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1.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901200

RESUMO

Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been reported to increase the risk of acute and chronic renal disease. However, the data is unclear in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis (AKI-D) who are often candidates for PPI. To investigate this important issue, we identified 26,052 patients from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database weaning dialysis from AKI-D. During a mean follow-up period of 3.52 years, the PPI users had a higher incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than the PPI non-users (P<.001). After propensity score matching and treating mortality as a competing risk factor, the PPIs users had a higher risk in ESRD (sHR 1.40; 95% CI 1.31-1.50) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, sHR1.53; 95 %CI 1.37-1.71) compared to the PPI non-users with AKI-D survivors. In conclusion, the use of PPIs was associated with a higher risk of ESRD and MACE, compared to the PPI non-users in AKI-D patients.

2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(3): 165627, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785407

RESUMO

Macrophages play an important role in aldosterone-induced myocardial fibrosis, in which the first key steps are macrophage recruitment and infiltration. We hypothesized that IL-6 may be a key mediator of aldosterone-induced macrophage recruitment and infiltration. To test this hypothesis, we designed cell studies with a human monocytic cell line THP-1 that with monocyte/macrophage functions to explore the signaling pathway of aldosterone-induced macrophage infiltration, and further investigated the phenomenon and consequent pathway in aldosterone-infused mice studies. The results showed that aldosterone induced the expression of IL-6 via mineralocorticoid receptors, and enhanced THP-1 cell migration and infiltration. Further experiments using a protease array and siRNA revealed that expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-9 were associated with aldosterone-induced macrophage infiltration. In addition, aldosterone-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 expressions were mediated via cyclooxygenase-II and prostaglandin E2/EP-2 and EP-4 receptors. In aldosterone-infused mice, mRNA expressions of MMP-1, MMP-9 and COX-2 in peripheral blood monocytic cells were significantly increased. Moreover, the number of mouse macrophage-restricted F4/80 protein-positive cells in the myocardium was significantly higher in the aldosterone-infused mice compared with control mice. The increase in F4/80-positive cells in the myocardium was suppressed in the aldosterone-infused mice with the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone or anti-IL-6 antibody treatment. In conclusion, interleukin-6 played an important role in aldosterone-induced macrophage recruitment and infiltration in the myocardium.

3.
Surgery ; 167(2): 367-377, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension with hyperaldosteronism could be associated with stroke attributable to endothelial injury. Whether the detrimental effect of aldosterone on stroke among primary aldosteronism patients could be mitigated by administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist or by reduction of aldosterone level via adrenalectomy is still inconclusive. METHODS: Primary aldosteronism and essential hypertensive patients were enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance from 1997 to 2009. We used a validated algorithm to enroll primary aldosteronism patients. We conducted a competing risk analysis, using a time-varying Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: We enrolled 3,167 primary aldosteronism patients with a subgroup of 1,047 aldosterone-producing adenoma patients, and matched these with essential hypertensive controls in a 1:4 ratio. The risk of incident stroke, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, was statistically higher in primary aldosteronism patients than in their essential hypertensive control. The differences in stroke incidences between primary aldosteronism and essential hypertensive patients significantly increased as the hypertensive period lengthened. Primary aldosteronism patients who received mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment had higher risk of all stroke (competing hazard ratio = 1.83, P < .001) compared with their essential hypertensive controls. In light of this, aldosterone-producing adenoma patients had a lower risk of incident stroke after adrenalectomy (competing for hazard ratio = 0.75), but a higher cumulative risk of incident stroke after mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist only (competing for hazard ratio = 1.76) than their matched essential hypertensive patients. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased stroke risk among primary aldosteronism patients than among their matched essential hypertensive controls. A prolonged duration of hypertension was proportionate to the raised risk of stroke. Our findings emphasize the importance of aldosterone-producing adenoma benefitting from adrenalectomy in attenuating the cerebrovascular event.

