGFR and qHBsAg levels (3 to 6 monthly) in both LdT monotherapy and rescue therapy periods were analyzed retrospectively. Subsequent decline of qHBsAg especially in rescue therapy period were noted (p<0.001 and p = 0.068 in group A and B). However, patients in group B achieved a significant increase of eGFR (p = 0.010) in LdT monotherapy period but had a significant decline of eGFR (p<0.001) in rescue therapy period. In contrast, patients in group A maintained eGFR levels in both periods. Meanwhile, switch to TDF (hazard ratio: 3.036; 95% confidence interval: 1.040-8.861; p = 0.042) was the sole factor related to the decrease of eGFR>20% from baseline. Both rescue therapies achieved subsequent declines of qHBsAg over time but caused different changes in eGFR. LdT-based rescue therapy maintained eGFR but TDF switching therapy descended eGFR. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patient's renal function intensively when switching from LdT to TDF as a rescue strategy.

3.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352740

RESUMO

Shaping the flow of light at the nanoscale has been a grand challenge for nanophotonics over decades. It is now widely recognized that metasurfaces represent a chip-scale nanophotonics array technology capable of comprehensively controlling the wavefront of light via appropriately configuring subwavelength antenna elements. Here, we demonstrate a reconfigurable metasurface that is multifunctional, i.e., notionally capable of providing diverse optical functions in the telecommunication wavelength regime, using a single compact, lightweight, electronically controlled array with no moving parts. By electro-optical control of the phase of the scattered light from each identical individual metasurface element in an array, we demonstrate a single prototype multifunctional programmable metasurface that is capable of both dynamic beam steering and reconfigurable light focusing. Reconfigurable multifunctional metasurfaces with arrays of tunable optical antennas thus can perform arbitrary optical functions by programmable array-level control of scattered light phase, amplitude, and polarization, similar to dynamic and programmable memories in electronics.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients on immunosuppressive therapy is a critical issue. We aimed to verify the monitoring strategies of hepatitis B virus DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen in patients receiving therapies with moderate risk. METHODS: We enrolled 25 patients with autoimmune diseases receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Liver function, hepatitis B virus DNA, and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen were followed-up every 2 months for 24 months. The hepatitis B virus reactivation was defined as hepatitis B virus DNA reappearance or increase of >1 log IU/mL. RESULTS: Patients who were hepatitis B surface antigen positive with (n = 12) or without (n = 6) antiviral prophylaxis and hepatitis B surface antigen negative (n = 7) were analyzed, and the reactivation rates were 0%, 50% and 14%, respectively. Antiviral prophylaxis prevented hepatitis B virus reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients (P = 0.025). Administration of high-risk steroid doses was the sole factor related to the sign of quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen increase of >0.5 log IU/mL in the first 12 months (P = 0.035, risk ratio = 0.098, 95% confidence interval = 0.011-0.847). Furthermore, no patient experienced hepatic decompensation or failure. CONCLUSION: Monitoring hepatitis B virus DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen every 2 months is safe. However, antiviral prophylaxis can prevent hepatitis B virus reactivation. For patients under steroid therapy in high-risk doses, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen increase of >0.5 log IU/mL may signify hepatitis B virus reactivation.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3654, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409790

RESUMO

Tunable metasurfaces enable dynamical control of the key constitutive properties of light at a subwavelength scale. To date, electrically tunable metasurfaces at near-infrared wavelengths have been realized using free carrier modulation, and switching of thermo-optical, liquid crystal and phase change media. However, the highest performance and lowest loss discrete optoelectronic modulators exploit the electro-optic effect in multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. Here, we report an all-dielectric active metasurface based on electro-optically tunable III-V multiple-quantum-wells patterned into subwavelength elements that each supports a hybrid Mie-guided mode resonance. The quantum-confined Stark effect actively modulates this volumetric hybrid resonance, and we observe a relative reflectance modulation of 270% and a phase shift from 0° to ~70°. Additionally, we demonstrate beam steering by applying an electrical bias to each element to actively change the metasurface period, an approach that can also realize tunable metalenses, active polarizers, and flat spatial light modulators.

