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1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 612: 91-98, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512462

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity is a major adverse reaction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) which is located on the basement membrane of human proximal renal tubules is responsible for the renal accumulation of cisplatin and its nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of PPIs to CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Three kinds of PPIs including lansoprazole, omeprazole and rabeprazole (Rab) were co-administrated with CP to mice. In addition, OCT2-overexpressed HEK293, HK-2 and A549 cells were co-incubated with CP and PPIs. The results showed that PPIs can attenuate CP-induced increase of CRE, BUN and histological damage of kidney. Among the three PPIs, Rab was found with a superior protective effect. It significantly reduced the accumulation of CP in OCT2-overexpressed HEK293 cells and in the renal cortex tissues of mice, but not in HK-2 cells. Moreover, Rab reduced the expression levels of cleaved-caspase-3, RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL and p-MLKL and the apoptosis rate of renal tubular cells induced by CP in vivo, but not in HK-2 cells. However, Rab increased the viability of CP-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner and attenuated CP-induced apoptosis and necroptosis in OCT2 over-expressed HEK293 cells. Finally, we demonstrated that Rab have no influence on the antitumor effect of CP. In conclusion, Rab attenuate CP-induced nephrotoxicity mainly through inhibiting OCT2-mediated CP uptake, without interfering with its anti-tumor property of inducing apoptosis and necroptosis.

2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 850417, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571888

RESUMO

Background: Dietary supplements (DSs) may be useful for managing shift work disorder. But the efficiency of outcomes in clinical trials using simulated shift work populations as subjects is controversial. This review explores the potential role of DSs for improving sleep quality, daily functioning, and mood among shift workers in the real world. Methods: A related literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from their inception to July 2021. Information was collected on "shift work," "irregular working hours," "night shift," "dietary supplements," and "nutraceutical research data." Sleep quality-related scales were the primary outcome measures. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.4 (Cochrane Collaboration, London, England) and Stata 15.0 (StataCorp, LLC, College Station, TX, USA). Heterogeneity was examined by using I 2 statistics, and publication bias was assessed via Egger's regression test. Results: Twelve studies, which involved 917 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The DS groups had significant improvement in sleep quality scores (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]: p = 0.04; standard mean difference (SMD), -0.45 [-0.88 to -0.03]) and daytime function (7 RCTs: p = 0.02; SMD, -0.50 [-0.92 to -0.08]). The DS groups did not have a significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance (4 RCTs: p = 0.25; SMD, 0.52 [-0.36 to 1.41]), depression (5 RCTs: p = 0.14; SMD, -0.19 [-0.45 to 0.06]), or anxiety (4 RCTs: p = 0.27; SMD, -0.23 [-0.65 to 0.18]). All RCTs suggested a positive safety profile for DSs. Conclusions: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated DSs may be beneficial for improving sleep quality and daytime function in shift workers. Although there is a wide range of DSs, the small amount of literature included for each type does not allow for subgroup analysis to be used to eliminate high heterogeneity. We have not yet included literatures on other languages either. Given these limitations of the study, there is still a need for more well-designed randomized controlled trials so that our review can be updated in the future to make the results more conclusive. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=273558, PROSPERO: CRD42021273558.

3.
J Thorac Dis ; 14(4): 1120-1129, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35572910

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to explore the effect of early extubation combined with physical training on pulmonary rehabilitation of patients after lung transplantation. Methods: This is an open parallel randomized controlled trial. A total of 96 lung transplant patients admitted to Wuxi People's Hospital (July 2018 to June 2019) were included. Inclusion criteria: (I) aged 18-75; (II) lung transplantation; (III) communicate normally; (IV) voluntary participation. According to the random number method, they were divided into the control group (routine nursing intervention) and the observation group (early extubation combined with a physical training program). The indwelling tracheal intubation time, discharge time, intensive care unit (ICU) stay time, lung function, 6 Minutes Walk Distance (6MWD), Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and satisfaction rate were recorded and analyzed. Results: The observation group's first-time postoperative ambulation (t=2.10, P=0.039), indwelling tracheal intubation time (Z=2.864, P=0.004), and discharge time (t=3.111, P<0.001) were shorter than the control group, while the difference of ICU stay time was not statistically significant (Z=-1.658, P=0.097). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the lung function, 6MWD, and MBI of the two groups (P>0.05). After treatment, the Forced Expiratory Volume In 1 s (FEV1)% (t=-2.707, P<0.001), forced vital capacity (FVC)% (t=-3.716, P<0.001), FEV1/FVC (t=-3.539, P<0.001), 6MWD (t=-5.567, P<0.001), and MBI indexes (t=-4.073, P<0.001) were better than in observation group. The satisfaction rate of the observation group was better than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: For lung transplant recipients, early extubation combined with a physical training program is scientific, safe, and feasible. This approach is helpful to promote the postoperative recovery of lung transplant patients, reduce the length of hospitalization, help patients improve their lung function and ability to engage in activities of daily living, and increase the satisfaction rate of postoperative recovery. Results show that the combination of early extubation and a physical training program is worthy of clinical promotion for lung transplant recipients. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100051954.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522256