4.
J Investig Med ; 68(2): 371-377, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630138

RESUMO

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is an important topic in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). However, the relationship between left ventricular structure and eGFR is unclear. We conducted a prospective, observational, and cross-sectional study to analyze 168 patients with PA and 168 propensity score-matched patients with essential hypertension (EH) as the control group, matched by age, gender, and systolic blood pressure. In the patients with PA, the eGFR was not correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI; r=-0.065, p=0.404), while in the patients with EH, the eGFR was negatively correlated with LVMI (r=-0.309, p<0.001). To test whether eGFR had a non-linear relationship with LVMI among the patients with PA, we stratified the patients with PA according to the tertile of eGFR (low, medium, and high tertile). The medium tertile of patients had a significantly lower LVMI than those in the other two tertiles (LVMI: 143.5±41.6, 120.5±40.5, and 133.1±34.3 g/m2, from the lowest to highest tertile of eGFR; analysis of covariance p=0.032). The medium tertile of eGFR is associated with lowest LVMI. Patients with PA with high and low eGFR were associated with higher LVMI. The findings implied that the reasons for an increased LVMI in patients with PA may be different to those in patients with EH.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(24): e012410, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801414

RESUMO

Background Previous studies show that patients with primary aldosteronism are associated with higher risk of congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the effect of target treatment to the incidental CHF has not been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the risk of new-onset CHF in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and explore the effect of adrenalectomy on new onset of CHF. Methods and Results From 1997 to 2009, 688 APA were identified and matched with essential hypertension controls. The risks of developing incidental CHF (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.75; P=0.001) and mortality (hazard ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.20-0.44; P<0.001) were significantly lower in the APA group after targeted treatment. A total of 605 patients with APAs who underwent adrenalectomy lowered the risks of CHF (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90; P=0.017) and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.44; P<0.001) compared with essential hypertension controls. Conclusions In conclusion, for patients with APAs, adrenalectomy can be associated with lower risk of incidental CHF and all-cause mortality in a long-term follow-up.

6.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between hyperaldosteronism and autoimmune disorders has been postulated. However, long-term incidence of a variety of new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOAD) among patients with primary aldosteronism has not been well investigated. METHODS: From Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database with a 23-million population insurance registry, the identification of primary aldosteronism, essential hypertension and NOAD as well as all-cause mortality were ascertained by a validated algorithm. RESULTS: From 1997 to 2009, 2319 primary aldosteronism patients without previously autoimmune disease were identified and propensity score-matched with 9276 patients with essential hypertension. Among those primary aldosteronism patients, 806 patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) were identified and matched with 3224 essential hypertension controls. NOAD incidence is augmented in primary aldosteronism patients compared with its matched essential hypertension (hazard ratio 3.82, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). Furthermore, NOAD incidence is also higher in APA patients compared with its matched essential hypertension (hazard ratio = 2.96, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). However, after a mean 8.9 years of follow-up, primary aldosteronism patients who underwent adrenalectomy (hazard ratio = 3.10, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension) and took mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) still had increased NOAD incidence (hazard ratio = 4.04, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). CONCLUSION: Primary aldosteronism patients had an augmented risk for a variety of incident NOAD and all-cause of mortality, compared with matched essential hypertension controls. Notably, the risk of incident NOAD remained increased in patients treated by adrenalectomy or MRA compared with matched essential hypertension controls. This observation supports the theory of primary aldosteronism being associated with a higher risk of multiple autoimmune diseases.

7.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1532-1540, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679423

RESUMO

The association between primary aldosteronism (PA) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been a matter of debate. 2016 Endocrine Society guideline recommends screening for PA all hypertensive patients with OSA. We designed a multicenter, multiethnic, cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of PA in patients with OSA and the prevalence of OSA in unselected patients with PA. Two hundred and three patients with OSA (102 whites and 101 Chinese) were screened for PA, and 207 patients with PA (104 whites, 100 Chinese, and 3 of African descent) were screened for OSA by cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Eighteen patients with OSA (8.9%) had PA (11.8% of white and 5.9% of Chinese ethnicity). In patients without other indications for PA screening, the prevalence of PA dropped to 1.5%. The prevalence of OSA in patients with PA was 67.6%, consistent in both white and Chinese patients. A correlation between aldosterone levels and apnea/hypopnea index was observed in white patients with PA (R2=0.225, P=0.016) but not in Chinese patients. Multinomial logistic regression confirmed a significant and independent association between plasma aldosterone levels and moderate to severe OSA diagnosis in white patients (odds ratio, 1.002; P=0.002). In conclusion, aldosterone levels may contribute to the severity of OSA in white patients with hyperaldosteronism, but patients with OSA are not at high risk of PA. Results of the present study challenge the current recommendation of the Endocrine Society guideline that all patients with OSA should be screened for PA, irrespective of the grade of hypertension.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(22): e013263, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718437

