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1.
Stress ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888397

RESUMO

One in three adults reports experiencing inadequate or disrupted sleep throughout the night, with the incidence being higher in women than in men. Disturbances in nightly sleep result in physiological alterations that contribute to a number of disorders. Poor sleep quality is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders through interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study investigated the effect of one and three days of restricted sleep on HPA axis reactivity. Male and female C57BL/6J (n = 8/group) mice were sleep-deprived for a 20 h period for one day or three consecutive days using the modified multiple platform method, and then subjected to acute restraint stress. In response to sleep restriction, males showed blunted restraint-induced rises in CORT relative to controls. After three days of restricted sleep, females showed a similar attenuation in restraint-induced CORT. However, this effect was ablated after a single day of sleep restriction. Analyses of gene expression revealed significant elevations in the expression of pituitary HPA axis regulatory genes proopiomelanocortin and corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 in both sexes following sleep restriction. In males, but not females, adrenal mRNA expression of 11ß-hydroxylase and melanocortin receptor 2 were also increased. Altogether, these data suggest several possible mechanisms are involved in the HPA axis dysregulation following sleep restriction, and that there are sex differences in how the HPA axis responds to sleep loss.Lay summarySleep restriction alters the stress response differently in males and females following varying nights of sleep restriction. These alterations are accompanied by changes in gene expression in the pituitary and adrenal glands.

2.
Diabet Med ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes diagnosed during youth and early adulthood is aggressive and associated with a high burden of vascular complications. The increase in complications is often attributed to long disease duration and poor metabolic control. Whether people with young-onset type 2 diabetes are inherently more susceptible to long-term complications than those diagnosed in later adulthood is unclear. METHODS: Prospective data from 3322 individuals, diagnosed between the age of 15 and 70 years and collected 10-25 years after diabetes diagnosis, were analysed. The cross-sectional associations between age at diagnosis and microvascular and macrovascular complications were analysed using logistic regression models, adjusted for duration of diabetes exposure and metabolic risk factors including blood pressure, cholesterol and updated mean HbA1c . RESULTS: The prevalence of retinopathy was highest in those with young-onset type 2 diabetes (diagnosed at age 15 to <40 years). After 10-15 years' diabetes duration, the adjusted odds ratio for retinopathy in this population was 2.8 (95% CI 1.9-4.1; reference group those diagnosed at 60 to <70 years of age). The odds of retinopathy remained higher in people with young-onset type 2 diabetes after longer durations of diabetes exposure; the odds decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. This pattern was not observed in models of other complications: after 10-15 years' diabetes exposure, the adjusted odds ratios for albuminuria, peripheral neuropathy and macrovascular disease in people with young-onset type 2 diabetes were 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.8), 0.7 (95% CI 0.5-1.1) and 0.2 (95% CI 0.1-0.3), respectively. CONCLUSION: After accounting for disease duration and other important confounders, people with type 2 diabetes diagnosed in youth and early adulthood (or with a younger current age) appeared to be inherently more susceptible to retinopathy. For other complications, adjusted risk appears highest in the oldest age of diagnosis group. These data have screening and treatment target implications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Data from clinical trials of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines showed that women naïve (negative for both type-specific antibodies and DNA) to vaccine types would derive benefit from vaccination; therefore, an understanding of the proportion of naïve women in different age groups is important for developing HPV vaccination strategies. METHODS: From November 2012 to April 2013, a total of 7372 healthy women aged 18-45 years were recruited in five provinces in China. Cervical specimens and serum samples were collected for each woman at entry. Cervical specimens were first tested by the HPV DNA enzyme immunoassay method; if positive, the specimens were then tested by reverse hybridization line probe assay and HPV-16 and HPV-18 specific polymerase chain reactions. Neutralizing antibodies against HPV-16 or HPV-18 were tested with a pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA was 14.8% (1088/7367, 95% CI 14.0-15.6), and the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies against HPV-16 and HPV-18 was 12.6% (925/7367) and 4.9% (364/7367), respectively. In younger women (18-26 years) and middle-aged women (27-45 years), 83.8% (3116/3719) and 81.4% (2968/3648) were naïve to both HPV-16 and HPV-18 (both neutralizing antibodies and DNA were negative), respectively. In addition, 98.5% (3664/3719) and 98.0% (3575/3648) of the younger or middle-aged women were naïve to at least one HPV type (HPV-16 or HPV-18). DISCUSSION: This study revealed that the majority of Chinese women aged 18-26 years and 27-45 years were naïve to both HPV-16 and HPV-18 and would thus derive full benefit from bivalent HPV vaccination.

