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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371931

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of acid-producing diets and depressive symptoms with physical health among breast cancer survivors. We studied a cohort of 2944 early stage breast cancer survivors who provided dietary, physical health, demographic, and lifestyle information at baseline, year 1, and year 4. We assessed the intakes of acid-producing diets via two commonly used dietary acid load scores: potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP). Physical health was measured using the Rand 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), consisting of physical functioning, role limitation due to physical function, bodily pain, general health, and overall physical health subscales. Increased dietary acid load and depression were each independently and significantly associated with reduced physical health subscales and overall physical health. Further, dietary acid load and depression were jointly associated with worse physical health. For instance, depressed women with dietary acid load higher than median reported 2.75 times the risk (odds ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 2.18-3.47) of reduced physical function and 3.10 times the risk of poor physical health (odds ratio = 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.53-3.80) compared to non-depressed women with dietary acid load lower than median. Our results highlight the need of controlling acid-producing diets and the access of mental care for breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Afeto , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Depressão/complicações , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde Mental , Ácidos/metabolismo , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668222

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among 30% of American adults. Former and current smokers are at higher risk for NAFLD compared to never smokers. The ratio of urine caffeine metabolites to caffeine intake-namely, urine caffeine metabolite indices-has previously been used as a proxy for CYP1A2 activity, which is one of the main liver metabolizing enzymes. CYP1A2 activity is associated with NAFLD progression. No studies to our knowledge have examined the associations of liver enzymes, smoking intensity, and secondhand smoke (SES) with CYP1A2 activity (using caffeine metabolite indices) across smoking status. We analyzed national representative samples from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Interestingly, even within a normal range, several liver enzymes were associated with caffeine metabolite indices, and patterns of many of these associations varied by smoking status. For instance, within a normal range, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in never smokers and bilirubin in current smokers were inversely associated with 1-methyluric acid and 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil (URXAMU). Furthermore, we observed a common pattern: across all smoking statuses, higher AST/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) was associated with 1-methyluric acid and URXAMU. Moreover, in current smokers, increased lifelong smoking intensity was associated with reduced caffeine metabolite indices, but acute cigarette exposure as measured by SES levels was associated with increased caffeine metabolite indices among never smokers. In summary, commonly used liver enzyme tests can reflect the CYP1A2 activity even within a normal range, but the selection of these enzymes depends on the smoking status; the associations between smoking and the CYP1A2 activity not only depend on the intensity but also the duration of tobacco exposure.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2 , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Fígado , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Tabaco
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562354

RESUMO

Seasons can affect human inflammatory status and the occurrence of diseases, and foods may also have differential impacts on inflammation across seasons; however, few studies have investigated whether there are independent and joint impacts of seasons and red meat, fruit and vegetable intakes on inflammation in breast cancer survivors. We conducted a cross-sectional study by leveraging a large cohort, the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. The WHEL study comprised primarily early stage breast cancer survivors and collected blood samples, dietary intake, demographic, and health status information at baseline. We selected 2919 participants who provided baseline dietary information and had measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP), a general marker of inflammation. In our multivariable-adjusted analyses, we found that red meat intakes were positively associated, while fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with CRP; blood collected in the winter season was associated with lower CRP when compared to summer; and increased smoking intensity and body mass index (BMI) as well as having cardio-metabolic conditions (such as heart disease or diabetes) were positively associated with CRP. Furthermore, we examined the joint associations of food intakes and the season of blood draw with CRP in different subgroups. We found that moderate intakes of red meat were associated with a reduction of CRP in winter but not in other seasons; increased intakes of fruit and vegetables were associated with reduced inflammation in most seasons except winter. These associations were observed in most subgroups except past smokers with pack-years ≥ 15, in whom we observed no benefit of red meat intakes in winter. Our study provides valuable evidence for considering seasonal impacts on inflammation and seasonal food impacts in different subgroups among breast cancer survivors. The results of our study are in line with one of the emphases of the current NIH 2020-2030 nutrition strategy plan-namely, pay attention to what, when, and who should eat.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138152