RESUMO

Background Primary aldosteronism is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, whether aldosterone excess is responsible for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is unknown. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 129 patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 120 patients with essential hypertension, and analyzed their clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic data, including tissue Doppler images. The patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma were reevaluated 1 year after adrenalectomy. After propensity score matching, there were 105 patients in each group. The patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had worse diastolic function than the patients with essential hypertension, as reflected by lower e' (P<0.001) and higher E/e' (P=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that LV diastolic function was significantly correlated with age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), body mass index (P=0.002), systolic blood pressure (P=0.004), creatinine (P=0.008), and log-transformed aldosterone-renin ratio (P=0.003). After adrenalectomy, the patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had significant improvements in LV diastolic function as reflected by an increase in e' (P=0.003) and decrease in E/e' (P=0.002). The change in E/e' was independently correlated with baseline E/e' (P<0.001) and change in LV mass index (P=0.006). Conclusions The patients with primary aldosteronism had worse LV diastolic function than the patients with essential hypertension after propensity score matching, and this could be reversed after adrenalectomy, suggesting that aldosterone excess may induce LV diastolic dysfunction.

10.
J Clin Med ; 8(10)2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635438

RESUMO

Sepsis is commonly associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), particularly in those requiring dialysis (AKI-D). To date, Sepsis-3 criteria have not been applied to AKI-D patients. We investigated sepsis prevalence defined by Sepsis-3 criteria and evaluated the outcomes of septic-associated AKI-D among critically ill patients. Using the data collected from a prospective multi-center observational study, we applied the Sepsis-3 criteria to critically ill AKI-D patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs) in 30 hospitals between September 2014 and December 2015. We described the prevalence, outcomes, and characteristics of sepsis as defined by the screening Sepsis-3 criteria among AKI-D patients, and compared the outcomes of AKI-D patients with or without sepsis using the Sepsis-3 criteria. A total of 1078 patients (median 70 years; 673 (62.4%) men) with AKI-D were analyzed. The main etiology of AKI was sepsis (71.43%) and the most frequent indication for acute dialysis was oliguria (64.4%). A total of 577 (53.3% of 1078 patients) met the Sepsis-3 criteria, and 206 among the 577 patients (19.1%) had septic shock. Having sepsis and septic shock were independently associated with 90-day mortality among these ICU AKI-D patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.23 (p = 0.027) and 1.39 (p = 0.004), respectively). Taking mortality as a competing risk factor, AKI-D patients with septic shock had a significantly reduced chance of weaning from dialysis at 90 days than those without sepsis (HR 0.65, p = 0.026). The combination of the Sepsis-3 criteria with the AKI risk score led to better performance in forecasting 90-day mortality. Sepsis affects more than 50% of ICU AKI patients requiring dialysis, and one-fifth of these patients had septic shock. In AKI-D patients, coexistent with or induced by sepsis (as screened by the Sepsis-3 criteria), there is a significantly higher mortality and reduced chance of recovering sufficient renal function, when compared to those without sepsis.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640178

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal glands and is the most common and treatable cause of secondary hypertension. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone that participates in the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and tissue remodeling. The excess of aldosterone caused by PA results in an increase in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and even arrhythmia and heart failure. Endothelial dysfunction is a well-established fundamental cause of cardiovascular diseases and also a predictor of worse clinical outcomes. Accumulating evidence indicates that aldosterone plays an important role in the initiation and progression of endothelial dysfunction. Several mechanisms have been shown to contribute to aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction, including aldosterone-mediated vascular tone dysfunction, aldosterone- and endothelium-mediated vascular inflammation, aldosterone-related atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. These mechanisms are activated by aldosterone through genomic and nongenomic pathways in mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent manners. In addition, other cells have also been shown to participate in these mechanisms. The complex interactions among endothelium, inflammatory cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts are crucial for aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysregulation. In this review, we discuss the association between aldosterone and endothelial function and the complex mechanisms from a molecular aspect. Furthermore, we also review current clinical research of endothelial dysfunction in patients with PA.