RESUMO

The impact of renin on kidney remain unclear among hypertensives with glucose metabolic disorders (GMD). We aimed to evaluate the association between plasma renin activity (PRA) and kidney damage in hypertensive patients with GMD. Overall, 2033 inpatients with hypertension and GMD free of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at baseline were included. CKD was defined using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine protein. PRA was treated as continuous variable, and also dichotomized as high (≥0.65) or low (< 0.65) groups. The association of PRA with incident CKD was evaluated using multivariable Cox model controlling for antihypertensive medications and baseline aldosterone, and traditional parameters. Subgroup and interaction analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity. During a median follow-up of 31 months, 291 participants developed CKD. The incidence was higher in high-renin group than that in low-renin group (54.6 vs 36.6/1000 person-years). Significant association was observed between PRA and incident CKD, and the association was mainly driven by an increased risk for proteinuria. Each standard deviation increment in log-transformed PRA was associated with 16.7% increased risk of proteinuria (hazard ratio = 1.167, P = .03); compared with low-renin group, there was 78.4% increased risk for high-renin group (hazard ratio = 1.784, P = .001). Nonlinear associations were observed between PRA and kidney damage. Higher PRA is associated with greater risk of incident kidney damage, especially for positive proteinuria, in patients with coexistence of hypertension and diabetes, independent of aldosterone. In this patient population with high risk for kidney damage, PRA may serve as an important predictor.

6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 854439, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518938

RESUMO

Object: Eldecalcitol (ED-71) is a vitamin D analog for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, inconsistent results have been reported in this regard. Hence, this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ED-71 for osteoporosis. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched to identify potential trials from inception until April 2021. The investigated outcomes included bone mineral density and fractures at various sites, and potential adverse events. The pooled effect estimates were calculated using weighted mean difference (WMD) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random-effects model. Results: Eight RCTs involving 2368 patients were selected for the final meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that ED-71 were associated with a higher level of femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) (WMD: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.24-1.60; P = 0.008), while it had no significant effect on lumbar spine BMD (WMD: 1.09; 95% CI: -0.11 to 2.30; P = 0.076) and hip BMD (WMD: 1.12; 95% CI: -0.16 to 2.40; P = 0.088). Moreover, the use of ED-71 could protect against the risk of all osteoporotic fracture (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.88; P = 0.003) and vertebral fracture (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55-0.98; P = 0.038), while it did not affect the risk of nonvertebral fracture (RR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.23-1.23; P = 0.140). The subgroup analyses found that the effects of ED-71 were superior to those of alfacalcidol on both BMD and fracture results. Moreover, the use of ED-71 plus bisphosphonate was associated with a greater improvement in BMD at various sites compared with bisphosphonate alone. Finally, ED-71 was associated with an increased risk of increased urine calcium level (RR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.33-2.15; P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study found that the use of ED-71 could improve BMD and fractures at various sites, especially compared with alfacalcidol or a combination with bisphosphonate for patients with osteoporosis. Systematic Review Registration: [http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero], identifier [CRD42021270536].


