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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109943, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761553

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have shown that particulate matters are closely related to human infertility. However, the long-term risk of particulate matters exposure in early life is rarely considered. For the first time this study is designed to explore and elucidate the mechanism of maternal exposure to fine particle matters (PM2.5) on autophagy in spermatogenic cells of adult offspring. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups. The 4.8 mg/kg.b.w group and the 43.2 mg/kg.b.w group were administered with different doses of PM2.5. The membrane control group was administered with PM2.5 sampling membrane and the control group received no treatment. The exposure was performed every three days from the day after vaginal plug was checked until delivery for a total of 6 times. The results showed that sperms motility and sperms concentration decreased, and sperm deformity increased in adult male offspring. The expression of SOD decreased and MDA increased. Moreover, the level of GRP78/ATF6 and P62 was upregulated, and the expression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p-mTOR was down-regulated. This suggests that early-life exposure to PM2.5 can induce autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway mediated by unfolded protein response in adult testicular tissue. PM2.5 may pose a significant role and long-term threat to adult after early-life exposure.

2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 86: 154-163, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787180

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported associations of short-term exposure to different sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and increased mortality or hospitalizations for respiratory diseases. Few studies, however, have focused on the short-term effects of source-specific PM2.5 on emergency room visits (ERVs) of respiratory diseases. Source apportionment for PM2.5 was performed with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and generalized additive model was applied to estimate associations between source-specific PM2.5 and respiratory disease ERVs. The association of PM2.5 and total respiratory ERVs was found on lag4 (RR = 1.011, 95%CI: 1.002, 1.020) per interquartile range (76 µg/m3) increase. We found PM2.5 to be significantly associated with asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ERVs, with the strongest effects on lag5 (RR = 1.072, 95%CI: 1.024, 1.119), lag4 (RR = 1.104, 95%CI: 1.032, 1.176) and lag3 (RR = 1.091, 95%CI: 1.047, 1.135), respectively. The estimated effects of PM2.5 changed little after adjusting for different air pollutants. Six primary PM2.5 sources were identified using PMF analysis, including dust/soil (6.7%), industry emission (4.5%), secondary aerosols (30.3%), metal processing (3.2%), coal combustion (37.5%) and traffic-related source (17.8%). Some of the sources were identified to have effects on ERVs of total respiratory diseases (dust/soil, secondary aerosols, metal processing, coal combustion and traffic-related source), bronchitis ERVs (dust/soil) and COPD ERVs (traffic-related source, industry emission and secondary aerosols). Different sources of PM2.5 contribute to increased risk of respiratory ERVs to different extents, which may provide potential implications for the decision making of air quality related policies, rational emission control and public health welfare.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of long-term PM2.5 exposure with blood pressure (BP) outcomes in children aged 6-18 years, and to examine the population attributable risk (PAR) of PM2.5 exposure. METHODS: A total of 53,289 participants aged 6-18 years with full record of age, sex, BP, height, and local PM2.5 exposure from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 6 cities of China in 2013 were involved in the present study. PM2.5 data from 18 January 2013 to 31 December 2013 were obtained from the nearest environmental monitoring station for each selected school. Two-level linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of PM2.5 on children's BP, and PAR was calculated in each sex and age group. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 10.8 (standard deviation: 3.4) years at enrollment, 51.7% of them were boys. U-shaped trends along with increased PM2.5 concentration were found for both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), with the thresholds of 57.8 and 65.0 µg/m3, respectively. Both increased annual mean of PM2.5 concentration and ratio of polluted days were associated with increased BP levels and high blood pressure (HBP), with effect estimates for BP ranging from 2.80 (95% CI: -0.51, 6.11) mmHg to 5.78 (95% CI: 2.32, 9.25) mmHg for SBP and from 0.77 (95% CI: -1.98, 3.52) mmHg to 2.66 (-0.35, 5.66) mmHg for DBP, and the odds ratios for HBP from 1.21 (0.43, 3.38) to 1.92 (0.65, 5.67) in the highest vs. the lowest quartiles. Overall, 1.16% of HBP in our participants could be attributed to increased annual mean of PM2.5 concentration, while 2.82% could be attributed to increased ratio of polluted days. These proportions increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: The association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and BP values appeared to be U-shaped in Chinese children aged 6-18 years, and increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher risk of HBP.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances
4.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335211

RESUMO

Citrus products are rich sources of furocoumarins, a class of photoactive compounds. Certain furocoumarins combined with ultraviolet radiation can induce skin cancer. We examined the relationship between citrus consumption and cutaneous melanoma risk among 56,205 Caucasian postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of melanoma by citrus intake level. During a mean follow-up of 15.7 years, 956 incident melanoma cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models, the HR (95% CI) for melanoma was 1.12 (0.91, 1.37) among the highest citrus consumers (1.5+ servings/day of fruit or juice) versus the lowest (<2 servings/week), 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) among the highest citrus fruit consumers (5+ servings/week) versus non-consumers, and was 1.13 (0.96, 1.32) for the highest citrus juice consumers (1+ servings/day) versus the lowest (<1 serving/week). In stratified analyses, an increased melanoma risk associated with citrus juice intake was observed among women who spent the most time outdoors in summer as adults; the HR for the highest versus lowest intake was 1.22 (1.02, 1.46) (p trend = 0.03). Further research is needed to explore the association of melanoma with citrus juices among women with high sun exposure.

5.
Environ Int ; 131: 105021, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution has emerged as a significant environmental and public health concern in recent years. However, evidence regarding the cardiorespiratory effects of indoor ozone is limited, and the underlying biological mechanisms are unclear, especially in children. Our study aimed to assess the cardiorespiratory responses to indoor ozone exposure in children. METHODS: A repeated-measure study was conducted in 46 middle-school children in Beijing, China. Real-time concentrations of ozone, along with co-pollutants including particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC), were monitored in classrooms from Monday to Friday. Three repeated health measurements of cardiorespiratory functions, including ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lung function, were performed on each participant. Mixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effects of indoor ozone exposure. RESULTS: The mean (SD) indoor ozone concentration was 8.7 (6.6) ppb during the study period, which was largely below the current guideline and standards. However, even this low-level ozone exposure was associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function and increased heart rate (HR) in children. For instance, per interquartile range (IQR) increase in ozone at 2-hour moving average was associated with -7.8% (95% CI: -9.9%, -5.6%) reduction in standard deviation of all normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6%, 3.6%) increment in HR. In addition, the associations were stronger at high BC levels (BC ≥ 3.7 µg/m3). No significant associations were found for airway inflammation and pulmonary function. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to low-level indoor ozone that is not associated with respiratory effects was significantly related to disturbed cardiac autonomic function and increased HR in children, which suggested a possible mechanism through which ozone may affect cardiovascular health in children, and indicated more protective measures should be taken to alleviate the acute adverse effects of indoor ozone in this susceptible population.