12.
J Nephrol ; 32(6): 957-966, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is associated with high risk for complications and mortality. Whether renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor should be continued or withdrawn in patients with long-term use before cardiac surgery has been lack of consensus. METHODS: We performed this prospective observational cohort study and recruited cardiac surgery patients in the surgical intensive care units between 2000 and 2011. These patients were divided into users and non-users of RAS inhibitor. Propensity score matching and multivariable models were performed to investigate the association between renal outcome, mortality, and preoperative use of RAS inhibitor. RESULTS: Preoperative use of RAS inhibitor was identified as the independent protective factor for AKI development (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23, 0.63), AKI severity (stage 3 vs. stage 1, OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18, 0.69), and renal recovery (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.84, 5.36). Nevertheless, there was no significant protective effect of RAS inhibitor on in-hospital dialysis, in-hospital mortality, and ensuing development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) after AKI. We created a prediction model of CSA-AKI and indicated that preoperative use of RAS inhibitor provided more protective effect in low-risk than high-risk population. CONCLUSION: Preoperative use of RAS inhibitor was associated with less AKI development and severity, and higher renal recovery. Although more risk reduction of AKI development was shown in low-risk group by our prediction model, continued use of RAS inhibitor before cardiac surgery could provide protective effect in all patients.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536622

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the key test for subtyping primary aldosteronism (PA), but its interpretation varies widely across referral centers and this can adversely affect the management of PA patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate in a real life study the rate of bilateral success, identification of unilateral aldosteronism and blood pressure outcomes in PA subtyped by AVS. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: in a retrospective analysis of the largest international registry of individual AVS data (AVIS-2 study) we investigated how different cut-off values of the selectivity (SI) and lateralization index (LI) affected rate of bilateral success, identification of unilateral aldosteronism and blood pressure outcomes. RESULTS: AVIS-2 recruited 1625 individual AVS studies performed between 2000 and 2015 in 19 tertiary referral centers. Under unstimulated conditions, the rate of biochemically confirmed bilateral AVS success progressively decreased with increasing SI cut-offs; furthermore, with currently used LI cut-offs the rate of identified unilateral PA leading to adrenalectomy was as low as < 25%. A within-patient pairwise comparison of 402 AVS performed both under unstimulated and cosyntropin-stimulation conditions showed that cosyntropin increased the confirmed rate of bilateral selectivity for SI cut-offs ≥ 2.0, but with reduced lateralization rates (p < 0.001). Post-adrenalectomy outcomes were not improved by use of cosyntropin or more restrictive diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSION: Commonly used SI and LI cut-offs are associated with disappointingly low rates of biochemically defined AVS success and identified unilateral PA. Evidence-based protocols entailing less restrictive interpretative cut-offs might optimize the clinical use of this costly and invasive test.

14.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 800-808, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476901

