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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 145: 111563, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574351

RESUMO

A critical barrier for the successful development of fiber sensors for bio-chemical processes is their limitedly improved sensitivity, restricted by the sensor structural design. To solve this, in this paper, a novel concept was proposed using functionalised modified magnetic microspheres (MMSs) to "amplify" the effect of target bio-chemical analytes to significantly improve the fiber sensor's sensitivity, which has been demonstrated using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as an example. Two types of antibody hCG, (ß and α, both can specifically bind with hCG), were adhered on the surface of fibre sensor and MMSs respectively. Both hCG and MMSs will be specifically captured by the fibre sensor, where MMSs act as an "amplifier" to improve the sensor sensitivity. Experimentally immunomagnetic detection limit of 0.0001 mIU/mL has been achieved, which is the highest reported so far. This newly developed methodology opens a new direction for sensitivity improvement and could be further explored to applications require ultrahigh sensitivity detections such as earlier medical diagnostics.

2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 144: 292-299, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600710

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizas absorb water from soil to host plants, while the relationship between mycorrhizas and aquaporins (AQPs, membrane water channel proteins, which function in water transport) in mycorrhizal plants is unclear. In this study, Funneliformis mosseae-colonized trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were grown in pots fitted with 37-µm nylon meshes at the bottom of each pot to allow mycorrhizal hyphae absorb water from an outer beaker. The expression of seven plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) genes, six tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) genes, and four nodulin-26 like intrinsic proteins (NIPs) genes were analyzed in roots of both well-watered (WW) and drought stressed (DS) plants. The six-week DS plants dramatically increased hyphal water absorption rate by 1.4 times, as compared with WW plants. Mycorrhizal plants exhibited greater plant growth performance, leaf water status (water potential and relative water content), and gas exchange under both WW and DS conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation induced diverse expression patterns in these AQPs under WW: up-regulation of PtNIP1;1, PtPIP2;1, and PtPIP2;5, down-regulation of PtNIP1;2, PtNIP6;1, PtPIP1;2, PtPIP1;5, PtPIP2;8, PtTIP1;1, PtTIP1;2, PtTIP1;3, and PtTIP5;1, and no changes in other AQPs. However, the expression of PtPIPs and PtNIPs was down-regulated by mycorrhizal inoculation under DS, and PtTIPs was not induced by mycorrhizal colonization under DS. The expression pattern of AQPs in response to mycorrhizas under DS is a way of mycorrhizal plants to minimize water loss.

3.
Adv Mater ; : e1904177, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566282

RESUMO

Energy storage and conversion play a crucial role in modern energy systems, and the exploration of advanced electrode materials is vital but challenging. Carbon-based nanocages consisting of sp2 carbon shells feature a hollow interior cavity with sub-nanometer microchannels across the shells, high specific surface area with a defective outer surface, and tunable electronic structure, much different from the intensively studied nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. These structural and morphological characteristics make carbon-based nanocages a new platform for advanced energy storage and conversion. Up-to-date synthetic strategies of carbon-based nanocages, the utilization of their unique porous structure and morphology for the construction of composites with foreign active species, and their significant applications to the advanced energy storage and conversion are reviewed. Structure-performance correlations are discussed in depth to highlight the contribution of carbon-based nanocages. The research challenges and trends are also envisaged for deepening and extending the study and application of this multifunctional material.