6.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 12: 1756284819853115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210784

RESUMO

Background: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a premalignant condition with increased incidence worldwide both in old and young individuals. However, the role of certain potential risk factors remains unclear in young adults (< 50 years). We aimed to determine the risk factors of BE in young adults. Methods: A total of 4943 young adults who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at our health check-up center were enrolled. The diagnosis of BE was based on histological confirmation. We analyzed demographic factors, laboratory data, potential risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, and metabolic syndrome for the risk of BE by using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of BE was 1.8% (88/4943). Male sex, the presence of GERD symptoms, and smoking were three significant risk factors related to BE. Furthermore, participants who had smoked for 10 pack-years or more had increased risk of BE with dose-dependent phenomenon (p trend < 0.001). The proportion of BE in male participants with both GERD symptoms and a smoking history of 10 pack-years or more was as high as 10.3% (16/155). Conclusions: Significant risk factors of BE in young adults are male sex, the presence of GERD symptoms, and smoking. The risk also increases with an increase in cumulative exposure to smoking.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3961-3968, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136191

RESUMO

We report a dynamically tunable reflectarray metasurface that continuously modulates the phase of reflected light in the near-infrared wavelength range under active electrical control of the phase transition from semiconducting to semimetallic states. We integrate a vanadium dioxide (VO2) active layer into the dielectric gap of antenna elements in a reflectarray metasurface, which undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon resistive heating of the metallic patch antenna. The induced phase transition in the VO2 film strongly perturbs the magnetic dipole resonance supported by the metasurface. By carefully controlling the volume fractions of coexisting metallic and dielectric regions of the VO2 film, we observe a continuous shift of the phase of the reflected light, with a maximal achievable phase shift as high as 250°. We also observe a reflectance modulation of 23.5% as well as a spectral shift of the resonance position by 175 nm. The metasurface phase modulation is fairly broadband, yielding large phase shifts at multiple operation wavelengths.

8.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 1063-1071, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118712

RESUMO

Purpose: Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is common in Asia, especially in China and Southeast Asia. There are no data about fecal carriage of ESBL-EC and mcr-1-positive E. coli in Taiwan, and few studies focusing on the risk factors of asymptomatic fecal carriage of epidemic ST131 E. coli have been published. Patients and methods: From healthy inhabitants attending health examinations at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2017, we collected 724 stool samples, which were examined for ESBL-EC fecal carriage using chromogenic medium. ST131 and mcr1-positive E. coli were also investigated using multiplex PCR. Clinical data from all participating adults were collected to analyze the risk factors for fecal ESBL-EC or ST131 E. coli carriage. Results: The prevalence rate of asymptomatic ESBL-EC fecal carriage in adults was 1.9% (14/724). ST131 was found in 22 (3.0%) adults and mcr-1-positive E. coli was found in three (0.4%) adults. A multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with ESBL-EC carriage were diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-22.7), a history of colonic polyps (aOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 1.6-24.9), and chronic renal insufficiency (aOR: 20.7, 95% CI: 1.4-305.7). Underlying cancer (aOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.0-22.5) and stroke (aOR: 18.0, 95% CI: 1.6-207.5) were associated with ST131 E. coli fecal carriage. In our cohort, travel to Asian countries and food habit were not associated with ST131 or ESBL-EC fecal carriage. Conclusions: The ESBL-EC or ST131 E. coli fecal carriage rate is low among asymptomatic adults in Taiwan. Certain underlying medical conditions were associated with their fecal carriage.

9.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(5): 1-8, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some metabolic factors and noninvasive markers, including fatty liver index (FLI), are used to predict nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese patients. Despite the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in lean patients (lean-NAFLD), the risk factors and predictors are not well determined in this population. We investigated factors associated with lean-NAFLD and validated their predictive ability. METHODS: From 9,293 examinees who underwent routine health checkups, we enrolled 4,000, aged ≥20 years, with a body mass index <24 kg/m in our lean-NAFLD study population. NAFLD diagnoses were made according to the patients' histories, laboratory values, and sonographic criteria. Clinical variables, serum sugar, lipid, and liver profiles were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. The predictive ability and optimal cutoff values for NAFLD were determined according to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Overall, 18.5% (n = 740) of the lean population had NAFLD. Male sex, body mass index, body fat mass, fasting plasma glucose, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, and FLI values were associated with NAFLD. FLI had the best discriminative ability to predict lean-NAFLD compared to the other biochemical markers. We further used the Youden index test and found an optimum cut-off value for FLI of 15 with the highest discriminant ability than other values. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of lean-NAFLD was not low. FLI was superior to other predictors including sex, liver function, and other metabolic factors, in the prediction of lean-NAFLD. FLI may be considered an easy to use, noninvasive marker to screen for lean-NAFLD.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(3): 227-231, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664753

RESUMO

A light-field camera captures both the intensity and the direction of incoming light1-5. This enables a user to refocus pictures and afterwards reconstruct information on the depth of field. Research on light-field imaging can be divided into two components: acquisition and rendering. Microlens arrays have been used for acquisition, but obtaining broadband achromatic images with no spherical aberration remains challenging. Here, we describe a metalens array made of gallium nitride (GaN) nanoantennas6 that can be used to capture light-field information and demonstrate a full-colour light-field camera devoid of chromatic aberration. The metalens array contains an array of 60 × 60 metalenses with diameters of 21.65 µm. The camera has a diffraction-limited resolution of 1.95 µm under white light illumination. The depth of every object in the scene can be reconstructed slice by slice from a series of rendered images with different depths of focus. Full-colour, achromatic light-field cameras could find applications in a variety of fields such as robotic vision, self-driving vehicles and virtual and augmented reality.