4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(2)2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748318

RESUMO

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is difficult to treat due to the production of multiple intrinsic and acquired mechanisms of resistance. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) and the fluoroquinolones have traditionally been considered the drugs of choice but are plagued by increasing resistance and adverse drug effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activities of 12 clinically relevant antimicrobials against clinical S. maltophilia isolates nonsusceptible to levofloxacin and/or TMP-SMZ. A diverse panel of 41 clinical S. maltophilia isolates collected through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2018 was evaluated against ceftazidime, ceftazidime-avibactam, chloramphenicol, delafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, eravacycline, minocycline, omadacycline, polymyxin B, and tigecycline. MICs were determined in triplicate via reference broth microdilution and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines where available. MIC distributions and susceptibilities were also compared across infection type, acquisition setting, and geographic origin. Susceptibilities to levofloxacin and TMP-SMZ were 29.3% and 36.6%, respectively. Minocycline displayed the highest susceptibility rate overall (92.7%) and the lowest MIC90 value (4 mg/liter) of any of the 12 agents tested. Only 3 isolates were resistant to levofloxacin, TMP-SMZ, and minocycline. Polymyxin B and tigecycline were the second most active agents. No significant differences were observed in MIC distributions across the 3 strata evaluated. These data demonstrate that few antimicrobials, old or new, maintain reliable activity against resistant S. maltophilia The role of minocycline in the treatment of infections due to S. maltophilia warrants further clinical investigation given its potent in vitro activity and favorable adverse effect profile.

5.
Animal ; 14(2): 346-352, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571563

RESUMO

Enhancing the supply of arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid, has positive effects on immune function in dairy cattle experiencing metabolic stress during early lactation. Our objective was to determine the effects of Arg supplementation on biomarkers of liver damage and inflammation in cows during early lactation. Six Chinese Holstein lactating cows with similar BW (508 ± 14 kg), body condition score (3.0), parity (4.0 ± 0), milk yield (30.6 ± 1.8 kg) and days in milk (20 ± days) were randomly assigned to three treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Each period was 21 days with 7 days for infusion and 14 days for washout. Treatments were (1) Control: saline; (2) Arg group: saline + 0.216 mol/day l-Arg; and (3) Alanine (Ala) group: saline + 0.868 mol/day l-Ala (iso-nitrogenous to the Arg group). Blood and milk samples from the experimental cows were collected on the last day of each infusion period and analyzed for indices of liver damage and inflammation, and the count and composition of somatic cells in milk. Compared with the Control, the infusion of Arg led to greater concentrations of total protein, immunoglobulin M and high density lipoprotein cholesterol coupled with lower concentrations of haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α, and activity of aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Infusion of Ala had no effect on those biomarkers compared with the Control. Although milk somatic cell count was not affected, the concentration of granulocytes was lower in response to Arg infusion compared with the Control or Ala group. Overall, the biomarker analyses indicated that the supplementation of Arg via the jugular vein during early lactation alleviated inflammation and metabolic stress.

6.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(12): 927-933, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826598