6.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 35(3): 232-238, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively investigate the effects of Ringer's solution with different concentrations of alcohol (1%~80%) on biphasic compound action potentials (AP) from frog sciatic nerve trunk, and their recoveries from alcohol effects. METHODS: Individual segments of frog sciatic nerve trunk with a length of 6 to 8 cm were prepared. Ringer's solution with different concentrations of alcohol (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16%, 32%, 48%, 64% and 80%) was applied onto the segment of the trunk between the stimulus and ground electrodes via an agent reservoir which was newly armed in a nerve trunk shielded chamber for 5 minutes. The nerve trunk was respectively electro-stimulated to generate the biphasic compound AP which was recorded using the experimental system of BL-420F. This was followed by 5 times washout plus 5 min administration with Ringer's solution before recovery recording of AP. RESULTS: Compared to normal Ringer's solution, Ringer's solution with alcohol at ≤4% did not have dramatic impacts on the AP amplitude and conduction velocity, while Ringer's solution with alcohol at ≥8% there was significant decrease in these two parameters. Ringer's solution with alcohol at the conentrations of 16%, 32% and ≥48% could prevent a small proportion (30%), a large proportion (90%) and all (100%) of sciatic nerve trunks, respectively, from generating AP. Washout with normal Ringer's solution after alcohol application at the concentration of ≤32%, AP could totally recover to normal status. While alcohol at the concentration of 48%, 64% and 80%, the probabilities to regenerate APs were 90%, 40% and 0%, and the AP amplitudes were decreased to 60%, 36% and 0%, respectively. After washout, AP conduction velocity showed no difference with alcohol at the concentration of ≤8% when compared with that before washout, while it could not be recovered to normal under alcohol at ≥16%. CONCLUSION: Ringer's solution with different concentrations of alcohol exerts different effects on biphasic compound AP amplitude and conduction velocity. Hopefully, our findings could be helpful for the alcoholic usage and its recovery from alcoholic damage.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Anuros , Etanol/farmacologia , Solução de Ringer/farmacologia , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais
7.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(8): 1611-1619, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053944

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the preoperative neovascular change pattern on the fibrovascular membrane (FVM) within 7 days after intravitreal injection of conbercept (IVC) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Prospective, observational study of PDR patients with visible FVM receiving or not receiving IVC. Neovascular changes were assessed by OCTA pre-IVC and 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-IVC. Vessel skeleton density (SD) and vessel density (VD) were quantified by an intensity-based optical microangiography algorithm. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess the agreement between measurements. The SD and VD were compared between follow-ups using repeated-measures analysis in the IVC group. RESULTS: The ICC was 0.992 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.982-0.996) for SD and 0.926 (95% CI: 0.838-0.912) for VD of neovascularization. The neovascularization on FVM significantly regressed in the IVC group (n = 16) compared with no IVC (n = 8) (p = 0.001 for SD and p < 0.001 for VD). The comparisons between consecutive follow-ups showed a statistically significant reduction in SD and VD at 1 and 3 days post-IVC. However, from day 3 onward, the SD and VD remained unchanged. There was no development or progression of tractional retinal detachment within the 7-day period after IVC. CONCLUSION: OCTA-based quantification of the neovascularization on FVM in PDR is feasible, with high inter-reader agreement. The regression of neovascularization reaches a plateau 3 days after IVC. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( http://www.chictr.org.cn , registration number ChiCTR-IPR-17014160).


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Retina/patologia , Neovascularização Retiniana/diagnóstico , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Retinopatia Diabética/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Retiniana/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 960-968, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085483

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent organic pollutants in food chains and environment, exerts negative effects on children's cognitive function. To study the long-term effects, we examined cognitive functions in the male children of women with substantial PCB exposure in Taiwan during 1978-1979 and investigated neural basis of cognitive function changes through structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional MRI (fMRI), which included resting-state and task-activated fMRI with two paradigms: a 2-back task and a picture rotation task. Ten men aged 30.0 ±â€¯3.7 years with prenatal exposure to PCBs and 11 unexposed controls aged 28.1 ±â€¯3.1 years participated. Both groups had similar cognitive phenotypes and behavioral results. Structural MRI analysis results showed that the PCB group had increased cortical thickness over the right inferior parietal lobule. In the resting-state study, the PCB group showed alterations in the default mode network. During the tasks, the PCB group showed decreased task-induced deactivation signals in cognition-associated brain areas during the 2-back task but enhanced deactivations during the picture rotation task. This study demonstrated altered structural MRI as well as resting and task-related fMRI in men with prenatal PCB exposure, suggesting altered brain plasticity and compensatory neuropsychological performance.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 756-764, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate air pollution is a major threat to the cardiovascular health of people. Inflammation is an important component of the pathophysiological process that links air pollution and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A classical marker of inflammation-C-reactive protein (CRP), has been recognized as an independent predictor of CVD risk. Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) may cause systemic inflammatory response but its association with CRP has been inconsistently reported. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the potential effects of short-term and long-term exposures to ambient particulate air pollution on circulating CRP level based on previous epidemiological studies. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus databases for publications up to January 2018 was conducted for studies reporting the association between ambient PM (PM2.5 or PM10, or both) and circulating CRP level. We performed a meta-analysis for the associations reported in individual studies using a random-effect model and evaluated the effect modification by major potential modifiers. RESULTS: This meta-analysis comprised data from 40 observational studies conducted on 244,681 participants. These included 32 (27 PM2.5 studies and 13 PM10 studies) and 11 (9 PM2.5 studies and 5 PM10 studies) studies that investigated the associations of CRP with short-term and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution, respectively. A 10 µg/m3 increase in short-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with increases of 0.83 % (95% CI: 0.30%, 1.37%) and 0.39% (95% CI: -0.04%, 0.82%) in CRP level, respectively, and a 10 µg/m3 increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with much higher increases of 18.01% (95% CI: 5.96%, 30.06%) and 5.61% (95% CI: 0.79%, 10.44%) in CRP level, respectively. The long-term exposure to particulate air pollution was more strongly associated with CRP level than short-term exposure and PM2.5 had a greater effect on CRP level than PM10. CONCLUSION: Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is associated with elevated circulating CRP level suggesting an activated systemic inflammatory state upon exposure, which may explain the association between particulate air pollution and CVD risk.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of take-out food consumption has increased rapidly among Chinese college students, which has contributed to high obesity prevalence. However, the relationships between take-out food consumption, body mass index (BMI), and other individual factors influencing eating behavior among college students are still unclear. This study explored the association of take-out food consumption with gender, BMI, physical activity, preference for high-fat and high-sugar (HFHS) food, major category, and degree level among Chinese college students. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from 1220 college students in Beijing, China, regarding information about take-out food consumption, physical activity, and preference for HFHS food using a self-reported questionnaire. The logistic linear regression model was used to analyze the association between take-out food consumption and personal and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Out of 1220 college students, 11.6% of college students were overweight or obese. Among the personal and lifestyle characteristics, high frequency of take-out food consumption was significantly associated with a non-medical major, high preference for HFHS food, degree level, and higher BMI, but not physical activity. CONCLUSION: Among Chinese college students, consumption of take-out food may be affected by major category, preference for HFHS food, degree level, and BMI. This could provide guidance on restrictions of high take-out food consumption, which contributes to high obesity prevalence and high risk for metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Prevalência , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 824-831, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731307

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of synthetic, fluorinated organic compounds. They have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products and widespread in the environment, wildlife and human. Experimental and epidemiologic evidence suggested that PFASs are capable of interfering with endocrine processes and have potential reproductive and developmental toxicities. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the main reasons of female infertility, is a common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. We performed a case-control study to evaluate associations between PCOS-related infertility and PFASs concentrations in plasma. A total of 180 infertile PCOS-cases and 187 healthy controls were recruited from the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Shandong University. Blood specimens were collected at enrollment and analyzed for ten PFASs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression procedure was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each PFAS. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the dominant PFASs in the plasma of participants, with the median concentration of 5.07 ng/mL and 4.05 ng/mL, respectively. The median levels of individual PFAS were not significantly different between PCOS-cases and controls. While adjusted for the potential confounders (age, BMI, household income, education level, employment status, age at menarche, menstrual volume), the plasma concentration of perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a 12 carbons lengths of perfluorocarboxylic acids, was associated with a significantly increased risk of PCOS-related infertility (medium vs low tertile: OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 4.99, P = 0.02; high vs low tertile: OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.19, 7.67, P = 0.02), with the P trend 0.01. No significant relationship was observed between PCOS-related infertility and other PFAS analytes in the adjusted model, despite perfluoroundecanoic acid showed a negative association (P trend 0.03). The potential reproductive health effects of PFASs and the underlying mechanisms merit further investigation in the future.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Caprilatos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Humanos , Ácidos Láuricos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Reprodução
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 424-432, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721920

RESUMO