11.
Adv Mater ; 31(7): e1806479, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549339

RESUMO

The second harmonic generation (SHG) of vertical and planar split-ring resonators (SRRs) that are broken centro-symmetry configurations at the interface of metal surface and air is investigated. Strong interactions, better electromagnetic field confinements, and less leakage into the substrate for vertical SRRs are found. Experimental results show a 2.6-fold enhancement of SHG nonlinearity, which is in good agreement with simulations and calculations. Demonstrations of 3D metastructures and vertical SRRs with strong SHG nonlinearity majorly result from magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole clearly provides potential applications for photonics and sensing.

12.
Small ; 14(17): e1703920, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611338

RESUMO

An ultrathin planar cavity metasurface is proposed based on ultrathin film interference and its practicability for light manipulation in visible region is experimentally demonstrated. Phase of reflected light is modulated by finely adjusting the thickness of amorphous silicon (a-Si) by a few nanometers on an aluminum (Al) substrate via nontrivial phase shifts at the interfaces and interference of multireflections generated from the planar cavity. A phase shift of π, the basic requirement for two-level phase metasurface systems, can be accomplished with an 8 nm thick difference. For proof of concept, gradient metasurfaces for beam deflection, Fresnel zone plate metalens for light focusing, and metaholograms for image reconstruction are presented, demonstrating polarization-independent and broadband characteristics. This novel mechanism for phase modulation with ultrathin planar cavity provides diverse routes to construct advanced flat optical devices with versatile applications.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(3): 227-232, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379204

RESUMO

Metalenses consist of an array of optical nanoantennas on a surface capable of manipulating the properties of an incoming light wavefront. Various flat optical components, such as polarizers, optical imaging encoders, tunable phase modulators and a retroreflector, have been demonstrated using a metalens design. An open issue, especially problematic for colour imaging and display applications, is the correction of chromatic aberration, an intrinsic effect originating from the specific resonance and limited working bandwidth of each nanoantenna. As a result, no metalens has demonstrated full-colour imaging in the visible wavelength. Here, we show a design and fabrication that consists of GaN-based integrated-resonant unit elements to achieve an achromatic metalens operating in the entire visible region in transmission mode. The focal length of our metalenses remains unchanged as the incident wavelength is varied from 400 to 660 nm, demonstrating complete elimination of chromatic aberration at about 49% bandwidth of the central working wavelength. The average efficiency of a metalens with a numerical aperture of 0.106 is about 40% over the whole visible spectrum. We also show some examples of full-colour imaging based on this design.

14.
ACS Nano ; 12(2): 1920-1927, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376312

RESUMO

The toroidal dipole is a localized electromagnetic excitation independent from the familiar magnetic and electric dipoles. It corresponds to currents flowing along minor loops of a torus. Interference of radiating induced toroidal and electric dipoles leads to anapole, a nonradiating charge-current configuration. Interactions of induced toroidal dipoles with electromagnetic waves have recently been observed in artificial media at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequencies. Here, we demonstrate a quasi-planar plasmonic metamaterial, a combination of dumbbell aperture and vertical split-ring resonator, that exhibits transverse toroidal moment and resonant anapole behavior in the optical part of the spectrum upon excitation with a normally incident electromagnetic wave. Our results prove experimentally that toroidal modes and anapole modes can provide distinct and physically significant contributions to the absorption and dispersion of slabs of matter in the optical part of the spectrum in conventional transmission and reflection experiments.

15.
Nano Lett ; 17(10): 6345-6352, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28892632

RESUMO

Metasurface-based components are known to be one of the promising candidates for developing flat optical systems. However, their low working efficiency highly limits the use of such flat components for feasible applications. Although the introduction of the metallic mirror has been demonstrated to successfully enhance the efficiency, it is still somehow limited for imaging and sensing applications because they are only available for devices operating in a reflection fashion. Here, we demonstrate three individual GaN-based metalenses working in a transmission window with extremely high operation efficiency at visible light (87%, 91.6%, and 50.6% for blue, green, and red light, respectively). For the proof of concept, a multiplex color router with dielectric metalens, which is capable of guiding individual primary colors into different spatial positions, is experimentally verified based on the design of out-of-plane focusing metalens. Our approach with low-cost, semiconductor fabrication compatibility and high working efficiency characteristics offers a way for establishing a complete set of flat optical components for a wide range of applications such as compact imaging sensors, optical spectroscopy, and high-resolution lithography, just named a few.