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Vitamina D , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos , Humanos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(2): 211-218, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has recently been investigated as a new inflammatory marker in many inflammatory diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and immunoglobulin A vasculitis. However, there were very few reports regarding the clinical role of PLR in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the relationship between inflammatory response and disease activity in Chinese patients with myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) associated vasculitis. Furthermore, we evaluated whether PLR predicts the progression of end stage of renal disease (ESRD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: The clinical, laboratory and pathological data, and the outcomes of MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis patients were collected. The Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to examine the association between 2 continuous variables. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between PLR and ESRD or all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 190 consecutive patients with MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis were included in this study. Baseline PLR was positively correlated with CRP (r=0.333, P<0.001) and ESR (r=0.218, P=0.003). PLR had no obvious correlation with Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). Patients having PLR≥330 exhibited better cumulative renal survival rates than those having PLR<330 (P=0.017). However, there was no significant difference in the cumulative patient survival rates between patients with PLR≥330 and those with PLR<330 at diagnosis (P>0.05). In multivariate analysis, PLR is associated with the decreased risk of ESRD (P=0.038, HR=0.518, 95% CI 0.278 to 0.963). We did not find an association between PLR with all-cause mortality using multivariate analysis (HR=1.081, 95% CI 0.591 to 1.976, P=0.801). CONCLUSIONS: PLR is positively correlated with CRP and ESR. Furthermore, PLR may independently predict the risk of ESRD.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Falência Renal Crônica , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Linfócitos , Masculino , Peroxidase , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Front Surg ; 9: 900396, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529913

RESUMO

Background: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely performed for patients with lung cancer. Splenic rupture after VATS lung procedures is a very rare and serious event. Case Presentation: We reported a case with hemodynamic instability after left lower VATS lobectomy. There was no evidence of diaphragmatic injury during the surgery. Computed tomography (CT) showed spleen injury and large amount of fluid in the abdominal cavity. Emergent laparotomy was performed, and splenic rupture was diagnosed. The patient underwent splenectomy, with two lacerations at the diaphragmatic surface of the spleen. The patient did well postoperatively and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5. Conclusion: There are few similar cases reported in the literature. Persistent hemodynamic instability due to the rupture of spleen is life-threatening. In the situation of unexplained hypotension during VATS procedures (especially left-sided approaches), the possibility of splenic injury and rupture should be considered. Abdominal ultrasonography and/or CT examinations should be carried out for prompt diagnosis and treatment of such rare complication.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 878874, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535252

RESUMO

Surface proteins are a type of proteins expressed on the surface of bacteria that play an important role in cell wall synthesis, maintenance of cell morphology, and signaling with the host. Our previous study showed that the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum HC-2 improved the growth performance and immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei. To further investigate the probiotic mechanism, we determined the automatic aggregation ability of the bacteria and surface hydrophobicity of HC-2 after being treated with 5 M of lithium chloride (LiCl) and observed the morphology and adhesion of the bacteria to HCT116 cells. The results showed that with the removal of the HC-2 surface protein, the auto-aggregation ability and surface hydrophobicity of HC-2 decreased, and the crude mucus layer coated on the bacterial surface gradually dissociated. The adhesion rate of HC-2 to HCT116 cells decreased from 98.1 to 20.9%. Moreover, a total of 201 unique proteins were identified from the mixture of the surface proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Several proteins are involved in transcription and translation, biosynthetic or metabolic process, cell cycle or division, cell wall synthesis, and emergency response. Meanwhile, a quantitative real-time PCR qPCR_ showed that HC-2 was mainly colonized in the midgut of shrimp, and the colonization numbers were 15 times higher than that in the foregut, while the colonization rate in the hindgut was lower. The adhesion activity measurement showed that the adhesion level of HC-2 to crude intestinal mucus of L. vannamei was higher than that of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and collagen, and the adhesion capacity of the bacterial cells decreased with the extension of LiCl-treatment time. Finally, we identified the elongation factor Tu, Type I glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, small heat shock protein, and 30S ribosomal protein from the surface proteins, which may be the adhesion proteins of HC-2 colonization in the shrimp intestine. The above results indicate that surface proteins play an important role in maintaining the cell structure stability and cell adhesion. Surface proteomics analysis contributes to describing potential protein-mediated probiotic-host interactions. The identification of some interacting proteins in this work may be beneficial to further understand the adhesion/colonization mechanism and probiotic properties of L. plantarum HC-2 in the shrimp intestine.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35562913