RESUMO

The incidence of depression is two-to-three times higher in cancer survivors than the general population. Acid-producing diets may play important roles in the development of depression. Cancer survivors are more susceptible to acid-producing diets, yet few prospective studies have investigated the association of acid-producing diets with depression among breast cancer survivors. We leveraged a large cohort of 2975 early stage breast cancer survivors, which collected detailed dietary data via 24-h recalls. Potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP), two commonly used dietary acid load scores, were used to estimate acid-producing diets. Intakes of PRAL and NEAP were assessed at baseline and years one and four. Increased PRAL and NEAP were each independently associated with increased depression in the longitudinal analyses, after adjusting for covariates. The magnitude of the associations was stronger for PRAL than NEAP. Women with the highest quartile intakes of PRAL had 1.34 (95% CI 1.11-1.62) times the risk of depression compared to women with the lowest quartile. Furthermore, we also observed a joint impact of PRAL and younger age on depression, as well as a joint impact of PRAL and physical activity on depression. Decreasing the consumption of acid-producing diets may be a novel and practical strategy for reducing depressive symptoms among breast cancer survivors, especially those who are younger and have a sedentary lifestyle.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198142

RESUMO

High-level exposure to arsenic, a known carcinogen and endocrine disruptor, is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. Whether low-level exposure is associated with PCa aggressiveness remains unknown. We examined the association between urinary arsenic and PCa aggressiveness among men in North Carolina. This cross-sectional study included 463 African-American and 491 European-American men with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma. PCa aggressiveness was defined as low aggressive (Gleason score < 7, stage = cT1-cT2, and PSA < 10 ng/mL) versus intermediate/high aggressive (all other cases). Total arsenic and arsenical species (inorganic arsenic (iAsIII + iAsV), arsenobetaine, monomethyl arsenic, and dimethyl arsenic)) and specific gravity were measured in spot urine samples obtained an average of 23.7 weeks after diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the covariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCa aggressiveness in association with arsenic tertiles/quantiles overall and by race. The highest (vs. lowest) tertile of total arsenic was associated with PCa aggressiveness ORs of 1.77 (95% CI = 1.05-2.98) among European-American men, and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.57-1.56) among African-American men (PInteraction = 0.04). In contrast, total arsenic and arsenical species were not associated with PCa aggressiveness in unstratified models. Low-level arsenic exposure may be associated with PCa aggressiveness among European-Americans, but not among African-Americans.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Afro-Americanos , Arsênio , Exposição Ambiental , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Neoplasias da Próstata , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Arsênio/toxicidade , Arsênio/urina , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores Raciais , Estados Unidos
6.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545214

RESUMO

Current dietary guidelines do not consider cancer survivors' and past smokers' low capacity to regulate their acid-base balance. People with a low capacity to regulate their acid-base balance are more susceptible to acid-producing diets. We studied a cohort of 2950 early stage breast cancer survivors who provided dietary information at baseline and during follow-up. We assessed the intakes of acid-producing diets via two commonly used dietary acid load scores: potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP). We assessed past smoking intensity by pack-years of smoking. After an average of 7.3 years of follow-up, there were 295 total deaths, 249 breast cancer-specific deaths, and 490 cases of recurrent breast cancer. Increased intakes of dietary acid load and pack-years of smoking were each independently and jointly associated with increased total mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality; tests for trends and overall associations were statistically significant for NEAP and marginally significant for PRAL. Compared to women in the lowest tertile of NEAP and pack-year of smoking = 0, women in the highest tertile of NEAP and pack-years of smoking >15 had the greatest increased risk of total mortality (HR = 3.23, 95%CI 1.99-5.26). Further, dietary acid scores were associated with increased breast cancer recurrence among women with pack-years of smoking >0 but not in those with pack-years of smoking = 0 (p values for interactions <0.05). Our study provides valuable evidence for adding dietary acid load scores to dietary guidelines for breast cancer survivors and developing specific guidelines for past smokers among these survivors.