16.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 187, 2017 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775300

RESUMO

Among various flat optical devices, metasurfaces have presented their great ability in efficient manipulation of light fields and have been proposed for variety of devices with specific functionalities. However, due to the high phase dispersion of their building blocks, metasurfaces significantly suffer from large chromatic aberration. Here we propose a design principle to realize achromatic metasurface devices which successfully eliminate the chromatic aberration over a continuous wavelength region from 1200 to 1680 nm for circularly-polarized incidences in a reflection scheme. For this proof-of-concept, we demonstrate broadband achromatic metalenses (with the efficiency on the order of ∼12%) which are capable of focusing light with arbitrary wavelength at the same focal plane. A broadband achromatic gradient metasurface is also implemented, which is able to deflect wide-band light by the same angle. Through this approach, various flat achromatic devices that were previously impossible can be realized, which will allow innovation in full-color detection and imaging.Metasurfaces suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the high phase dispersion of their building blocks, limiting their applications. Here, Wang et al. design achromatic metasurface devices which eliminate the chromatic aberration over a continuous region from 1200 to 1680 nm in a reflection schleme.

17.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44488, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295021

RESUMO

Far-field spectroscopy and mapping of electromagnetic near-field distribution are the two dominant tools for analysis and characterization of the electromagnetic response in nanophotonics. Despite the widespread use, these methods can fail at identifying weak electromagnetic excitations masked by stronger neighboring excitations. This is particularly problematic in ultrafast nanophotonics, including optical sensing, nonlinear optics and nanolasers, where the broad resonant modes can overlap to a significant degree. Here, using plasmonic metamaterials, we demonstrate that coherent spectroscopy can conveniently isolate and detect such hidden high-order photonic excitations. Our results establish that the coherent spectroscopy is a powerful new tool. It complements the conventional methods for analysis of the electromagnetic response, and provides a new route to designing and characterizing novel photonic devices and materials.

18.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42076, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165026

RESUMO

A high Q-value reflective type metasurface consisting of 1D Au nanorods, a SiO2 spacer and a Au back reflector is demonstrated. It is shown that the sideband of the resonant mode can be suppressed as the resonant wavelength close to the phonon absorption of SiO2. By combining both designed structured resonance and inherent property of the based materials, a low angle-dependent metasurface with a Q-value of 40 has been demonstrated. The proposed structure will be useful for high sensitivity sensing and narrow band thermal emitter.

19.
Nano Lett ; 17(1): 445-452, 2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935318

RESUMO

All forms of light manipulation rely on light-matter interaction, the primary mechanism of which is the modulation of its electromagnetic fields by the localized electromagnetic fields of atoms. One of the important factors that influence the strength of interaction is the polarization of the electromagnetic field. The generation and manipulation of light polarization have been traditionally accomplished with bulky optical components such as waveplates, polarizers, and polarization beam splitters that are optically thick. The miniaturization of these devices is highly desirable for the development of a new class of compact, flat, and broadband optical components that can be integrated together on a single photonics chip. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a reflective metasurface polarization generator (MPG) capable of producing light beams of any polarizations all from a linearly polarized light source with a single optically thin chip. Six polarization light beams are achieved simultaneously including four linear polarizations along different directions and two circular polarizations, all conveniently separated into different reflection angles. With the Pancharatnam-Berry phase-modulation method, the MPG sample was fabricated with aluminum as the plasmonic metal instead of the conventional gold or silver, which allowed for its broadband operation covering the entire visible spectrum. The versatility and compactness of the MPG capable of transforming any incident wave into light beams of arbitrary polarizations over a broad spectral range are an important step forward in achieving a complete set of flat optics for integrated photonics with far-reaching applications.

20.
Eval Health Prof ; 39(3): 317-25, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604017

RESUMO

Studies that have examined gender differences in smoking cessation have produced mixed results. The purpose of the study was to examine whether there are gender differences in long-term smoking abstinence rates in smokers treated with nicotine patches at a smoking cessation clinic in Taiwan, where 39% of men and 5% of women smoke. This study included 1,065 smokers, comprising of 940 men and 125 women. Smokers were invited to attend the clinic every 1-2 weeks for a maximum of eight visits over 90 days, where they received prescriptions for nicotine patches, counseling, and educational materials. Participants were contacted by telephone at 1 and 3 years after the first visit and were asked whether they had smoked at all over the past 7 days. The results showed that women were significantly less likely than men to be abstinent at 1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% CI [confidence interval] = [0.41, 0.99]; p = .044) and 3 years (aOR = 0.44; 95% CI = [0.27, 0.74]; p = .02). More effective ways are needed to help female smokers quit in societies where smoking in women is rare and may be associated with social stigma.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
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