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine the value of multi-slice spiral CT angiography (MSCTA) in the analysis of anatomical variation and structural classification of right colon vessels. Methods: From August 2015 to August 2017, 198 patients (96 of whom underwent laparoscopic radical resection of right colon cancer) at Department of General surgery of Peking University First Hospital were retrospectively collected, and the results of abdominal enhanced CT scan were collected and three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels was performed. There were 104 males and 94 females. The age was 64(27) years (M(Q(R)), range: 19 to 87 years). Right gastroepiploic vein, anterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, right colonic vein (RCV), superior right colonic vein, ileocolon artery or vein (ICA or ICV), middle colon artery or vein (MCA or MCV) and Henle trunk were observed and recorded respectively. The anatomical relationship between the positions of blood vessels, the length of Henle trunk and surgical trunk were measured. Results: ICV and ICA were the most constant anatomic structures. The ICV/ICA of all patients came directly from SMV/SMA, 36.9% (73/198) ICV going in front of SMV and 63.1% (125/198) behind SMV. 72.2% (143/198) of the patients had RCV imported into Henle trunk and the rest into SMV. Middle colonic vein (MCV) could be observed in 81.3% (161/198) of the cases. 81.4% (131/161) of MCV were imported into SMV, 16.8% (27/161) into Henle trunk, 1.2% (2/161) into the first jejunal vein and 0.6% (1/161) into the splenic vein. Henle trunk was divided into 4 types, among which the occurrence probability of gastric node and pancreatic trunk was the highest. The dry length of Henle trunk was (0.82±0.39) cm (range: 0.37 to 1.68 cm). The length of surgical trunk was (2.54±0.83) cm (range: 1.57 to 3.95 cm). Accuracy of MSCTA results was 96.9%(93/96). Conclusions: Anatomical variation of blood vessels in the right colon is common. Abdominal CT angiography can accurately determine the anatomical structure of the blood vessels in the right colon.


Assuntos
Colo/irrigação sanguínea , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Colo/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colectomia/métodos , Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Circulação Esplâncnica , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Adulto Jovem
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(21): 216402, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809181

RESUMO

The pseudogap, d-wave superconductivity and electron-boson coupling are three intertwined key ingredients in the phase diagram of the cuprates. Sr_{2}IrO_{4} is a 5d-electron counterpart of the cuprates in which both the pseudogap and a d-wave instability have been observed. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for the presence of the third key player in electron-doped Sr_{2}IrO_{4}: electron-boson coupling. A kink in nodal dispersion is observed with an energy scale of ∼50 meV. The strength of the kink changes with doping, but the energy scale remains the same. These results provide the first noncuprate platform for exploring the relationship between the pseudogap, d-wave instability, and electron-boson coupling in doped Mott insulators.

8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829487

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to select phosphorus-efficient apple rootstocks under phosphorus deficiency and to reveal the effects of different apple rootstocks on the rhizosphere bacterial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used 83 hybrid lines of Malus robusta Rehd. × Malling 9 (M.9) to investigate their physiological traits and the phosphorus deficiency phenotypes of leaves in response to phosphorus deficiency (0·1 mmol l-1 PO4 3- ). All the plants were cultivated in pots in the greenhouse and watered using drip irrigation. In accordance with the results of investigation, we selected the phosphorus-efficient hybrid lines (PE) and the phosphorus-inefficient hybrid lines (PI) to research their root morphology and root hairs (RH). In addition, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to determine the bacterial community of the rhizosphere from different rootstocks. The results showed that the PE plants had better growth characteristics and stronger root plasticity than that of the PI plants, and phosphorus deficiency can stimulate the RH growth of PE plants. There was no significant difference in the rhizosphere bacterial diversity, but we found that the bacterial community structure was significantly different at the genus levels; in addition, 89 genera were found to have significant differences between PE and PI plants, especially Bacillus. The PE rhizosphere had more abundant Bacillus compared to the PI. High positive Pearson correlations with the phosphorus concentration in the plantlets of apple rootstocks were detected for the bacterial genera Bacillus (r: 0·776). CONCLUSIONS: The phosphorus-efficient apple rootstocks adapted to phosphorus deficiency by shaping the root morphology. Notably, different apple rootstocks showed alteration of the microbes in rhizosphere. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study can provide the materials for exploring the mechanism of apple rootstock phosphorus absorption. In accordance with the different bacterial community compositions, we can develop the inoculants to promote nutrient uptake.

9.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(11): 859-864, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770855

