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1.
Environ Res ; 200: 111434, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban greenness may protect against obesity, but very few studies have assessed 'street view' (SV) greenness metrics, which may better capture people's actual exposure to greenness compared to commonly-used satellite-derived metrics. We aimed to investigate these associations further in a Chinese adult study. METHODS: Our analysis included 24,845 adults in the 33 Chinese Community Health Study in 2009. SV images from Tencent Map, segmented by machine learning algorithms, were used to determine the average proportion of green vegetation in SV images at community level in 800m road network buffer. Sensitivity analyses were performed with an alternative buffer size. Overall greenness was assessed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 800 m buffer. We used predicted PM2.5 and monitored NO2 as proxies of air pollution. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were regressed on SV greenness by generalized linear mixed models, with adjustment for covariates. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediation effects of air pollution. RESULTS: Each interquartile range (IQR = 3.6%) increase in street view greenness was associated with a 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.09) decrease in BMI and 0.23 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.11) reduction in HC, and was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight (OR = 0.93, 95% CI:0.90, 0.96) and 18% lower odds of obesity (OR = 0.82, 95% CI:0.76, 0.89). Similar effect estimation was observed compared with commonly-used NDVI measures. PM2.5 and NO2 mediated 15.5% and 6.1% of the effects of SV greenness with BMI, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest beneficial associations between community-level SV greenness and lower body weight in Chinese adults. The effects were observed in women but not in men. Air pollution may partially mediate the association. These findings may have implications to support efforts to promote greening in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130486, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126693

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) exposure has been linked to diabetes, but evidence on the association of isomers of PFAS with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains scant. This population based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate associations between serum PFAS isomers, glucose-homeostasis markers and T2D, adjusted for multiple potential confounders. We used data from "Isomers of C8 Health Project in China" from July 2015 to October 2016. A total of 10 PFAS including isomers of PFOS and PFOA were measured in serum of 1045 Chinese adults. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model of insulin (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-ß) were considered as markers of glucose-homeostasis. We found significant positive associations between serum PFAS isomers and glucose-homeostasis markers, namely, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Per log-unit increase in branched (br)-PFOS concentration was associated with increased fasting blood glucose (ß = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.33), fasting insulin (ß = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.93) and HOMA-IR (ß = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.89). As compared to br-PFOS, linear (n)-PFOS and -PFOA showed lesser significant associations with glucose-homeostasis makers. Further, exposure to all PFAS including isomeric PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS increased the risk of T2D with br-PFOS exhibiting the highest risk (OR = 5.41, 95% CI: 3.68-7.96). The associations were stronger among women than men. In conclusion, chronic exposure to PFAS isomers was associated with impaired glucose-homeostasis and may increase the prevalence of T2D in Chinese adults. Given the ubiquity of PFAS in the environment and the public health burden of T2D, future studies are warranted to corroborate the findings.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Caprilatos , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110931, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014325