RESUMO

Advanced knowledge of messenger RNA (mRNA) N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and DNA N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (6 mA) redefine our understanding of these epigenetic modifications. Both m6A and 6mA carry important information for gene regulation, and the corresponding catalytic enzymes sometimes belong to the same gene family and need to be distinguished. However, a comprehensive analysis of the m6A gene family in tomato remains obscure. Here, 24 putative m6A genes and their family genes in tomato were identified and renamed according to BLASTP and phylogenetic analysis. Chromosomal location, synteny, phylogenetic, and structural analyses were performed, unravelling distinct evolutionary relationships between the MT-A70, ALKBH, and YTH protein families, respectively. Most of the 24 genes had extensive tissue expression, and 9 genes could be clustered in a similar expression trend. Besides, SlYTH1 and SlYTH3A showed a different expression pattern in leaf and fruit development. Additionally, qPCR data revealed the expression variation under multiple abiotic stresses, and LC-MS/MS determination exhibited that the cold stress decreased the level of N6 2'-O dimethyladenosine (m6Am). Notably, the orthologs of newly identified single-strand DNA (ssDNA) 6mA writer-eraser-reader also existed in the tomato genome. Our study provides comprehensive information on m6A components and their family proteins in tomato and will facilitate further functional analysis of the tomato N6-methyladenosine modification genes.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 819336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602072

RESUMO

Intestinal mucosal inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction have been implicated as pathological factors in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). An emerging area of IBD research focuses on probiotics. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is an excellent choice for engineering therapeutic microbes. Elafin is an endogenous specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3, and we previously found Elafin can effectively suppress the development of colitis. Here, we genetically engineered EcN to deliver Elafin (EcN-Elafin) directly to the colonic mucosa and explored the protective effects of EcN-Elafin against colitis in mice. EcN-Elafin significantly alleviated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis. Compared with wild-type EcN, oral administration of EcN-Elafin displayed better effects on loss of weight, colon length shortening, elevated expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine in colonic tissues. In addition, EcN-Elafin restored the expression and distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 in colonic tissues back to normal. In a damaged colonic epithelial model utilizing Caco-2 cells stimulated with TNF-α, EcN-Elafin efficiently downregulated the activation level of NF-κB signaling. EcN-Elafin was also found to have restored the dysbiosis in gut caused by DSS administration. Moreover, EcN-Elafin significantly enhanced the concentrations of butyrate and valerate in the gut lumen. Thus, our findings demonstrated that EcN-Elafin enhanced the colonic epithelial barrier, promoted the resolution of inflammation, modulated the gut microbiota, and elevated concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut. EcN-Elafin may be a potential therapeutic method for IBD.

12.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603137

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to rage, disclosure of exposure to the virus is of great significance to safety management, especially considering the long latency of the disease. We conducted a survey based on terror management theory of 2,542 people in 71 cities, representing all provinces in mainland China. The results revealed that fear of being isolated influenced disclosure of exposure to the virus and that this influence was mediated by defensive impression management motivation. An inclusive climate buffered both the direct and the indirect effects of fear of isolation on disclosure behaviour via defensive impression management motivation. The implications of these findings for research and safety management during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525614

RESUMO

Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 is a probiotic candidate isolated from naturally fermented yak milk in Lhasa, Tibet, and it has been shown to possess excellent milk fermentation properties. This study used Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 as a co-fermentation strain to investigate the effect of inoculum size with a commercial starter in milk fermentation on the product flavor and profile of volatile metabolites over 28 d of cold storage. Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 was allowed to ferment in pasteurized milk with or without the commercial starter (YF-L904) at 42°C until the pH decreased to 4.5. The finished fermented milks were stored at 10°C for 28 d. Milk samples were taken at hour 0 (before fermentation) and then at d 1, 14, and 28 of cold storage. Different inoculum sizes of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 had no significant effect on pH or titratable acidity during storage of fermented milk. Viable counts of strain PC-01 continued to increase during cold storage of the fermented milk. Generally, as storage of fermented milk proceeded, the overall sensory quality score decreased in all groups. However, the overall sensory scores of PC-01-M were generally higher than those of other groups, suggesting that a medium dose of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei PC-01 had the most obvious effect of slowing the decline in sensory quality of fermented milk during storage. Changes in sensory scores and consumer preferences were accompanied by increases in both the quantity and variety of key volatile metabolites in fermented milk during fermentation, post-ripening (d 1), and storage. Major differentially abundant metabolites, including acetaldehyde, methyl ketones, medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids, 2,3-butanedione, and acetoin, were enriched in fermented milks rated highly in the sensory evaluation. Our data confirmed that the inoculum size of co-fermentative culture affected the sensory quality and volatile metabolome of fermented milk over storage, and an optimal range of co-fermentative culture was titrated in this work.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 823160, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371039