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the role of extended involved-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with early stage extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) in a single center, and to explore the long-term effect of risk-adaptive therapy. Methods: Among 238 patients with early stage NKTCL, there were 191 in high-risk group [any risk factor of age > 60, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score≥2, primary tumor invasion, or Ann Arbor stage Ⅱ] and 47 in low-risk group (no risk factor). A total of 204 patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy, 15 received radiotherapy alone and 19 received chemotherapy alone. One-hundred and eighty-six patients had radiotherapy at a dose ≥50 Gy and 159 patients received chemotherapy with asparaginase-based regimen. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and progression- free survival (PFS)rate of all patients were 66.2% and 57.5%. Five-year OS and PFS rates in low-risk group were 91.8% and 88.0%, while 59.3% and 49.3% in high-risk group. The survival of patients in low-risk group were better than those in high-risk group (both P<0.001). The five-year OS rate in combined therapy group, radiotherapy group and chemotherapy group were 71.7%, 52.3% and 20.7%, respectively (P<0.001). The five-year PFS rate were 63.5%, 23.3% and 24.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Among 219 patients receiving radiotherapy, the 5-year OS and PFS rate of patients with primary site radiotherapy dose ≥ 50 Gy were 72.6% and 66.1%, higher than those of patients with a dose <50 Gy (57.3% and 30.9%, respectively; P=0.031, P<0.001). In the high-risk group, the 5-year OS and PFS rate of the patients who received radiotherapy combined with more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy were 66.5% and 62.6%, higher than those of patients received less than 4 cycles of chemotherapy (56.7% and 46.4%, P=0.045 and 0.020, respectively). Cox multivariate analysis showed that ECOG score (HR=2.208, P=0.001), primary site (HR=4.887, P<0.001), primary tumor invasion (HR=3.265, P=0.001) and radiation dose (HR=1.895, P=0.011) were independent factors of OS in early NKTCL patients. Conclusion: Extended-involved field IMRT with radiation dose more than 50 Gy was the main treatment for patients with early stage NKTCL. Radiotherapy combined with adequate cycle chemotherapy significantly improved prognosis of high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/radioterapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Tratamento Farmacológico , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/diagnóstico , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Chaos ; 29(10): 103120, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675808

RESUMO

In this paper, we analyze the informational properties of time series of slip velocity generated by the Langevin equation of friction in two different frictional regimes: viscous and Coulombian. Representing the generated time series in the Fisher-Shannon plane (where the coordinate axes are the Fisher Information Measure and the Shannon entropy power), the two different frictional regimes are well discriminated. In particular, the viscous regime is characterized by smaller Shannon entropy than the Coulombian one. Furthermore, also the Fisher Information Measure of the slip velocity smoothed by average filter depends on the frictional mechanism, being larger for the viscous regime.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649619

RESUMO

Poor sleep hygiene is a growing problem, with detrimental effects on many biological systems. The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in the regulation of sleep and the stress response, and its dysfunction leads to sleep-related disorders. However, the interaction between these critical functions remains unclear. Thus, we performed a comparative, whole-transcriptome, analysis to identify stress-induced genes and relevant pathways that may be affected by sleep deprivation. One day following 12 h of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation (PSD), mice were restrained for 20 min. Gene expression changes in the pituitary were assessed via RNA-Seq and Gene Ontology in PSD and/or restrained groups compared to controls. We show that restraint triggers transcriptional responses involved in hormone secretion, the glucocorticoid response, and apoptosis in both sexes, with 285 differentially expressed genes in females and 93 in males. When PSD preceded restraint stress, the numbers of differentially expressed genes increased to 613 in females and 580 in males. The pituitary transcriptome of restraint+PSD animals was enriched for microglia and macrophage proliferation, cellular response to corticosteroids, and apoptosis, among others. Finally, we identify sex-specific differences in restraint-induced genes following PSD. These findings provide genetic targets to consider when studying sleep and the response to stress.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During surveillance, we found a new type of Vibrio parahaemolyticus named 'O4:KUT-recAin' and studied the phenotypic, pathogenic and epidemiological characteristics of O4:KUT-recAin. METHODS: V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from acute diarrhoeal patients in coastal hospitals of China. Serum agglutination test, specific PCR assay, growth curves under different conditions and rabbit diarrhoeal models were using to characterize O4:KUT-recAin. RESULTS: The O4:KUT-recAin strain has a new type of K antigen and a 25 043-bp-large fragment encoding 20 proteins inserted in the housekeeping gene recA. Retrospective analysis found that only one O4:KUT-recAin strain was detected in 563 V. parahaemolyticus strains in 2014; then the proportion increased rapidly and reached 17.8% (105/590) in 2016 and 31.1% (224/721) in 2017, making O4:KUT-recAin the second dominant serotype following O3:K6. O4:KUT-recAin strains (100%, 14/14) exhibited increased acid resistance and could reproduce in medium at pH 4.9, while 92.9% (13/14) of the O3:K6 strains could not grow at this pH value. O4:KUT-recAin could cause diarrhoea and small intestinal tissue lesions in infant rabbits, but its diarrhoeal (93.1%, 27/29) and mortality (78.6%, 22/28) rates were slightly lower than those of O3:K6 (100% 16/16, 100% 16/16). Based on diarrhoea patients, there were no significant differences in the two groups for most clinical symptoms and laboratory results, except media age, haemoglobin and the number of red blood cells in stool samples. CONCLUSIONS: O4:KUT-recAin had enhanced acid resistance, was capable of causing infectious diarrhoea in both rabbits and humans, and has become widespread during a short period of time in China.