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important component of the aging process and has been implicated in the development of many human diseases. Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), an indirect biomarker of mitochondrial function, is sensitive to oxidative damage. Few population-based studies have investigated the impact of fruit and vegetable consumption and cigarette smoke (2 major sources of exogenous antioxidants and oxidants) on leukocyte mtDNAcn. Objectives: We investigated the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mtDNAcn based on data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Methods: Data from 2769 disease-free women in the NHS were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary sources of antioxidants, cigarette smoke, and leukocyte mtDNAcn. In vitro cell-based experiments were conducted to support the findings from the population-based study. Results: In the multivariable-adjusted model, both whole-fruit consumption and intake of flavanones (a group of antioxidants abundant in fruit) were positively associated with leukocyte mtDNAcn (P-trend = 0.005 and 0.02, respectively), whereas pack-years of smoking and smoking duration were inversely associated with leukocyte mtDNAcn (P-trend = 0.01 and 0.007, respectively). These findings are supported by in vitro cell-based experiments showing that the administration of naringin, a major flavanone in fruit, led to a substantial increase in mtDNAcn in human leukocytes, whereas exposure to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, a key carcinogenic ingredient of cigarette smoke, resulted in a significant decrease in mtDNAcn of cells (all P < 0.05). Further in vitro studies showed that alterations in leukocyte mtDNAcn were functionally linked to the modulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Conclusions: Fruit consumption and intake of dietary flavanones were associated with increased leukocyte mtDNAcn, whereas cigarette smoking was associated with decreased leukocyte mtDNAcn, which is a promising biomarker for oxidative stress-related health outcomes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Dieta , Leucócitos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Cetonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/genética , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Nitrosaminas/efeitos adversos , Oxidantes/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/análise , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Verduras/química
13.
Br J Psychiatry ; 215(2): 456-467, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some recent studies examined the effect of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on depression and suicide. However, the results have been inconclusive.AimsTo determine the overall relationship between PM exposure and depression/suicide in the general population. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-crossover and cohort studies to assess the association between PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less) or PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) exposure and depression/suicide. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles (7 for depression and 7 for suicide) with data from 684 859 participants were included in the meta-analysis. With a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 we found a 19% (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.19 [1.07, 1.33]) increased risk of depression and a marginally increased risk of suicide (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.05 [0.99, 1.11]) in the general population. We did not observe any significant associations between increasing exposure to PM10 and depression/suicide. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to determine the robustness of results. The strongest estimated effect of depression associated with PM2.5 appeared in a long-term lag pattern (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.25 [1.07, 1.45], P < 0.01) and cumulative lag pattern (odds ratio [95% CI] 1.26 [1.07, 1.48], P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis suggested that an increase in ambient PM2.5 concentration was strongly associated with increased depression risk in the general population, and the association appeared stronger at long-term lag and cumulative lag patterns, suggesting a potential cumulative exposure effect over time.Declaration of interestNone.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 217-224, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several host characteristics, including pigmentary traits (hair color, sunburn susceptibility and tanning ability), number of common nevi (moles), and family history of melanoma, have been associated with risk of melanoma. METHODS: We prospectively examined the associations between host characteristics and risk of incident melanoma by Breslow thickness (≤1 mm, thin melanoma; or >1 mm, "thicker melanoma") based on the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 86,380 women), NHS II (n = 104,100 women), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 46,934 men). RESULTS: During 22-30 years' follow-up, a total of 1,813 incident melanoma cases were identified with information on Breslow thickness, 1,392 (76.8%) of which had thin melanoma. No significant differences were observed for thin and thicker melanoma in associations with hair color, sunburn susceptibility, and tanning ability. However, we found significant differences for the association with family history of melanoma, with a higher risk estimate for thicker melanoma [HR = 2.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.91-3.42] than thin melanoma (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.21-2.08; P heterogeneity = 0.02). Interestingly, women and men displayed differential associations between nevi count and risk of melanoma by Breslow thickness, with the association appearing stronger for thicker melanoma than thin melanoma in men (P heterogeneity = 0.01), but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with family history of melanoma may be more likely to develop thicker melanoma. Men with high number of common nevi may tend to develop thicker melanoma, which was not found for women. IMPACT: The findings further stress the risk of thicker melanoma for individuals with a family history of melanoma and men with a high nevi count.