RESUMO

We sought to measure the clinical benefits of adrenal venous sampling (AVS), a test recommended by guidelines for primary aldosteronism (PA) patients seeking surgical cure, in a large registry of PA patients submitted to AVS. Data of 1625 consecutive patients submitted to AVS in 19 tertiary referral centers located in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America were collected in a large multicenter international registry. The primary end points were the rate of bilateral success, ascertained lateralization of PA, adrenalectomy, and of cured arterial hypertension among AVS-guided and non AVS-guided adrenalectomy patients. AVS was successful in 80.1% of all cases but allowed identification of unilateral PA in only 45.5% by the criteria in use at each center. Adrenalectomy was performed in 41.8% of all patients and cured arterial hypertension in 19.6% of the patients, 2-fold more frequently in women than men (P<0.001). When AVS-guided, surgery provided a higher rate of cure of hypertension than when non-AVS-guided (40.0% versus 30.5%; P=0.027). Compared with surgical cases, patients treated medically needed more antihypertensive medications (P<0.001) and exhibited a higher rate of persistent hypokalemia requiring potassium supplementation (4.9% versus 2.3%; P<0.01). The low rate of adrenalectomy and cure of hypertension in PA patients seeking surgical cure indicates suboptimal AVS use, possibly related to issues in patient selection, technical success, and AVS data interpretation. Given the better outcomes of AVS-guided adrenalectomy, these results call for actions to improve the diagnostic use of this test that is necessary for detection of surgical PA candidates. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01234220.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/irrigação sanguínea , Adrenalectomia , Aldosterona/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 306, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a promising renal biomarker, can exists as a monomer, a dimer and/or in a NGAL/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) complex form when associated with different urinary diseases in humans and dogs. In this study, the presence of the various different molecular forms of NGAL in cat urine (uNGAL) was examined and whether these forms are correlated with different urinary diseases was explored. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-nine urine samples from cats with various different diseases, including acute kidney injury (AKI, 22 cats), chronic kidney disease (CKD, 55 cats), pyuria (44 cats) and other non-renal and non-pyuria diseases (non-RP, 26 cats), as well as healthy animals (12 cats), were collected. The molecular forms of and concentrations of urinary NGAL in these cats were analyzed, and their uNGAL-to-creatinine ratio (UNCR) were determined. The cats with AKI had the highest UNCR (median: 2.92 × 10- 6), which was followed by pyuria (median: 1.43 × 10- 6) and CKD (median: 0.56 × 10- 6); all of the above were significantly higher than the healthy controls (median: 0.17 × 10- 6) (p < 0.05). Three different NGAL molecular forms as well as the MMP-9 monomer were able to be detected in the cat urine samples. Moreover, the cases where urine NGAL monomer were present also had significantly higher levels of BUN (median: 18.9 vs 9.6 mmol/L) and creatinine (327.1 vs 168 umol/L). The presence of dimeric NGAL was found to be associated with urinary tract infections. Most cats in the present study (126/159, 79.2%) and more than half of healthy cats (7/12, 58.3%) had detectable NGAL/MMP-9 complex present in their urine. CONCLUSIONS: The monomeric and dimeric molecular forms of uNGAL suggest upper and lower urinary tract origins of disease, respectively, whereas the presence of the uNGAL/MMP-9 complex is able to be detected in most cats, including seemingly healthy ones.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/urina , Lipocalina-2/urina , Doenças Urológicas/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Gatos , Lipocalina-2/química , Lipocalina-2/classificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/urina , Doenças Urológicas/urina
16.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 623-629, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352825

RESUMO

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is hemodynamically independently associated with arterial wall stiffness as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with essential hypertension. Arterial wave reflection parameters derived from pulse wave analysis, such as forward and backward wave amplitudes (Pf and Pb), are promising vascular markers to predict cardiovascular outcomes in addition to PWV. These vascular parameters have never been studied in patients with PA before. In study part A, we prospectively enrolled 67 patients with PA and 132 patients with essential hypertension. In study part B, another 54 patients with PA were enrolled. Heart-carotid PWV was measured, and carotid pressure waveforms were recorded to calculate Pf, Pb, and augmentation index at baseline (part A and B) and 6 months after treatment (part B). The results showed that the patients with PA had significantly higher Pf (P=0.001), Pb (P=0.01), and PWV (P=0.021) than the patients with essential hypertension. In univariate correlation analysis, both log Pf and Pb were significantly correlated with age, office blood pressure, serum potassium level, log PWV, and the presence of PA. However, only Pb was significantly correlated with log plasma renin activity and log aldosterone to renin ratio. In multivariate analysis, log Pf was significantly correlated with the presence of PA (P=0.001), male sex, age, and mean arterial blood pressure. Pb was significantly correlated with the presence of PA (P=0.031), age, and mean arterial pressure. Six months after treatment, Pf and Pb decreased significantly. In conclusion, the patients with PA had significantly increased wave reflections compared with the patients with essential hypertension. Our results provide clinical evidence of aldosterone-related extensive vascular dysfunction of the arterial system.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Essencial/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperaldosteronismo/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Aldosterona/sangue , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Medição de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X19861448, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307288