4.
Opt Express ; 27(16): 22819-22826, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510567

RESUMO

The discovery of topological photonic states has revolutionized our understanding of electromagnetic propagation and scattering. With the introduction of topology, some attractive properties such as unidirectional propagation and robustness against defects and impurities will be endowed to photonic edge modes. In this study, two-dimensionally confined topological edge states were achieved at terahertz (THz) frequency based on an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure. Trivial and nontrivial bandgaps of two deforming honeycomb lattices as well as unidirectional topological edge states were observed. Because the topological edge states with opposite helicity propagated in opposite directions at the interface, a polarization-resolved characteristic was demonstrated here, and thus a continuously tunable power splitter was achieved. This study provides some insights for further THz topological studies and possibilities for THz integrated platforms.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate varicella outbreak trends among schoolchildren during the voluntary single-dose varicella vaccine (VarV) era in Shanghai, China. METHODS: Trends in school varicella outbreaks from 2006 to 2017 were assessed using joinpoint regression models. The impacts of changes in single-dose VarV coverage among schoolchildren and implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategies on outbreak trends were further analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 265 varicella outbreaks involving 3,263 cases were reported in Shanghai from 2006 to 2017. The number of outbreaks showed an increasing trend from 2006 to 2017 (t = 2.62, p = 0.026), especially in kindergartens. The proportion of breakthrough varicella cases among all outbreak-related cases showed an increasing trend from 30.4% in 2008 to 85.7% in 2017 (t = 7.45, p < 0.001). Single-dose VarV coverage among schoolchildren was 88.1%, and showed a significant increase from the 1996 to the 2008 birth cohorts, followed by a non-significant decline from the 2008 to the 2014 birth cohorts. During school outbreaks in which PEP campaigns were conducted, the varicella attack rate was significantly lower than those in outbreaks without PEP campaigns (1.2% vs. 1.4%; χ2 = 23.35, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even with high coverage, single-dose VarV is insufficient to prevent school outbreaks. Administration of VarV as PEP is an appropriate intervention for varicella outbreak control prior to implementing a two-dose VarV schedule.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time in range (TIR) is an emerging metric of glycemic control and was reported to be associated with microvascular complications of diabetes. We sought to investigate the association of TIR obtained from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Data from 2, 215 patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally analyzed. TIR of 3.9-10.0 mmol/L was evaluated with CGM. CIMT was measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography and abnormal CIMT was defined as a mean CIMT ≥ 1.0mm. Logistic regression models were used to examine the independent association of TIR with CIMT. RESULTS: Compared with patients with normal CIMT, those with abnormal CIMT had significantly lower TIR (P < 0.001). The prevalence of abnormal CIMT progressively decreased across the categories of increasing TIR (P for trend <0.001). In a fully adjusted model controlling for traditional risk factor of CVD, each 10% increase in TIR was associated with 6.4% lower risk of abnormal CIMT. Stratifying the data by sex revealed that TIR was significantly associated with CIMT in males but not in females. In a subset of patients (n=612) with complete data on diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria, we found that the relationship between TIR and CIMT remained to be significant, regardless the status of microvascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: TIR is associated with CIMT in a large sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a link between TIR and macrovascular disease.

7.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528908

RESUMO

Photothermal therapy (PTT) can trigger massive apoptosis of cancer cells, and this sharply increasing local apoptotic rate may recruit plenty of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Although TAMs are recognized to display an M2-like subtype, which encourages tumor ontogenesis, they can be re-educated to a tumoricidal M1-like subtype by immunomodulatory reagents. Chitooligosaccharides (COSs) are endowed with immunomodulatory ability, but the positive electrical property limits their application; besides, their re-educating ability on TAMs is uncertain. Therefore, we proposed whether the combination of zwitterionic COS with a photothermal material can impair the undesirable tumor promotion of TAMs, thus enhancing the PTT treatment outcome. Herein, zwitterionic COS was obtained via the carboxymethylate method and then, the obtained COS was modified on the surface of ink-blue titanium dioxide (BTiO2) with photothermal ability to synthesize BTC NPs. In vitro, the immunofluorescence staining and cell survival assays indicated that BTC NPs could re-educate 87% of the M2-like RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by apoptotic tumor cell secretion and significantly inhibit the liver tumor cell proliferation. Notably, in a mouse H22 liver cancer model, compared with mono PTT with BTiO2, the PTT treatment of BTC could reverse the ratio of M2 : M1 from 3.3 : 1 to 0.5 : 1, thus leading to 20.7% increase in the tumor inhibition rate. In general, our study demonstrated that zwitterionic COS can act as a potent immune activator to re-educate TAMs to M1. Furthermore, equipping the photothermal material with zwitterionic COS can be a potential treatment paradigm to achieve more forceful PTT.