15.
Environ Res ; 167: 292-298, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metro system has become popular in urban areas. However, short-term effects of size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) on cardiac autonomic function in metro system remain unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To explore the contribution of ambient PM to in-cabin PM and investigate the short-term effects of exposure to size-fractionated PM and black carbon (BC) in metro system on cardiac autonomic function in young healthy adults. METHODS: Thirty nine young healthy adults were asked to travel in metro system during 9:00-13:00 on a weekends between March and May 2017. We performed continuous ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring for each of them, and measured real-time size-fractionated PM, BC, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, noise, temperature and relative humidity in metro cabin. We also collected the data of ambient PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm) concentrations in Beijing. Linear regression model was used to estimate the infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 to assess the relationship between metro cabin PM and ambient PM. Mixed-effects model was used to estimate the associations between changes in HRV parameters and PM0.5 (aerodynamic diameter < 0.5 µm), PM0.5-2.5 (aerodynamic diameter between 0.5 µm and 2.5 µm), PM2.5-10 (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 µm and 10 µm), and BC, respectively. RESULTS: We found that size-fractionated PM in metro systems were significantly associated with HRV parameters. Per IQR (interquartile range) increase in PM0.5 (1.6*107/m3) in 1-h moving average concentration was associated with a 13.96% (95% CI: - 18.99%, - 8.61%) decrease in SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals). Similar inverse associations were found between size-fractionated PM exposure and LF (low frequency power), HF (high frequency power), respectively, and smaller particles had greater effects on HRV parameters at shorter lag time. Sex of participants modified the adverse associations between size-fractionated PM and HRV. An IQR of 1-h PM0.5 increasing was associated with a decrease of 6.05% (95% CI: - 22.87%, - 14.44%) in males and a 34.87% (95% CI: - 49.59%, - 15.85%) in females in LF (P for interaction = 0.026). The infiltration factor of ambient PM2.5 was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.45). It is estimated that PM2.5 originated from ambient air may account for 20.2% of the PM measured in metro cabin. Per IQR increase in BC (5.5 µg/m3) in 5-min, 1-h, and 2-h moving averages, a primary tracer for ambient PM from combustion source, was associated with decreases of 0.84% (95% CI: - 1.20%, - 0.47%), 2.22% (95% CI: - 3.20%, - 1.22%), and 4.44% (95% CI: - 6.28%, - 2.56%) in SDNN, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM may disturb metro commuter's cardiac autonomic function, and the potential effects depend on the size of PM and the sex of commuters. Ambient PM from combustion source may have adverse effects on the cardiac autonomic function of passengers in cabin.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Material Particulado/farmacologia , Adulto , Pequim , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Transportes
16.