RESUMO

Our study aimed to establish the role of hemojuvelin (HJV) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We performed immunohistochemistry for HJV expression in human brain tissues from 10 AIS and 2 non-stroke autopsy subjects. Plasma HJV was measured in 112 AIS patients within 48 h after stroke. The results showed significantly increased HJV expression in brain tissues from AIS patients compare to non-stroke subjects. After adjusting for clinical variables, plasma levels of HJV within 48 h after stroke were an independent predictor of poor functional outcome three months post-stroke (OR:1.78, 95% CI: 1.03-3.07; P = 0.038). In basic part, Western blotting showed that HJV expression in mice brains was apparent at 3 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and increased significantly at 72 h. In cultured cortical neurons, expression of HJV protein increased remarkably 24 h after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and small interfering RNAs (siHJV) transfected OGD neurons had a lower apoptotic rate. Importantly, 72 h post-MCAO, HJV knockout mice had significantly smaller infarcts and less expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein compared with wild-type mice. In summary, HJV participates in the mechanisms of post-stroke neuronal injury, and that plasma HJV levels can be a potential early outcome indicator for AIS patients.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(11): 5462-5466, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287546

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) or glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is caused by unequal crossing over of the steroid 11ß-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) genes. Somatic KCNJ5 mutations have not been reported in patients with GRA; therefore, the appropriate treatment and prognosis of such concurrent cases remain unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two siblings of a Taiwanese family with GRA were found to have adrenal adenomas and somatic KCNJ5 mutations. Complete clinical cure was achieved after unilateral adrenalectomy. Furthermore, the conversion site of the chimeric gene was identified by direct sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: We report the coexistence of a somatic KCNJ5 mutation and GRA. Patients with GRA whose blood pressure management develops resistance to glucocorticoid treatment could therefore benefit from a lateralization test. The promising outcomes after unilateral adrenalectomy presented in this report offer new perspectives for further research into various PA subtypes.

19.
Surgery ; 166(3): 362-368, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The saline infusion test is widely used as a confirmatory test for primary aldosteronism, and we hypothesized that post-saline-infusion test aldosterone levels might predict the clinical outcomes in primary aldosteronism patients after adrenalectomy. METHODS: An observational cohort study was performed. We included primary aldosteronism patients who had undergone adrenalectomy from the Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation database between 1995 and 2017. The patients were divided into the following 2 groups: the clinical success group and the resist hypertension group, according to the criteria from the Primary Aldosteronism Surgery Outcome consensus. RESULTS: We enrolled 236 patients with primary aldosteronism (male, 41.1%; mean age, 49.8 years). A total of 79.7% patients achieved clinical success after adrenalectomy after 12-month follow-up. The clinical success group had higher mean blood pressure, higher aldosterone-to-renin ratio, lower potassium, and lower renin levels than that of the resist hypertension group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, post saline-infusion test aldosterone levels higher than 48 ng/dL (odds ratio, 2.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-6.06; P = .040), body mass index less than 25 kg/m2 (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-4.40; P = .023) and mean blood pressure higher than 115 mmHg (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-5.68; P = .005) could predict better clinical success rates after adrenalectomy in primary aldosteronism patients. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that the post-saline-infusion test aldosterone level could not only confirm primary aldosteronism but also forecast clinical outcomes in primary aldosteronism patients after adrenalectomy.


Assuntos
Adrenalectomia , Aldosterona/sangue , Biomarcadores , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/efeitos adversos , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(4): 471-479, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients, there is little evidence to guide the use of antiplatelet agents in dialysis patients. METHOD: A nationwide database (Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses) for Taiwan, which has data from nearly all patients who received dialysis therapy from 1995 to 2008, was used. This is a population-based cohort study with time to event analyses to estimate the relation between antiplatelet agent use and outcomes. Hazard ratios were calculated to evaluate the effect of antiplatelet agent use on the risk of major CV events and mortality. Baseline characteristics were matched by propensity score (PS). RESULTS: A total of 71,835 were included, and 10,595 (14.7%) patients received an anti-platelet agent. The median value of follow-up days was 61.6 months. After PS-based matching, 9598 patients who used an antiplatelet agent and 23,794 non-users were included in the analysis. After PS matching, there was no difference between patients using an antiplatelet agent or not in CV events (p = 0.672) and total mortality (p = 0.529). A subgroup analysis of different usage periods of antiplatelet agents indicated that CV events and total mortality were similar in those who used antiplatelet agents for short or long durations. In subgroup analysis, there was also no difference between patients with a different modality of dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), different antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel, and/or ticlopidine) or patients with/without previous cardiovascular disease in CV events and total mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Antiplatelet agent usage does not reduce CV events and total mortality in dialysis patients.

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