8.
Opt Express ; 27(14): 19726-19736, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503728

RESUMO

Optical fiber based twist sensors usually suffer from high cross sensitivity to strain. Here we report a strain independent twist sensor based on an uneven platinum coated hollow core fiber (HCF) structure. The sensor is fabricated by splicing a section of ~4.5-mm long HCF between two standard single mode fibers, followed by a sputter-coating of a very thin layer of platinum on both sides of the HCF surface. Experimental results demonstrate that twist angles can be measured by monitoring the strength change of transmission spectral dip. The sensor's cross sensitivity to strain is investigated before and after coating with platinum. It is found that by coating a platinum layer of ~9 nm on the HCF surface, the sensor's cross sensitivity to strain is significantly decreased with over two orders of magnitude less than that of the uncoated sensor sample. The lowest strain sensitivity of ~2.32×10-5 dB/𝜇𝛆 has been experimentally achieved, which is to the best of our knowledge, the lowest cross sensitivity to strain reported to date for optical fiber sensors based on intensity modulation. In addition, the proposed sensor is capable of simultaneous measurement of strain and twist angle by monitoring the wavelength shift and dip strength variation of a single spectral dip. In the experiment, strain and twist angle sensitivities of 0.61 pm/𝜇𝛆 and 0.10 dB/° have been achieved. Moreover, the proposed sensor offers advantages of ease of fabrication, miniature size, and a good repeatability of measurement.

9.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 1526602819874474, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496339

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment for iliac artery stenosis caused by Takayasu arteritis (TA). Methods: Twenty-three consecutive TA patients (mean age 28.6±9.5 years; 17 women) with 30 iliac artery stenoses underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and selective stent implantation between January 2007 and December 2016. All had claudication (Rutherford category 2 or 3). The changes in the Rutherford category, ankle-brachial index (ABI), 6-minute walking capacity, and adverse events were assessed. Results: The success rate of endovascular therapy for iliac artery lesions was 93.3% (28/30). Guidewires could not cross either lesion in a patient with bilateral stenoses. Twenty-four lesions were treated by PTA alone and the other 4 lesions with provisional stents. One patient had a puncture site hematoma. Over an average of 4.8±3.3 years, 18 patients remained asymptomatic or had mild intermittent claudication. The other 4 patients developed moderate to severe intermittent claudication due to progression of a previously existing iliac lesion (n=1) or restenosis (n=3); all 4 underwent PTA. At the last follow-up, improvements were seen in the ABI (0.95±0.12 vs 0.51±0.22, p<0.001), 6-minute walking capacity (409.5±46.1 vs 272.6±32.3 m, p<0.001), and the Rutherford category of 22 patients. One patient died of a hemorrhagic stroke at 27 months due to uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion: Endovascular therapy was safe and effective in treating TA patients with iliac artery stenosis, with good clinical outcomes in the long term.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552201

RESUMO

Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is a severe health problem worldwide. As reported, some anti-malarial drugs with anti-parasitic properties also block mast cells (MCs) activities. It is hypothesized that MCs activity may be correlated with the pathogenesis of malaria. Thus, the role of MCs on malarial pathogenesis and the involved physiological action and pathways need to be further investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MCs activation on malaria disease severity using KunMing mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA) infection treated with MCs degranulator (compound 48/80, C48/80) or MCs stabilizer (disodium cromoglycate, DSCG). PbANKA infection caused a dramatic increase in MCs density and level of MCs degranulation in cervical lymph node (CLN) and skin. Compared with infected control, C48/80 treatment had shortened survival time, increased parasitemia, exacerbated liver inflammation and CLN hyperplasia, accompanied with increase in vascular leakage and leukocyte number. The infected mice with C48/80 treatment also elevated the release of CCL2, CXCL1, and MMP-9 from MCs in CLN and skin, and TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCR2, and CXCR2 mRNA expression in CLN and liver. In contrast, the infected mice treated with DSCG showed longer survival time, lower parasitemia, improved liver inflammation and CLN hyperplasia, followed by a decline of vascular leakage and leukocyte number. Decreased MCs-derived CCL2, CXCL1, and MMP-9 from CLN and skin, mRNA expression in CLN and liver (TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCR2, and CXCR2) were also observed in infected mice with DSCG treatment. Our data indicated that MCs activation may facilitate the pathogenesis of PbANKA infection.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4237, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530873