13.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 54(10): 760-763, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606989

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of foreign body aspiration in children with tracheobronchial variations. Methods: A retrospective study was performed for 11 pediatric patients who were treated in Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Henan Province People's Hospital after a diagnosis of foreign body aspiration with tracheobronchial variations between January 2015 and December 2017. There were 7 males and 4 females among the 11 cases of foreign body aspiration with tracheobronchial variations, ranging between 9 months and 11 years of age. Results: Among 11 cases, the types of variationswere tracheal bronchus in 9 cases, bridging bronchus in 1 case and simple tracheal stenosis in 1 case. All of the pediatric patients were under general anesthesia, and the foreign bodies were removed by bronchoscopy successfully with no significant complications. Conclusions: The possibility of tracheobronchial variations should be considered in children with recurrent wheezing and poor efficacy of regular treatment before foreign body aspiration. Removal of foreign body via rigid bronchoscope under general anesthesia is a safe and effective treatment. These children are needed to combine the situation oftracheobronchial variations and the location of foreign bodies to guide the operation, and strengthened the perioperative treatment.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos/terapia , Aspiração Respiratória/diagnóstico , Aspiração Respiratória/terapia , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Brônquios/anormalidades , Broncoscopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueia/anormalidades , Estenose Traqueal/complicações
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570403

RESUMO

Objective: Metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, particularly those that co-harbor serine ß-lactamases, are a serious emerging public health threat given their rapid dissemination and the limited number of treatment options. Pre-clinical and anecdotal clinical data support the use of aztreonam in combination with ceftazidime-avibactam against these pathogens, but other aztreonam-based combinations have not been explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity and compare synergy between aztreonam in combination with ceftazidime-avibactam and meropenem-vaborbactam against serine and MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae via time-kill analyses. Methods: 8 clinical Enterobacteriaceae strains (4 Escherichia coli and 4 Klebsiella pneumoniae) co-producing NDM and at least one serine ß-lactamase were used for all experiments. Drugs were tested alone, in dual ß-lactam combinations, and in triple drug combinations against all strains. Results: All strains were resistant to ceftazidime-avibactam and meropenem-vaborbactam and 7/8 (87.5%) strains were resistant to aztreonam. Aztreonam combined with ceftazidime-avibactam was synergistic against all 7 aztreonam-resistant strains. Aztreonam combined with meropenem-vaborbactam was synergistic against all aztreonam-resistant strains with the exception of an OXA-232-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Neither triple combination was synergistic against the aztreonam-susceptible strain. Likewise, neither dual ß-lactam combination was synergistic against any strain. Conclusions: These data suggest that aztreonam plus meropenem-vaborbactam has similar activity to aztreonam plus ceftazidime-avibactam against Enterobacteriaceae producing NDM and other non-OXA-48-like serine ß-lactamases. Confirmation of these findings in future in vitro and in vivo models is warranted.