RESUMO

Background: How cryoglobulinemia evolves after sustained virological response (SVR) following direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment in Asian hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients remains elusive. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 422 Taiwanese patients (358 completed DAA therapy and 353 experienced SVRs). Serum cryoglobulins were surveyed at baseline and every 3-6 months posttherapy. Results: Of 422, 227 (53.8%) had cryoglobulinemia, 8 (1.89%) had cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Of 227, 54 (23.8%), 57 (25.1%) and 116 (51.1%) had 1, 2 and 3 cryoglobulins, respectively; those with 3 cryoglobulins had the highest alanine aminotransferase, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fibrosis-4 index. During a 4-year follow-up, among SVR patients, cryoglobulinemia rates decreased from 56.4% to 15.4%, single cryoglobulin rates increased (21.6% to 63.9%) and 3 cryoglobulin rates decreased (55.7% to 11.1%). Compared with baseline values, among SVR patients with baseline cryoglobulinemia, complement component 4 levels increased, and IgG and IgM levels decreased until 48 weeks posttherapy for those without posttherapy cryoglobulinemia. All 8 cryoglobulinemic vasculitis patients exhibited SVRs; 5 (62.5%) achieved complete clinical response 12 weeks posttherapy, of whom, 2 (40%) experienced clinical relapse 24~48 weeks posttherapy. Baseline IgM levels were associated with posttherapy cryoglobulinemia in SVR patients (cut-off values at 12, 24, 48 weeks and 4 years posttherapy: 130, 105, 118 and 168 mg/dL, respectively). Conclusions: Among DAA-treated SVR patients, in 4 years, cryoglobulinemia rates decreased from 56.4% to 15.4%, multiple cryoglobulin rates decreased, cryoglobulinemia signals reversed, 62.5% of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis patients achieved complete clinical response (40% had relapse), and baseline IgM levels indicated posttherapy cryoglobulinemia.


Assuntos
Crioglobulinemia , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Vasculite , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Crioglobulinemia/complicações , Crioglobulinas , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Imunoglobulina M , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Vasculite/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Front Psychol ; 13: 785752, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465562

RESUMO

This study is intended to create an innovative contextual English learning environment making use of the widely used communication software, LINE ChatBot, based on the Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML), in order to improve speaking and listening ability among learners. A total of 73 students were invited to participate in learning activities involving a 4-week English conversation exercise including both speaking and listening. Additionally, in order to explore the influence of competition on language acquisition, we added competition characteristics to the learning activities in the experimental group to enhance learning motivation and learning outcomes. The results showed that with the help of the LINE ChatBot contextual learning environment, the performance of both groups of students was slightly enhanced, but no significant differences were found. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivation in both the experimental and control group was improved if they spoke anonymously. That is, the contextual learning environment based on the LINE ChatBot significantly improved the learners' English speaking and listening ability. In addition, the results showed that the addition of a competition element effectively enhanced the learners' intrinsic motivation to learn English on the LINE ChatBot.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458857

RESUMO

Currently, hidden Markov-based multi-step attack detection models are mainly trained using the unsupervised Baum-Welch algorithm. The Baum-Welch algorithm is sensitive to the initial values of model parameters. However, its training uses random or average parameter initialization methods, which frequently results in the model training into a local optimum, thus, making the model unable to fit the alert logs well and thereby reducing the detection effectiveness of the model. To solve this issue, we propose a pre-training method for multi-step attack detection models based on the high semantic similarity of alerts in the same attack phase. The method first clusters the alerts based on their semantic information and pre-classifies the attack phase to which each alert belongs. Then, the distance of the alert vector to each attack stage is converted into the probability of generating alerts in each attack stage, replacing the initial value of Baum-Welch. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using the DARPA 2000 dataset, DEFCON21 CTF dataset, and ISCXIDS 2012 dataset. The experimental results show that the hidden Markov multi-step attack detection method based on pre-training of the proposed model parameters had higher detection accuracy than the Baum-Welch-based, K-means-based, and transfer learning differential evolution-based hidden Markov multi-step attack detection methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cadeias de Markov , Probabilidade
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417301