RESUMO

The codling moth Cydia pomonella, a major invasive pest of pome fruit, has spread around the globe in the last half century. We generated a chromosome-level scaffold assembly including the Z chromosome and a portion of the W chromosome. This assembly reveals the duplication of an olfactory receptor gene (OR3), which we demonstrate enhances the ability of C. pomonella to exploit kairomones and pheromones in locating both host plants and mates. Genome-wide association studies contrasting insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains identify hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially associated with insecticide resistance, including three SNPs found in the promoter of CYP6B2. RNAi knockdown of CYP6B2 increases C. pomonella sensitivity to two insecticides, deltamethrin and azinphos methyl. The high-quality genome assembly of C. pomonella informs the genetic basis of its invasiveness, suggesting the codling moth has distinctive capabilities and adaptive potential that may explain its worldwide expansion.

12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 2973-2982, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529872

RESUMO

Ant nesting can modify soil physicochemical conditions in the tropical forest, exerting a crucial effect on spatiotemporal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient. In this study, the chloroform fumigation method was used to measure the spatiotemporal dynamics of microbial biomass carbon and quotient in ant nests and the reference soils in Syzygium oblatum community of tropical Xishuangbanna. The results were as following: 1) Microbial biomass carbon and quotient were significantly higher in ant nests (1.95 g·kg-1, 6.8%) than in the reference soils (1.76 g·kg-1, 5.1%). The microbial biomass carbon in ant nests and the reference soils showed a signifi-cantly unimodal temporal variation, whereas the temporal dynamics of microbial biomass quotient presented a distribution pattern of "V" type. 2) The microbial biomass carbon and quotient showed significant vertical changes in ant nests and the reference soils. The microbial biomass carbon decreased, and microbial biomass quotient increased significantly along the soil layers. The vertical variations in microbial biomass carbon and quotient were more significant in ant nests than in refe-rence soils. 3) Ant nesting significantly changed the spatiotemporal distributions of soil water and temperature in ant nests, which in turn affected spatiotemporal dynamics of soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient. Soil water content could explain 66%-83% and 54%-69% of the variation of soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient, respectively. Soil temperature could explain 71%-86% and 67%-76% of the variation of soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient in ant nests and the reference soils, respectively. 4) Changes in soil physicochemical properties induced by ant nesting had significant effect on the soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient. There were positive correlations of soil microbial biomass carbon to soil organic carbon, soil temperature, total nitrogen and soil water content, and to bulk density, nitrate nitrogen and hydrolyzed nitrogen; whereas a negative correlation of them was observed with soil pH. Soil pH was positively and other soil physicochemical properties were negatively correlated with microbial biomass quotient. Total organic carbon, total nitrogen and soil temperature had greater contribution to microbial biomass carbon, while total organic carbon and total nitrogen had the least negative effect on microbial biomass quotient. Therefore, ant nesting could modify microhabitats (e.g., soil water and soil temperature) and soil physicochemical properties (e.g., total organic carbon and total nitrogen), thereby regulating the spatiotemporal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and quotient in tropical forests.


Assuntos
Formigas , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Animais , Biomassa , Carbono , China , Nitrogênio
14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 6166-6173, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560550

RESUMO

High-energy-density materials (HEDMs) have been intensively studied for their significance in fundamental sciences and practical applications. Here, using the molecular crystal structure search method based on first-principles calculations, we have predicted a series of metastable energetic trivalent metal pentazolate salts MN15 (M= Al, Ga, Sc, and Y). These compounds have high energy densities, with the highest nitrogen content among the studied nitrides so far. Pentazolate N5- molecules stack up face-to-face and form wave-like patterns in the C2221 and Cc symmetries. The strong covalent bonding and very weak noncovalent interactions with nonbonded overlaps coexist in these ionic-like structures. We find MN15 molecular structures are mechanically stable up to high temperature (∼1000 K) and ambient pressure. More importantly, these trivalent metal pentazolate salts have high detonation pressure (∼80 GPa) and velocity (∼12 km/s). Their detonation pressures exceeding that of TNT and HMX make them good candidates for high-brisance green energetic materials.