7.
Bioorg Chem ; 99: 103866, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330737

RESUMO

Aberrant expression of c-MYC oncogene is significantly associated with the occurrence and development of malignant melanoma. Suppression of the c-MYC transcriptional activity accordingly provides a new idea for treating melanoma. Notably, stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure in the promoter is proved to be effective in downregulating c-MYC transcription. In this work, we developed a drug-like imidazole-benzothiazole conjugate called IZTZ-1, which was confirmed to preferentially stabilize the promoter G4 and thus lower c-MYC expression. Intracellular assays revealed that IZTZ-1 induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Furthermore, IZTZ-1 was demonstrated to effectively inhibit tumor growth in a melanoma mouse model. Consequently, IZTZ-1 showed good potential in the treatment of melanoma. This study provides an alternative strategy to treat melanoma by targeting the c-MYC G4.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzotiazóis/química , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Imidazóis/química , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
8.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic acidosis promotes cancer metastasis. No prospective studies have examined the association between dietary acid load and breast cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors, who are susceptible to metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia promotes cancer progression and acid formation; however, researchers have not examined whether hyperglycemia can modify the association between dietary acid load and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: We studied 3081 early-stage breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study who provided dietary information through 24-h recalls at baseline and during follow-up and had measurements of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at baseline. We assessed dietary acid load using two common dietary acid load scores, potential renal acid load (PRAL) score and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) score. RESULTS: After an average of 7.3 years of follow-up, dietary acid load was positively associated with recurrence when baseline HbA1c levels were ≥ 5.6% (median level) and ≥5.7% (pre-diabetic cut-point). In the stratum with HbA1c ≥ 5.6%, comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary acid load, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-3.48) for PRAL and was 2.31 (95% CI 1.42-3.74) for NEAP. No associations were observed in the stratum with HbA1c levels were <5.6%. P-values for interactions were 0.01 for PRAL and 0.05 for NEAP. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated for the first time that even at or above normal to high HbA1c levels, dietary acid load was associated with increased risk of breast cancer recurrence among breast cancer survivors. IMPACTS: Our study provides strong evidence for developing specific dietary acid load guidelines based on HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Ácidos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Dieta , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco
9.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(2): e174-e179, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899150

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress has been found to be associated with the progression of prostate cancer (PCa); however, human studies which identify differential roles of each oxidation pathway in PCa progression are lacking. We aimed to identify which oxidative stress markers, specifically lipid and global oxidation and glycation, are associated with PCa progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 3 groups of patients from a urologic clinic at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center: men with PCa who had undergone prostatectomy, men with PCa under watchful waiting, and men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We used the most commonly used lipid oxidation marker, F2-isoprostanes; global oxidation markers, fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs); and the commonly used marker for advanced glycation end products, carboxymethyllysine. These biomarkers were measured in plasma samples at baseline entry. Plasma prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was measured at enrollment and follow-up visits. RESULTS: Compared with men with BPH, men with PCa who had undergone prostatectomy had 26% (P = .01) higher levels of F2-isoprostanes and 20% (P = .08) higher levels of carboxymethyllysine. All the oxidation markers were similar when comparing men under watchful waiting with men with BPH. When examining the associations between baseline oxidation markers and follow-up PSAs, we found that different oxidation markers had differential patterns associated with PSA elevation. F2-isoprostanes were positively associated with PSA elevation among men with PCa; FlOP_320 was positively associated with PSA elevation among both men with PCa and men with BPH, whereas among men with PCa under watchful waiting, FlOP_360 and FlOP_400 had opposite trends of associations with PSA elevation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that high levels of lipid oxidation were associated with PCa progression, whereas different global oxidation markers had different patterns associated with PCa progression. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to confirm our associations. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the relationship between biomarkers and PCa progression.


Assuntos
F2-Isoprostanos/sangue , Calicreínas/sangue , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lisina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Nutr Diet ; 77(2): 182-188, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161628

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the associations of unprocessed red meat with serum C-reactive protein and traditional lipid biomarkers among adults with different smoking status. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we analysed data collected from 5011 adults (men and women) who had provided information on dietary intakes and the proposed biomarkers for the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). RESULTS: We found positive associations between unprocessed red meat and serum C-reactive protein and triglycerides and an inverse association between unprocessed red meat and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in past smokers, but no associations in never smokers and current smokers. Among past smokers, the percent difference of biomarkers between participants with the highest and the lowest quintiles for the intakes of unprocessed red meat was 42% (P = 0.03) for CRP, 32% for triglycerides and -11% (P = 0.02) for HDL cholesterol. No association was found between unprocessed red meat and other lipid biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Providing individualised nutritional guidelines according to smoking status is important. Our study provided evidence for developing specific guidelines on red meat for past smokers.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Fumantes , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(20): 10529-10542, 2019 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584090