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between the exposure window (prenatal, early postnatal, and current period) of secondhand smoke (SHS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and subtypes in children. Objective: To evaluate the associations of prenatal, early postnatal, or current SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, 48 612 children aged 6 to 18 years from elementary and middle schools in Liaoning province, China, between April 2012 and January 2013 were eligible for participation. Data on SHS exposure and ADHD symptoms and subtypes for each child were collected via questionnaires administered to parents or guardians by school teachers. Data were analyzed from September 14 to December 2, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The ADHD symptoms and subtypes (inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and combined) were measured based on a validated tool developed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). Generalized linear mixed models were evaluated to estimate the association of SHS exposure with ADHD symptoms and subtypes. Results: A total of 45 562 participants completed the questionnaires and were included in this study (22 905 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 11.0 [2.6] years; 2170 [4.8%] with ADHD symptoms). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children who were ever exposed (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.66) or always exposed to SHS (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.55-3.25) from pregnancy to childhood had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.46 [95% CI, 1.31-1.62] to 2.94 [95% CI, 2.09-4.13]). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children with SHS exposure had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms when exposed in the prenatal period (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 2.07-2.51), early postnatal period (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), or current period (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). Compared with their unexposed counterparts, children whose fathers smoked 10 or more cigarettes/d on both weekdays and weekends had higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes (ORs ranged from 1.48 [95% CI, 1.28-1.70] to 2.25 [95% CI, 1.29-3.93]). Conclusions and Relevance: Being exposed to SHS from pregnancy to childhood was associated with higher odds of having ADHD symptoms and subtypes among school-aged children, and the associations were somewhat stronger for SHS exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Our findings highlight the important public health implications of reducing SHS exposure, which may decrease the health and economic burdens of individuals with ADHD.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 715: 136859, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether exposure to pets influences the association between hypertension and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The current study aims to examine the interaction of pet ownership on ETS exposure and the development of hypertension in children. METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, a total of 9354 children, 5 to 17 years of age, were recruited from 62 schools in seven northeastern cities. BP in children was measured and hypertension was defined as an average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or systolic blood pressure (SBP) at or above the 95th percentile for that child's age, sex, and height. Pet ownership in three different time periods (in utero, past 2 years, and currently) and ETS exposure data were collected from parents via a questionnaire. Two-level regressions were used for the data analyses. RESULTS: The data show consistent, significant interactions between exposure to pets and effects from ETS. Children who were not exposed to pets experienced stronger effects from ETS on hypertension when compared to those exposed to pets, and the protective effect of pet ownership became stronger with a greater number of pets in the home. Exposure to in utero ETS was associated with hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.54] only for those children without pet exposure in utero but not for those with pets (aOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.49-1.15) (pinteraction < 0.05). Moreover, household dog ownership was related to significantly lower effects of current ETS on hypertension (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.61-1.05) compared with children without dogs (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44) (pinteraction = 0.001). Interaction associations between ETS and pet ownership were more robust for girls than for boys and for younger than older children. CONCLUSION: This study indicates an inverse relationship between pet ownership and ETS, potentially pointing to pet ownership as protecting against the development of hypertension in children.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Animais , Criança , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade , Animais de Estimação
5.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between sleep quality and depression, among Han and Manchu ethnicities, in a rural Chinese population. METHODS: A sample of 8,888 adults was selected using a multistage cluster and random sampling method. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Depressive symptoms were assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Survey, Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression was conducted to assess associations between sleep quality and depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression in the Manchus (20.74% and 22.65%) was significantly lower than that in the Hans (29.57% and 26.25%), respectively. Depressive participants had higher odds ratios of global and all sub PSQI elements than non-depressive participants, both among the Hans and the Manchus. Additive interactions were identified between depressive symptoms and ethnicity with global and four sub-PSQI elements, including subjective sleep quality, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that the prevalence of poor sleep quality and depression among the Hans was greater than among the Manchus. Depression was associated with higher odds of poor sleep quality.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pharm Biol ; 54(7): 1117-24, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26439905

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The flower bud of Tussilago farfara L. (Compositae) (FTF) is one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs used to treat cough, phlegm, bronchitic, and asthmatic conditions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to isolate four caffeoylquinic acids from the ethyl acetate extract (EtE) of FTF and to evaluate their antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structures of compounds 1-4 isolated from EtE were determined by spectral analysis. Mice were orally treated with these compounds and their mixture (in a ratio of 5:28:41:26 as in EtE) at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg once daily for 3 d. The antitussive and expectorant activities were evaluated separately with the ammonia liquor-induced model and the phenol red secretion model. The anti-inflammation activity was evaluated using leukocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after ammonia liquor-induced acute airway inflammation. RESULTS: The four compounds were identified as chlorogenic acid (1), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (2), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4). All compounds, especially compound 4 (58.0% inhibition in cough frequency), showed a significant antitussive effect. However, the mixture was the most effective to inhibit the cough frequency by 61.7%. All compounds also showed a significant expectorant effect, while compound 2 was the most potent to enhance the phenol red secretion by 35.7%. All compounds significantly alleviated inflammation, but compound 4 showed the strongest effect to inhibit the leukocytosis by 49.7%. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The caffeoylquinic acids and their mixture, exhibiting significant antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory effects, could be considered as the main effective ingredients of FTF, and they may act in a collective and synergistic way.


Assuntos
Antitussígenos/farmacologia , Tosse/prevenção & controle , Expectorantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Acetatos/química , Amônia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antitussígenos/isolamento & purificação , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expectorantes/isolamento & purificação , Flores , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Leucocitose/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fenolsulfonaftaleína , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ácido Quínico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Quínico/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Tussilago/química
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