16.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 40(8): 1309-1316, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The manganese ion is used as an intracellular MR imaging contrast agent to study neuronal function in animal models, but it remains unclear whether manganese-enhanced MR imaging can be similarly useful in humans. Using mangafodipir (Teslascan, a chelated manganese-based contrast agent that is FDA-approved), we evaluated the dynamics of manganese enhancement of the brain and glandular structures in the rostral head and neck in healthy volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered mangafodipir intravenously at a rate of 1 mL/minute for a total dose of 5 µmol/kg body weight. Nine healthy adult volunteers (6 men/3 women; median age, 43 years) completed baseline history and physical examination, 3T MR imaging, and blood work. MR imaging also followed mangafodipir administration at various time points from immediate to 7 days, with delayed scans at 1-3 months. RESULTS: The choroid plexus and anterior pituitary gland enhanced within 10 minutes of infusion, with enhancement persisting up to 7 and 30 days, respectively. Exocrine (parotid, submandibular, sublingual, and lacrimal) glands also enhanced avidly as early as 1 hour postadministration, generally resolving by 1 month; 3 volunteers had residual exocrine gland enhancement, which resolved by 2 months in 1 and by 3 months in the other 2. Mangafodipir did not affect clinical parameters, laboratory values, or T1-weighted signal in the basal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: Manganese ions released from mangafodipir successfully enable noninvasive visualization of intra- and extracranial structures that lie outside the blood-brain barrier without adverse clinical effects, setting the stage for future neuroradiologic investigation in disease.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 386-391, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is increasing that pathways of antihypertensives may have a role in the pathogenesis of depression. However, how the class of antihypertensives affects depression risk remains unclear. METHODS: The effects of different classes of antihypertensives on depression were explored using an insurance database in Beijing, China. Antihypertensives in our study included calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (BBs), and diuretics (DIUs). Those initially treated with only one class of antihypertensives were included. Stratified analysis was conducted for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and statin prescriptions. RESULTS: In total, 181,709 newly detected hypertension patients were included. The median follow-up period was 4.33 years and 19,030 participants were with depression by the end. After adjusting for covariates, the incidence density (95% confidence interval, CI) of depression in the BB, ACEI, DIU, CCB, and ARB groups was 3.16 (2.98-3.33), 3.10 (2.91-3.29), 2.70 (2.45-2.94), 2.67 (2.53-2.81), and 2.30 (2.16-2.43) per 100 person-years, respectively. Compared with ARB group, the hazard ratio (95% CI) of depression for BB, ACEI, DIU, and CCB group was 1.37 (1.32-1.43), 1.35 (1.28-1.42), 1.17 (1.08-1.27), and 1.16 (1.12-1.21), respectively. Stratified analysis suggested the highest depression ID remained within the BB or ACEI group. LIMITATIONS: Detailed clinical information was unavailable, which may introduce bias. Patients on monotherapy as initial treatment were included and caution is needed for extrapolation. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with ARBs, there may be a class effect of other antihypertensives on the risk of depression.

18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(14): 6011-6017, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of micro ribonucleic acid (miR)-140-3p participating in the regulation of fracture healing in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely, group A [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)] (n=10), group B (miR-140-3p mimics) (n=10), group C [ mimics negative control (NC)] (n=10), group D [antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-miR-140-3p] (n=10), and group E (ASO NC) (n=10). A rat model of fracture was established on all the rats through the operation. From the successful establishment of the model, the rats in group A were intraperitoneally injected with 50 µL PBS (2 nmol) once a week for 6 weeks, and those in group B, C, D, and E were injected with equivalent volume of miR-140-3p mimics, mimics NC, ASO-miR-140-3p, and ASO NC, respectively, once a week since the successful establishment of model for 6 weeks. The fracture healing in the rats was evaluated via imaging. Meanwhile, Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to detect the expression of miR-140-3p in the five groups. Wnt and ß-catenin expressions in the five groups were detected by means of Western blotting (WB). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its quantized statistical value in the five groups were detected through immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The expression of miR-140-3p was stimulated in miR-140-3p mimics group and inhibited in ASO-miR-140-3p group. The detection of the miR-140-3p expression level in the five groups via RT-PCR showed that miR-140-3p mimics group had a remarkably higher miR-140-3p expression than the other four groups. The differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The WB assay verified that the Wnt and ß-catenin expressions in miR-140-3p mimics group were notably higher than those in control groups, and there were statistically significant differences (p<0.05). Compared with those in the groups injected with PBS, ASO miR-140-3p, mimics NC, and ASO NC, there were evidently more callus tissues, better healed and more blurred fracture lines, as well as no translocation and looseness of internal fixation, in the group injected with miR-140-3p mimics, suggesting that the stimulation of the miR-140-3p expression promotes the fracture healing in the rats. The results of immunohistochemical staining indicated that the number of ALP-positive osteoblasts in the rats in miR-140-3p mimics group was increased markedly in comparison with that in the remaining groups (p<0.05), implying that the differentiation of osteoblasts in the rats was affected in miR-140-3p mimics group. CONCLUSIONS: The overexpressed miR-140-3p in the rats with fracture can promote fracture healing by activating the Wnt signaling pathway.