RESUMO

Conventional chemotherapy remains the primary treatment option for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the current chemotherapeutic drugs have limited effects on TNBC, and often lead to serious side effects as well as drug resistance. Thus, more effective therapeutic options are sorely needed. As c-MYC oncogene is highly expressed during TNBC pathogenesis, inhibiting c-MYC expression would be an alternative anti-TNBC strategy. In this study, we designed and synthesized a serial of quinoxaline analogs that target c-MYC promoter G-quadruplex (G4), which is believed to be a repressor of c-MYC transcription. Among them, a difluoro-substituted quinoxaline QN-1 was identified as the most promising G4-stabilizing ligand with high selectivity to c-MYC G4 over other G4s, which is distinguished from many other reported ligands. Intracellular studies indicated that QN-1 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, repressed metastasis and inhibited TNBC cell growth, primarily due to the downregulation of c-MYC transcription by a G4-dependent mechanism. Notably, inhibition by QN-1 was significantly greater for c-MYC than other G4-driven genes. Cancer cells with c-MYC overexpression were more sensitive to QN-1, relative to normal cells. Furthermore, QN-1 effectively suppressed tumor growth in a TNBC mouse model. Accordingly, this work provides an alternative strategy for treating TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Quinoxalinas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Quadruplex G , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443226

RESUMO

Metabolic acidosis can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and cancer metastasis. Dietary acid load contributes to metabolic acidosis if endogenous acid-base balance is not properly regulated. Breast cancer survivors have reduced capacities to adjust their acid-base balance; yet, the associations between dietary acid load and inflammation and hyperglycemia have not been examined among them. We analyzed data collected from 3042 breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study who had provided detailed dietary intakes and measurements of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using a cross-sectional design, we found positive associations between dietary acid load and plasma CRP and HbA1c. In the multivariable-adjusted models, compared to women with the lowest quartile, the intakes of dietary acid load among women with the highest quartile showed 30-33% increases of CRP and 6-9% increases of HbA1c. Our study is the first to demonstrate positive associations between dietary acid load and CRP and HbA1c in breast cancer survivors. Our study identifies a novel dietary factor that may lead to inflammation and hyperglycemia, both of which are strong risk factors for breast cancer recurrence and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Acidose/etiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Prev Med Rep ; 14: 100853, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976488

RESUMO

Cannabis use is increasing and cannabis is typically consumed by smoking. This study explored how indoor secondhand cannabis smoke (SCS) was associated with child health. As part of a larger trial, air particle monitors were placed in 298 homes of families with at least one cigarette smoker and one child under 14 years old in San Diego County, California. Assessment included past 7-day indoor cigarette and cannabis use, the youngest child's exposure to cigarette smoke, and 5 smoke-related past-year child health outcomes: emergency department use for coughing/difficulty breathing; physician diagnosis of ear infection, bronchitis/bronchiolitis, asthma, or eczema/atopic dermatitis. An ordinal measure of adverse health outcomes (0, 1, or ≥2) was regressed on reported indoor cannabis smoking-the main measure of exposure (yes/no). Of 221 parents/guardians asked about cannabis use, 192 (86.9%) provided all required data, and 29 (15.1%) reported indoor cannabis smoking; reports were supported by air particle data. Homes without indoor smoking had lower average 7-day particle concentrations (1968 particles/0.01ft3) than homes with cannabis smoking only (3131 particles/0.01ft3), cigarette smoking only (3095 particles/0.01ft3), or both cigarette and cannabis smoking (6006 particles/0.01ft3). Odds of reporting a greater number of adverse health outcomes were 1.83 (95% CI = 0.89-3.80, p = 0.10) times higher for children of families with indoor cannabis smoking vs families without cannabis smoking, after controlling for exposure to cigarette smoke and other covariates. Our results do not indicate a statistically significant association. However, the magnitude of the (non-significant) association between indoor cannabis smoking and adverse health outcomes warrants more studies.

