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Arch Virol ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462286


Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infection may cause severe respiratory system manifestations in pediatric populations. Because of the lack of an effective preventive vaccine or specific therapeutic drug for this infection, the development of EV-D68-specific vaccines and antibodies has become increasingly important. In this study, we prepared an experimental EV-D68 vaccine inactivated by formaldehyde and found that the serum of rhesus macaques immunized with the inactivated EV-D68 vaccine exhibited potent neutralizing activity against EV-D68 virus in vitro. Subsequently, the antibody-mediated immune response of B cells elicited by the inactivated vaccine was evaluated in a rhesus monkey model. The binding activity, in vitro neutralization activity, and sequence properties of 28 paired antibodies from the rhesus macaques' EV-D68-specific single memory B cells were analyzed, and the EV-D68 VP1-specific antibody group was found to be the main constituent in vivo. Intriguingly, we also found a synergistic effect among the E15, E18 and E20 monoclonal antibodies from the rhesus macaques. Furthermore, we demonstrated the protective efficacy of maternal antibodies in suckling C57BL/6 mice. This study provides valuable information for the future development of EV-D68 vaccines.

Zool Res ; 41(1): 20-31, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930784


There is a growing appreciation for the specific health benefits conferred by commensal microbiota on their hosts. Clinical microbiota analysis and animal studies in germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice have been crucial for improving our understanding of the role of the microbiome on the host mucosal surface; however, studies on the mechanisms involved in microbiome-host interactions remain limited to small animal models. Here, we demonstrated that rhesus monkeys under short-term broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment could be used as a model to study the gut mucosal host-microbiome niche and immune balance with steady health status. Results showed that the diversity and community structure of the gut commensal bacteria in rhesus monkeys were both disrupted after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing results indicated that Escherichia-Shigella were predominant in stool samples 9 d of treatment, and the abundances of bacterial functional genes and predicted KEGG pathways were significantly changed. In addition to inducing aberrant morphology of small intestinal villi, the depletion of gut commensal bacteria led to increased proportions of CD3 + T, CD4 + T, and CD16 + NK cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but decreased numbers of Treg and CD20 + B cells. The transcriptome of PBMCs from antibiotic-treated monkeys showed that the immune balance was affected by modulation of the expression of many functional genes, including IL-13, VCAM1, and LGR4.

Disbiose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino
Virol J ; 16(1): 105, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426820


BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is closely associated with the health of the host; although the interaction between the bacterial microbiome and the whole virome has rarely been studied, it is likely of medical importance. Examination of the interactions between the gut bacterial microbiome and virome of rhesus monkey would significantly contribute to revealing the gut microbiome composition. METHODS: Here, we conducted a metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome of rhesus monkeys in a longitudinal cohort treated with an antibiotic cocktail, and we documented the interactions between the bacterial microbiome and virome. The depletion of viral populations was confirmed at the species level by real-time PCR. We also detected changes in the gut metabolome by GC-MS and LC-MS. RESULTS: A majority of bacteria were depleted after treatment with antibiotics, and the Shannon diversity index decreased from 2.95 to 0.22. Furthermore, the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) decreased from 104.47 to 33.84, and the abundance of eukaryotic viruses also changed substantially. In the annotation, 6 families of DNA viruses and 1 bacteriophage family were present in the normal monkeys but absent after gut bacterial microbiome depletion. Intriguingly, we discovered that changes in the gut bacterial microbiome composition may promote changes in the gut virome composition, and tryptophan, arginine, and quinone may play roles in the interaction between the bacterial microbiome and virome. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that the clearly altered composition of the virome was correlated with depletion in the bacterial community and that metabolites produced by bacteria possibly play important roles in the interaction.

Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Microbianas , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Macaca mulatta/virologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Metagenômica , Vírus/classificação
J Immunol ; 201(9): 2557-2569, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282753


Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belongs to the picornavirus family and was first isolated in CA, USA, in 1962. EV-D68 can cause severe cranial nerve system damage such as flaccid paralysis and acute respiratory diseases such as pneumonia. There are currently no efficient therapeutic methods or effective prophylactics. In this study, we isolated the mAb A6-1 from an EV-D68-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and found that the Ab provided effective protection in EV-D68 intranasally infected suckling mice. We observed that A6-1 bound to the DE loop of EV-D68 VP1 and interfered with the interaction between the EV-D68 virus and α2,6-linked sialic acids of the host cell. The production of A6-1 and its Ab properties present a bridging study for EV-D68 vaccine design and provide a tool for analyzing the process by which Abs can inhibit EV-D68 infection.

Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Enterovirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Ligação Viral