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PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175536, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410414


BACKGROUND: In May 2011, a major incident involving phthalates-contaminated foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was added to foodstuffs, mainly juice, jelly, tea, sports drink, and dietary supplements. Concerns arose that normal pubertal development, especially reproductive hormone regulation in children, could be disrupted by DEHP exposure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels among children following potential exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. METHODS: A total of 239 children aged <12 years old were recruited from 3 hospitals in north, central, and south Taiwan after the episode. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the frequency and quantity of exposures to 5 categories of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs to assess phthalate exposure in children. Urine samples were collected for the measurement of phthalate metabolites. The estimated daily intake of DEHP exposure at the time of the contamination incident occurred was calculated using both questionnaire data and urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations. Multiple regression analyses were applied to assess associations between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels in children. RESULTS: After excluding children with missing data regarding exposure levels and hormone concentrations and girls with menstruation, 222 children were included in the statistical analyses. After adjustment for age and birth weight, girls with above median levels of urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and sum of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentrations had higher odds of above median follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Girls with above median estimated average daily DEHP exposures following the contamination episode also had higher odds of sex hormone-binding globulin above median levels. CONCLUSIONS: Phthalate exposure was associated with alterations of reproductive hormone levels in girls.

Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dietilexilftalato/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Taiwan , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
Environ Res ; 156: 158-166, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28342962


INTRODUCTION: Phthalate exposure may reduce intellectual development in young children. In 2011, numerous Taiwanese children had been reported to have consumed phthalate-tainted products. We investigated the effects of phthalate exposure on the intellectual development of these children after the 2011 Taiwan di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) episode. METHODS: We recruited 204 children, aged 3-12 y, from 3 hospitals in Taiwan between 2012 and 2013. First-morning urine samples were collected for analyzing 5 phthalate metabolites. We applied a Bayesian model to estimate the past DEHP exposure (estDEHPADD) of each participant before the 2011 DEHP episode. Demographic information, consumption of phthalate-tainted products, and maternal education, of each participant were obtained using a questionnaire. We used the Wechsler intelligence evaluation tools for assessing the children's and maternal intelligence quotient. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The median levels of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, and mono-iso-butyl phthalate in the children were 9.97, 45.8, 32.2, 46.2, and 24.3µg/g creatinine, respectively. Using the aforementioned urinary phthalate metabolites, we found that the children's verbal comprehension index (N =98) was significantly negatively associated with urinary log10 MEOHP (ß, -11.92; SE, 5.33; 95%CI, -22.52~ -1.33; P=0.028) and log10 ΣDBP metabolites (ß, -10.95; SE, 4.93; 95%CI, -20.74~ -1.16; P=0.029) after adjustment for age, gender, maternal IQ and education, passive smoking, estDEHPADD, active and passive smoking during pregnancy. Through a tolerable daily intake-based approach, we only found a significant negative association between past estimate DEHPADD and VIQ≥3-<6 in preschool children whereas no correlation was observed between current DEHP exposure and IQ≥3-<6 score with/ without estimate DEHPADD adjustment. It revealed that the effect of past high-DEHP exposure on verbal-related neurodevelopment of younger child are more sensitive. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to DEHP and DnBP affects intellectual development in preschool and school-aged children, particularly their language learning or expression ability.

Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan
Sci Rep ; 6: 30589, 2016 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27470018


On April-May, 2011, phthalates, mainly Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were deliberately added to a variety of foodstuff as a substitute emulsifier in Taiwan. This study investigated the relationship between DEHP-tainted foodstuffs exposure and thyroid function in possibly affected children and adolescents. Two hundred fifty participants <18 years possibly exposed to DEHP were enrolled in this study between August 2012 and January 2013. Questionnaires were used to collect details on their past exposure to DEHP-tainted food items. Blood and urine samples were collected for biochemical workups to measure current exposure derived from three urinary DEHP metabolites using a creatinine excretion-based model. More than half of 250 participants were estimated to be exposed to DEHP-tainted foods found to exceed the recommend tolerable daily intake of DEHP established by the European Food Safety Authority (<50 µg/kg/day). The median daily DEHP intake (DDI) among those 250 participants was 46.52 µg/kg/day after multiple imputation. This value was ~10-fold higher than the current median DEHP intake (4.46 µg/kg/day, n = 240). Neither past nor current DEHP exposure intensity was significantly associated with serum thyroid profiles. Future studies may want to follow the long-term health effects of this food scandal in affected children and adolescents.

Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Taiwan
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 218(7): 603-15, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163779


BACKGROUND: Some phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are widely used in consumer products. Consequently, the general population is exposed simultaneously to both groups of chemicals. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the single- and co-exposure effects of PAEs (DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, and DEHP) and NP on obesity and pubertal maturity to compare the body sizes of general adolescents with the complainants of the phthalate-tainted foods scandal that occurred in Taiwan. METHODS: This study included 270 general adolescents aged 6.5-15.0 years and 38 complainants aged 6.5-8.5 years. Nine metabolites of the five PAEs and of NP were measured in urine. We used a questionnaire to evaluate pubertal maturity, measured anthropometric indices (APs) to assess body size, and collected urine samples to measure the two groups of chemicals. RESULTS: We found that urinary PAE metabolite concentrations (specifically, metabolites of DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) were positively associated with the APs for abdominal obesity (including skinfold thickness, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip) and indicated a dose-response relationship. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) exposure was inversely associated with pubarche among boys. The daily intake of DEHP in general adolescents exceeded the reference doses (RfD-20 µg/kgbw/day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI-50 µg/kgbw/day) by 3.4% and 0.4%, respectively. No associations were observed between NP exposure or co-exposure and the APs or pubertal maturity. No significant differences were observed between general adolescents and the complainants with regard to weight, height, or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that PAE (specifically, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, and DEHP) exposure is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents and that the APs for abdominal obesity are more sensitive than BMI for measuring obesity among adolescents. We suggest that the RfD and TDI for PAEs should be revised to provide sufficient protection.

Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/efeitos adversos , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Dietilexilftalato/efeitos adversos , Dietilexilftalato/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/urina , Obesidade Pediátrica/urina , Fenóis/urina , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Valores de Referência , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan
Acta Paediatr Taiwan ; 48(5): 257-62, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18254574


BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution plus inhaled procaterol in the treatment of acute asthma in children. METHODS: Forty-three patients aged 6 to 12 years with an acute exacerbation of asthma were double-blind randomized into one of two treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio:1) prednisolone oral solution +placebo tablets + procaterol MDI or 2) prednisolone tablets +placebo oral solution + procaterol MDI, all given three times daily for 7 days. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), 24-hour reflective asthma symptom scores, spirometry and pulmonary index score (PIS) were recorded before and after treatment. Net changes in PEFR, symptom score, PIS, Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of the forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) (before and after treatment) and global assessment by the investigator and the subjects or their parents were analyzed. RESULTS: The two groups were statistically similar at baseline values of these parameters. After a 7-day course of treatment, the net change of PEFR before and after treatment was significantly improved in both groups, but there was no significant difference in the net change of PEFR between the two groups (57.27+/-31.44 L/min vs. 54.29 +/-30.04 L/min, difference 2.99 +/-30.76 L/min, mean +/-SD, P=0.752). The net change in PIS and total symptom score did not differ between the two groups (P=0.091 and 0.827, respectively). Similarly, the FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% all improved with either treatment, and neither group was significantly superior to the other group (P=0.162, 0.48 and 0.081, respectively). Global assessment by the investigator and the subjects or their parents at the end of study indicated an essentially comparable result. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone sodium phosphate oral solution plus inhaled procaterol is as efficacious as prednisolone tablets plus inhaled procaterol in the management of acute asthma in children.

Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Procaterol/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração por Inalação , Administração Oral , Asma/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 35(2): 133-5, 2002 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12099336


Pleuropulmonary disease is occasionally seen in association with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There have been few case reports of pulmonary hemosiderosis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We describe a case of a 3-year-old girl with iron deficiency anemia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and pulmonary hemosiderosis. Arthralgia of the left knee was noted 2 weeks after the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis was diagnosed 9 months later. She was treated with naproxen and prednisolone. Her joint symptoms were well controlled after the treatment. Six months later, hemoptysis developed and pulmonary hemosiderosis was diagnosed. She was again treated with naproxen and prednisolone and no more pulmonary or joint symptoms developed during more than 1-year follow-up.

Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Hemossiderose/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite/terapia , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemossiderose/complicações , Hemossiderose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pneumopatias/complicações , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Naproxeno/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Radiografia