Environ Pollut ; 236: 40-48, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of health status on the relationship between particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) and cardiac autonomic function has not been examined sufficiently directly comparing patients with healthy participants. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association patterns between size-fractioned indoor PM and BC and cardiac autonomic function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their healthy spouses. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) was measured in eight pairs of stable COPD patients and their healthy spouses. Real-time size-fractioned indoor PM and BC levels were monitored on the same, and preceding, days. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in health indices and pollutants after controlling for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Increases in size-fractioned PM and BC were associated with alterations in cardiac autonomic function in both COPD patients and their healthy spouses. However, the association patterns differed between the two groups. In COPD group, an IQR (13.65 µg/m3) increase in PM0.5 at 12-h moving average was associated with reductions of 14.62% (95% CI: -21.74%, -6.86%) in total power (TP) and 10.14% (95% CI: -16.11%, -3.76%) in high frequency (HF) power. In healthy volunteers, however, TP and HF declined immediately upon exposure to PM and then returned to normal levels gradually. In this group, an IQR increase in PM0.5 at 5 min moving average was associated a 20.30% (95% CI: -25.49%, -14.73%) reduction in TP and a 31.79% (95% CI: -36.48%, -26.72%) reduction in HF. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to indoor PM and BC was associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in COPD patients and their healthy spouses. Exposure had a greater lagged effect on HRV in COPD patients than in healthy participants. These findings will aid the formulation of targeted measures to prevent the adverse effects of indoor air pollution for individuals with different health statuses.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Carbono/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Carbono/análise , Feminino , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Environ Int ; 112: 261-268, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported adverse health effects of indoor air pollutants especially particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been shown to be more likely with cardiovascular comorbidities in which cardiac autonomic dysfunction plays an important role. However, there is little evidence for the effect of indoor PM and BC exposures on cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between exposure to indoor size-fractioned PM and BC and changes in HRV and HR in COPD patients. METHODS: Forty-three doctor diagnosed, stable COPD patients were recruited and measured for 24-h HRV and HR. Real-time indoor size-fractioned PM and BC were monitored on the day before and the day of performing health measurements. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the associations between indoor PM and BC and HRV indices and HR after controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Increasing levels of size-fractioned PM and BC were associated with decreased HRV indices and increased HR. An IQR (3.14µg/m3) increase in 8-h BC moving average and an IQR (20.72µg/m3) increase in 5-min PM0.5 moving average concentrations were associated with declines of 7.45% (95% CI: -10.89%, -3.88%) and 16.40% (95% CI: -21.06%, -11.41%) in LF, respectively. The smaller the particles size, the greater effects on HRV indices and HR. Patients' BMI modified the associations between size-fractioned PM and BC and their HRV and HR. For an IQR increase in PM0.5, there was decline in HF of 34.85% (95% CI: -39.08%, -30.33%) in overweight patients, compared to a 2.01% (95% CI: -6.44%, 11.19%) increase in normal-weight patients. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to indoor PM and BC were associated with altered cardiac autonomic function in COPD patients, and the associations for HRV measures of parasympathetic activity (e.g., HF) were more apparent in overweight patients.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fuligem/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
18.
Environ Pollut ; 232: 358-366, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with lower pulmonary function and higher blood pressure (BP). However, controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient multiple daily ozone (O3) metrics and cardiopulmonary health outcomes, especially in the developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and compare the short-term effects of various O3 metrics on pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and BP in a panel study of COPD patients. METHODS: We measured pulmonary function, FeNO and BP repeatedly in a total of 43 patients with COPD for 215 home visits. Daily hourly ambient O3 concentrations were obtained from central-monitoring stations close to subject residences. We calculated various O3 metrics [daily 1-h maximum (O3-1 h max), maximum 8-h average (O3-8 h max) and 24-h average (O3-24 h avg)] based on the hourly data. Daily indoor O3 concentrations were estimated based on estimated indoor/outdoor O3 ratios. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations of various O3 metrics with cardiopulmonary function variables. RESULTS: An interquartile range (IQR) increase in ambient O3-8 h max (80.5 µg/m3, 5-d) was associated with a 5.9% (95%CI: -11.0%, -0.7%) reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and a 6.2% (95%CI: -10.9%, -1.5%) reduction in peak expiratory flow (PEF). However, there were no significant negative associations between ambient O3-1 h max, O3-24 h avg and FEV1, PEF. An IQR increase in ambient O3-1 h max (85.3 µg/m3, 6-d) was associated with a 6.7 mmHg (95%CI: 0.7, 12.7) increase in systolic BP. The estimated indoor O3 were still significantly associated with reduction of FEV1 and PEF. No significant associations were found between various O3 metrics and FeNO. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide clues for the adverse cardiopulmonary effects associated with various O3 metrics in COPD patients and highlight that O3-8 h max was more closely associated with respiratory health variables.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , Pressão Sanguínea , China/epidemiologia , Expiração , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pulmão/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico , Ozônio/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória
19.