RESUMO

The study assessed long-term immunopersistence and safety of the Escherichia coli (E. coli)-produced HPV-16/18 bivalent vaccine. In total, 979 participants in the initial immunogenicity noninferiority study, including girls aged 9-14 years who were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive 2 doses at months 0 and 6 (n = 301) or 3 doses at months 0, 1 and 6 (n = 304); girls aged 15-17 years (n = 149) and women aged 18-26 years (n = 225) who received 3 doses of the vaccine, were invited to participate in follow-up to 30 months post vaccination (NCT03206255). Serum samples were collected at months 18 and 30, and anti-HPV-16/18 IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serious adverse events (SAEs) occurred from month 7 through month 30 were recorded. At month 30, in the per-protocol set, all participants remained seropositive, except for one girl in the 9-14 years (2 doses) group who seroconverted to negative for HPV-18. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody levels were higher in girls aged 9-17 years who received 3 doses (125.3 and 60.2 IU/ml) than in women aged 18-26 years who received 3 doses (72.6 and 28.3 IU/ml), and those in girls aged 9-14 years who received 2 doses (73.2 and 24.9 IU/ml) were comparable to those in women aged 18-26 years who received 3 doses. No SAEs were reported to be causally related to vaccination. The E. coli-produced bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine is safe and induces persistent protective antibodies for up to 30 months after vaccination in girls aged 9-17 years receiving 2 or 3 doses.

19.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100845, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413150

RESUMO

SCOPE: Vitexin and isovitexin are natural plant nutraceuticals for human health and longevity. This research investigated the underlying mechanism of vitexin and isovitexin on aging and health. The vital role of DAF-2/IGFR was illustrated in the insulin/insulin-like growth signaling pathway (IIS) modulated by vitexin and isovitexin. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, in vivo models and molecular docking methods were performed to explore the antiaging mechanism of vitexin and isovitexin. Vitexin and isovitexin (50 and 100 µM) extended the lifespan of C. elegans. The declines of pharyngeal pumping and body bending rates, and the increase of intestinal lipofuscin accumulation, three markers of aging, were postponed by vitexin and isovitexin. These compounds inhibited the IIS pathway in a daf-16-dependent manner, subsequently increasing the expression of DAF-16 downstream proteins and genes in nematodes. Molecular docking studies demonstrated that these compounds might inhibit insulin signal transduction by binding to the crucial amino acid residue ARG1003 in the pocket of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGFR). Western blot indicated that IGFR, PI3K and AKT kinase expressions in senescent cells is decreased after vitexin and isovitexin treatment. CONCLUSION: Vitexin and isovitexin might inhibit IIS pathway by occupying the ATP-binding site pocket of IGFR, subsequently decreasing IGFR expression, thereby promoting longevity and fitness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Soft Matter ; 18(17): 3412-3421, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420622

RESUMO

Superhydrophobic silicone rubbers with robust physical and chemical stability have promising application potential in the field of flexible electronics. A one-step laser etching strategy is proposed for successfully fabricating superhydrophobic silicone rubbers with bioinspired hierarchical micro/nanostructures. Regular and dense micro/nano spheres gradually accumulate on the modified silicone rubber surface with the increase of laser etching cycles. Owing to the bioinspired hierarchical micro/nano spheres, a 5 µL water droplet on the modified silicone rubber surface exhibits a contact angle of 158 ± 3° and a sliding angle of 5 ± 1°. Moreover, the modified silicone rubber can maintain a stable superhydrophobic state in acid/alkali (pH = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10) and thermal environments (50-90 °C). Importantly, the contact angle and sliding angle are adjustable depending on the number of laser etching cycles, which is beneficial for the different application requirements. The proposed method for the fast fabrication of superhydrophobic silicone rubbers with tunable wettability can provide an excellent candidate for the protection of flexible electronics in rainy and acid/alkali environments.

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