14.
Nutrients ; 8(9)2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27657128

RESUMO

Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses' Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 158(1): 149-155, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27294610

RESUMO

Findings from epidemiologic studies of oxidative stress biomarkers and breast cancer have been mixed, although no studies have focused on estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) tumors which may be more strongly associated with oxidative stress. We examined prediagnostic plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global biomarker of oxidative stress, and risk of ER- breast cancer in a nested case-control study in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II. ER- breast cancer cases (n = 355) were matched to 355 controls on age, month/time of day of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, and menopausal hormone use. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine associations of plasma FlOP at three emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, and FlOP_400) and risk of ER- breast cancer. We did not observe any significant associations between FlOP measures and risk of ER- breast cancer overall; the RRQ4vsQ1 (95 %CI) 0.70 (0.43-1.13), p trend = 0.09 for FlOP_360; 0.91(0.56-1.46), p trend = 0.93 for FlOP_320; and 0.62 (0.37-1.03), p trend = 0.10 for FlOP_400. Results were similar in models additionally adjusted for total carotenoid levels and in models stratified by age and total carotenoids. Although high (vs. low) levels of FIOP_360 and FIOP_400 were associated with lower risk of ER- breast cancer in lean women (body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2)) but not in overweight/obese women, these differences were not statistically significant (pint = 0.23 for FlOP_360; pint = 0.37 for FlOP_400). Our findings suggest that positive associations of plasma FlOP concentrations and ER- breast cancer risk are unlikely.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Receptores de Estrogênio/deficiência , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur J Psychiatry ; 29(1): 7-20, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26635425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychological distress has been hypothesized to be associated with adverse biologic states such as higher oxidative stress and inflammation. Yet, little is known about associations between a common form of distress - phobic anxiety - and global oxidative stress. Thus, we related phobic anxiety to plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs), a global oxidative stress marker. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 1,325 women (aged 43-70 years) from the Nurses' Health Study. Phobic anxiety was measured using the Crown-Crisp Index (CCI). Adjusted least-squares mean log-transformed FlOPs were calculated across phobic categories. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) comparing the highest CCI category (≥6 points) vs. lower scores, across FlOPs quartiles. RESULTS: No association was found between phobic anxiety categories and mean FlOP levels in multivariable adjusted linear models. Similarly, in multivariable logistic regression models there were no associations between FlOPs quartiles and likelihood of being in the highest phobic category. Comparing women in the highest vs. lowest FlOPs quartiles: FlOP_360: OR=0.68 (95% CI: 0.40-1.15); FlOP_320: OR=0.99 (95% CI: 0.61-1.61); FlOP_400: OR=0.92 (95% CI: 0.52, 1.63). CONCLUSIONS: No cross-sectional association was found between phobic anxiety and a plasma measure of global oxidative stress in this sample of middle-aged and older women.

17.
BMC Urol ; 15: 85, 2015 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26272213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing epidemiological studies of the association between oxidative stress and erectile dysfunction (ED) are sparse and inconclusive, which is likely due to cross-sectional design and small sample size. Therefore, we investigated the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and ED in prospective setting among a relatively large sample size of men. METHODS: We conducted the prospective study among 917 men ages between 47 and 80 years at the time of blood draw, which is a part of nested prospective case-control study of prostate cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs), a global biomarker for oxidative stress, were measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (360/420 nm named as FlOP_360; 320/420 nm named as FlOP_320 and 400/475 nm named as FlOP_400). RESULTS: Approximately 35% of men developed ED during follow-up. We did not find an independent association between FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400 and risk of ED in the multivariable adjusted model (Tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-1.34, P(trend) = 0.54 for FlOP_360; OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.49-1.07, P(trend) = 0.27 for FlOP_320; and OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.66-1.45, P(trend) = 0.72 for FlOP_400). Further analysis of the association between FlOPs and ED in the fasting samples or controls only (free of prostate cancer incidence) did not change the results appreciably. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma FlOPs were not associated with the risk of ED, suggesting oxidative stress may not be an independent risk factor for ED.