Psychosom Med ; 80(1): 34-41, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal stress during pregnancy may influence childhood growth and adiposity, possibly through immune/inflammatory programming. We investigated whether exposure to prenatal stress and methylation in inflammation-related genes were associated with childhood adiposity in 424 mother-child pairs in Mexico City, Mexico. METHODS: A stress index was created based on four prenatally administered stress-related scales (Exposure to Violence, Crisis in Family Systems, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). We measured weight, height, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and waist circumference in early childhood (age range, 4-6 years). Body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated according to World Health Organization standards. DNA methylation in gene promoters of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, and interleukin 6 (IL6) in umbilical cord blood were determined by pyrosequencing. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in stress index (27.3) was associated with decreases of 0.14 unit in BMI z score (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.28 to -0.005), 5.6% in BFM (95% CI = -9.7 to -1.4), 3.5% in PBF (95% CI = -6.3 to -0.5), and 1.2% in waist circumference (95% CI = -2.4 to -0.04) in multivariable-adjusted models. An interquartile range increase in IL6 methylation (3.9%) was associated with increases of 0.23 unit in BMI z score (95% CI = 0.06-0.40), 8.1% (95% CI = 2.3-14.3) in BFM, 5.5% (95% CI = 1.7-9.5) in PBF, and 1.7% (95% CI = 0.2-3.3) in waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal stress was associated with decreased childhood adiposity, whereas cord blood IL6 methylation was associated with increased childhood adiposity in Mexican children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Gravidez , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(8): 087019, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to lead is associated with deficits in neurodevelopment and with hematopoietic system toxicity. DNA methylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the adverse effects of prenatal lead on the offspring, but epigenome-wide methylation data for low levels of prenatal lead exposure are lacking. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between prenatal maternal lead exposure and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood nucleated cells in Project Viva, a prospective U.S.-based prebirth cohort with relatively low levels of lead exposure. METHODS: Among 268 mother-infant pairs, we measured lead concentrations in red blood cells (RBC) from prenatal maternal blood samples, and using HumanMethylation450 Bead Chips, we measured genome-wide methylation levels at 482,397 CpG loci in umbilical cord blood and retained 394,460 loci after quality control. After adjustment for batch effects, cell types, and covariates, we used robust linear regression models to examine associations of prenatal lead exposure with DNA methylation in cord blood at epigenome-wide significance level [false discovery rate (FDR)<0.05]. RESULTS: The mean [standard deviation (SD)] maternal RBC lead level was 1.22 (0.63) µg/dL. CpG cg10773601 showed an epigenome-wide significant negative association with prenatal lead exposure (-1.4% per doubling increase in lead exposure; p=2.3×10-7) and was annotated to C-Type Lectin Domain Family 11, Member A (CLEC11A), which functions as a growth factor for primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. In sex-specific analyses, we identified more CpGs with FDR<0.05 among female infants (n=38) than among male infants (n=2). One CpG (cg24637308), which showed a strong negative association with prenatal lead exposure among female infants (-4.3% per doubling increase in lead exposure; p=1.1×10-06), was annotated to Dynein Heavy Chain Domain 1 gene (DNHD1) which is highly expressed in human brain. Interestingly, there were strong correlations between blood and brain methylation for CpG (cg24637308) based on another independent set of samples with a high proportion of female participants. CONCLUSION: Prenatal low-level lead exposure was associated with newborn DNA methylation, particularly in female infants. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1246.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Chumbo/toxicidade , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Criança , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
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