19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 982-987, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A clinical, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial with two parallel groups. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the efficacy of ropivacaine injection in each belly of the anterior and middle scalene muscles, guided by ultrasonography, in the treatment of Nonspecific Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) compared to cutaneous pressure. METHODS: 38 patients, 19 in the control group (skin pressure in each belly of the anterior and middle scalene muscles) and 19 in the intervention group (ropivacaine). Subjects with a diagnosis of Nonspecific Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, pain in upper limbs and/or neck, with no radiculopathy or neurological involvement of the limb affected due to compressive or encephalic root causes were included. The primary endpoint was functionality, evaluated by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand - DASH scale validated for use in Brasil. The time of the evaluations were T0 = before the intervention; T1 = immediately after; T2 = 1 week; T3 = 4 weeks; T4 = 12 weeks; for T1, the DASH scale was not applied. RESULTS: Concerning the DASH scale, it is possible to affirm with statistical significance (p> 0.05) that the intervention group presented an improvement of functionality at four weeks, which was maintained by the 12th week. CONCLUSION: In practical terms, we concluded that a 0.375% injection of ropivacaine at doses of 2.5 ml in each belly of the anterior and middle scalene muscles, guided by ultrasonography, in the treatment of Nonspecific Thoracic Outlet Syndrome helps to improve function.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intramusculares/métodos , Músculos do Pescoço/efeitos dos fármacos , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Desfiladeiro Torácico/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(3 Suppl): 184-191, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the protective effect of glutamine on the intestinal tissues of septic rats by regulating the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 rats were divided into the Sham group, Model group, and Glutamine group using a random number table. The changes in the intestinal tissues in rats were observed via hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and the difference in the content of serum inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, the apoptosis of the intestinal tissues was detected via terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the protein expression of NF-κB in intestinal tissues was detected via Western blotting. RESULTS: In the Sham group, the rats had normal activity and good mental state, and there were no evident lesions in the abdominal cavity. Compared with the rats in the Sham group, the rats in the Model group had very poor mental state and erected hair, and they trembled and barely moved. After the abdomen was opened, there were bad smell and evident bleeding in the abdominal cavity, and the cecum became black with adhesion and swelling. In the Glutamine group, the symptoms were significantly alleviated compared with the Model group. The morphological observation of the intestinal tissues revealed that in the Sham group, the intestinal villi were regularly and clearly arranged, and there was no congestion in the capillaries. Compared with the Sham group, the intestinal villi were disorderly arranged with rupture in the Model group, and the severe capillary congestion was clearly visible and accompanied by ulcer. In the Glutamine group, the intestinal villi had normal morphology and regular arrangement after treatment, the subepithelial space was significantly dilated, the capillary dilation and the congestion could be seen and the lamina propria was intact. In the Sham group, the pathological score was 0 point, and the intestinal mucosa and villi had normal structure. Compared with that in the Sham group, the pathological score of the intestinal tissues were significantly increased in the Model group (p<0.05). In the Glutamine group, the pathological score significantly declined after treatment compared with that in the Model group (p<0.05). Besides, the content of the inflammatory factor TNF-α in the intestinal tissues was the highest in the Model group (p<0.05), and it was lower in the Glutamine group than that in the Sham group (p<0.05), indicating that glutamine can effectively reduce the content of the inflammatory factor TNF-α, exerting a certain protective effect on the intestinal tissues. The number of apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells was remarkably increased in the Model group compared with that in the Sham group (p<0.05), and it was remarkably decreased in the Glutamine group compared with that in the Model group (p<0.05). The Model group had a significantly higher protein expression of NF-κB in intestinal tissues than in the Sham group and Glutamine group (p<0.05), Sham group had the lowest protein expression of NF-κB in intestinal tissues (p<0.05), and the Glutamine group had a significantly lower protein expression of NF-κB in intestinal tissues than the Model group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Glutamine inhibits the protein expression of NF-κB, thereby exerting a protective effect on intestinal tissues of sepsis rats.

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