Assuntos
Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas/sangue , Disfunção Erétil/sangue , Disfunção Erétil/epidemiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/sangue , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 29(4): 346-50, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trend of gestational weight gain (GWG) in relation to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines and the population attributable risks (PARs) of GWG on fetal growth outcomes remain unclear. METHODS: We analysed Ohio birth certificates from 2006 to 2012 to examine GWG trend by prepregnancy body mass index, to calculate the risk of small- and large-for-gestational age (SGA and LGA), and macrosomia (birthweight >4000 g or >4500 g) infants, and to estimate the PARs of GWG below or above the guidelines. RESULTS: Of 869,531 women who delivered singleton live births at 22-44 weeks of gestation, 4.5% were underweight, 48.9% were normal weight, 23.9% were overweight, and 22.7% were obese before pregnancy. About 36.5% of underweight, 52.6% of normal weight, 72.5% of overweight, and 62.4% of obese women gained weight above the guidelines, with only slight changes from 2006 to 2012. Also, 34.9% of underweight, 20.1% of normal weight, 16.3% of overweight, and 27.0% of obese women gained weight below the guidelines. The PAR of GWG below or above the guidelines was -13% for SGA, 32.6% for LGA, 28.1% for macrosomia >4000 g, and 48.3% for macrosomia >4500 g, mostly driven by currently GWG above the guidelines in normal weight, overweight, and obese women. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of pregnant women gained weight outside of the current IOM GWG guidelines; however, changes from 2006 to 2012 were small. GWG above the IOM guidelines significantly contributed to a large proportion of LGA and macrosomic infants in the general population.


Assuntos
Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Razão de Chances , Ohio , Sobrepeso , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Magreza , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 13(5): e347-51, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972296

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers of oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGE) have been linked to the development of prostate cancer, but evidence from human studies is scarce or controversial. METHODS: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study among 48 men (24 prostate cancer cases and 24 controls) aged 48 to 76 years at baseline. The participants of our study were a part of the Fernald Community Cohort. Prostate cancer cases and controls were matched individually on age (± 3 years) with a 1:1 ratio. Biomarkers included urine F2-isoprostanes (markers of lipid oxidation), plasma fluorescent oxidation products (markers of global oxidation), and carboxymethyllysine (CML) (a major end-stage AGE). RESULTS: At baseline, cases had similar age, body mass index, proportion of family history of prostate cancer, history of benign prostatic hyperplasia, history of hypertension, history of diabetes, number of smokers, and plasma glucose levels compared with controls. Levels of plasma CML were significantly higher in cases than in controls (182 vs. 152 µg/mL, P < .05). In the conditional logistic regression model, an increase in CML equivalent to 1 standard deviation was associated with an increased risk of incident prostate cancer (relative risk, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-3.21) and accounted for approximately 8% variance of prostate cancer liability. Urine F2-isoprostanes and plasma fluorescent oxidation products were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of plasma CML were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. This suggests a potential new pathway for prostate cancer prediction and treatment.


Assuntos
Lisina/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/urina , Análise de Regressão
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 151(2): 415-25, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25917867

RESUMO

High levels of circulating carotenoids are hypothesized to reduce breast cancer risk, potentially due to their antioxidant properties. However, little is known about the relationship between carotenoid exposure earlier in life and risk. We examined associations of premenopausal plasma carotenoids and markers of oxidative stress and risk of breast cancer among 1179 case-control pairs in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Levels of α- and ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) were measured in a subset of participants by spectrofluoroscopy. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for breast cancer by quartile, as well as P values for tests of linear trend. We additionally examined whether 45 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes involved in oxidative and antioxidative processes or carotenoid availability were associated with risk. Carotenoid measures were not inversely associated with breast cancer risk. No differences by estrogen receptor status were observed, though some inverse associations were observed among women postmenopausal at diagnosis. Plasma FlOP levels were not positively associated with risk, and suggestive inverse associations with FlOP_320 and FlOP_360 were observed. Several SNPs were associated with carotenoid levels, and a small number were suggestively associated with breast cancer risk. We observed evidence of interactions between some SNPs and carotenoid levels on risk. We did not observe consistent associations between circulating levels of premenopausal carotenoids or FlOP levels and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Carotenoides/sangue , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Risco , Adulto Jovem
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