15.
J BUON ; 24(3): 1181-1185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424677

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treating osteosarcoma. METHODS: 102 osteosarcoma patients in our hospital were randomly assigned into the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and the surgery group. Patients in the chemotherapy group received neoadjuvant chemotherapy after pathological diagnosis. Surgery was performed 3 weeks after chemotherapy, followed by 4-6 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy. Osteosarcoma patients in the surgery group were operated once diagnosed and received no chemotherapy. Limb salvage or amputation surgery were performed according to the boundary of tumor resection. All patients were followed up for 24 months. The clinical efficacy, limb function, disease-free survival (DFS) and incidence of adverse events were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Limb salvage rate and disease control survival in the chemotherapy group were higher than those of the surgery group (p<0.05). After follow up for 24 months, the 2-year DFS in the chemotherapy group was remarkably prolonged compared to the surgery group (p<0.05). No significant differences in the incidence of adverse events were observed between both groups (p>0.05). Limb function was markedly improved in the chemotherapy group compared with that of the surgery group. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treating osteosarcoma remarkably improves the limb salvage rate, disease control rate and overall survival (OS), and constitutes an effective and safe option for osteosarcoma patients.

16.
J Investig Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371390

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have proved to act as crucial biomarkers in tumors. Novel biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) need to be investigated badly. To identify the differentially expressed lncRNAs between NSCLC tissue and adjacent tissue, microarray analysis was performed. lncRNA SLC16A1-AS1 was significantly less expressed in NSCLC tissue than that in adjacent tissue. Gain-of-function experiments was performed to determine the biological functions of SLC16A1-AS. In situhybridization and survival analysis were applied in lung cancer tissue samples to determine the prognostic role of SLC16A1-AS1. It was showed that SLC16A1-AS1 was remarkably downregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Functionally, SLC16A1-AS1 overexpression could inhibit the viability and proliferation of lung cancer cell, block the cell cycle and promote cell apoptosis in vitro which may result from reduced phosphorylation of rat sarcoma (RAS)/ proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (RAF)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway caused by elevated expression of SLC16A1-AS1. Clinical sample analysis showed that SLC16A1-AS1 had a favorable impact on the overall survival and progression-free survival of patients with NSCLC. Our results suggested that SLC16A1-AS1 may act as a potential biomarker for patients with NSCLC.

17.
Theranostics ; 9(17): 5020-5034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410199

RESUMO

Rationale: The Polycomb group (PcG) protein EZH2 is implicated in cancer progression due to its frequent overexpression in many cancer types and therefore is a promising therapeutic target. Forkhead box transcription factor-1 (FOXO1) is a tumor suppressor that is often transcriptionally downregulated in human cancers such as prostate cancer although the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Methods: Analysis of EZH2 ChIP-seq and ChIP-on-chip data in various cell types was performed. ChIP-qPCR, RT-qPCR, and western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mechanism by which EZH2 represses FOXO1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was employed to assess the correlation between EZH2 and FOXO1 protein expression in prostate cancer patient specimens. In vitro MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) and animal experiments were performed to determine the anti-cancer efficacy of EZH2 inhibitor alone or in combination of docetaxel, a chemotherapy agent of the taxane family, and dependency of the efficacy on FOXO1 expression. Results: We demonstrated that EZH2 binds to the FOXO1 gene promoter. EZH2 represses FOXO1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. EZH2 protein level inversely correlated with FOXO1 protein expression in prostate cancer patient specimens. This repression requires the methyltransferase activity and the functional PRC2 complex. While effectively inducing loss of viability of PTEN-positive 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells, EZH2 inhibitor failed to inhibit growth of PTEN-negative C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Co-treatment with docetaxel overcame EZH2 inhibitor resistance in PTEN-negative cancer cells in vitro and in mice. This effect was largely mediated by docetaxel-induced nuclear localization and activation of FOXO1. Conclusions: This study identifies FOXO1 as a bona fide repression target of EZH2 and an essential mediator of EZH2 inhibition-induced cell death. Our findings suggest that EZH2 repression of FOXO1 can be targeted by EZH2 inhibitor as a monotherapy for PTEN-proficient cancers or in combination with taxane for treatment of cancers with PTEN mutation or deletion.

18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(8): e1007264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404060

RESUMO

Accurately predicting and testing the types of Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) of each patient using cost-effective microarray-based expression data and machine learning algorithms could greatly help either identifying the most targeting medicine or adopting other therapeutic measures that could correct/restore defective genetic signaling at the early stage. Furthermore, the prediction model construction processes can also help identifying highly informative genes controlling PAH, leading to enhanced understanding of the disease etiology and molecular pathways. In this study, we used several different gene filtering methods based on microarray expression data obtained from a high-quality patient PAH dataset. Following that, we proposed a novel feature selection and refinement algorithm in conjunction with well-known machine learning methods to identify a small set of highly informative genes. Results indicated that clusters of small-expression genes could be extremely informative at predicting and differentiating different forms of PAH. Additionally, our proposed novel feature refinement algorithm could lead to significant enhancement in model performance. To summarize, integrated with state-of-the-art machine learning and novel feature refining algorithms, the most accurate models could provide near-perfect classification accuracies using very few (close to ten) low-expression genes.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109497, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400719

RESUMO

A monitoring study of 71 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in tap water covered all districts of Shanghai. Nineteen PPCPs were detected in all samples, and most of them were detected with high concentration. Ten compounds were found with highest concentrations and their detection frequencies were over 80%, included thiamphenicol  (101.54 ng/L), florfenicol (84.56 ng/L), valsartan (66.84 ng/L), irbesartan (38.35 ng/L) hydrochlorothiazide (33.13 ng/L), 4-acetaminopyrine (48.16 ng/L), propylparaben (47.50 ng/L), dicyclohexylamine (42.33 ng/L), primidone (32.85 ng/L) and bisphenol A (31.51 ng/L). Only 6 PPCPs were not detected in all samples. Detection frequency of PPCPs was between 50% and 70% in most tap waters, but the total concentration of PPCPs ranged from 71.6 to 361 ng/L. Phenicols was the dominant type with average value of 100 ng/L, accounting for over 50% of most samples, followed by cardiovascular and psychotropic drugs with average value of 26.3 and 12.1 ng/L, respectively. In general, the residues of PPCPs in tap water of suburb were higher than those in central districts. The maximum residues happened in D district with the average concentration of 355 ng/L, followed by J, H and Cb districts with the average concentration of 269, 251 and 215 ng/L. In the same district, the content and distribution of PPCPs in tap waters were similar supplied by different water treatment plants. While those are some differences among tap waters inlet from the same water sources. Individual compound was expected to pose a negligible risk to human health with risk quotients (RQ) less than 1, except primidone which may pose potential risk to infants.

20.
J Proteomics ; 207: 103465, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344497

RESUMO

Protein lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification and plays a pivotal role in a broad array of physiological functions. In our study, a strategy combining immunoaffinity enrichment of acetylated peptides based on anti-acetyllysine antibody with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was employed for a systemic survey of acetylation sites in a polyphagous pest insect Thrips tabaci. In total, 597 acetylated proteins containing 995 lysine acetylation sites were identified in T. tabaci. Interestingly, functional enrichment analysis showed that acetylated proteins are implicated in the regulation of diverse KEGG pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and translational process. In particular, a large fraction of metabolic enzymes, including multiple rate-limiting enzymes, was also found to be acetylated. Comparative analysis indicated that a proportion of euNOG entries was shared by three insects. Furthermore, motif analysis showed that the sequence flanking acetylation sites exhibited subcellular compartment-specific patterns. Protein-protein interaction network analysis demonstrated that acetylated proteins formed several densely connected sub-networks tightly associated with ribosome, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and purine metabolism, thus strengthening the functional enrichment result. Overall, our study provides a comprehensive view of acetylation sites, facilitating an in-depth investigation of functional roles of acetylation in the future. SIGNIFICANCE: Onion thrips is a polyphagous agricultural pest insect. Insecticide resistance has been frequently reported due to the intensive use of chemical pesticides. Lysine acetylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification and plays important roles in gene regulation. An in-depth understanding of transcriptional regulation is crucial for designing novel and highly efficient pesticides. With high-resolution mass spectrometry based proteomics method, we systematically explored the acetylome in this insect. In total, 595 proteins containing 995 acetylation sites were identified in this study. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that acetylated proteins are implicated in regulating diverse biological processes, including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and translational process. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that ribosome, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative metabolism and purine metabolism are significantly enriched for acetylated proteins. Our results provide insights into the targets of acetylation in onion thrips and facilitate elucidation of transcriptional regulation and design of novel control strategies against this insect.

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