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1.
Cell Prolif ; 52(6): e12704, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621141

RESUMO

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a common cause of low back pain, which inflicts more global disability than any other condition. Although IDD was deemed to be a natural process that comes with ageing, a growing body of evidence suggested that both genetic and environmental factors could modify the development of IDD. In this connection, aberrant function of nucleus pulposus cells has been implicated in IDD pathogenesis. Circular RNAs are a novel class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play crucial regulatory roles in diverse cellular processes. Recently, deregulation of circRNAs in nucleus pulposus cells was found to functionally participate in IDD development. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the deregulation of circRNAs in IDD in relation to their actions on nucleus pulposus cell functions, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix synthesis/degradation. The potential clinical utilities of circRNAs as therapeutic targets for the management of IDD are also discussed.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637615

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are an important class of non-coding RNAs partly by acting as microRNA sponges. Growing evidence indicates that air pollution exposure during pregnancy could lead to congenital defects in the offspring. In this study, using circRNAs sequencing, we profiled differentially expressed circRNAs in rat embryos exposed to a high concentration (> 200 µg/m3) of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in utero. Compared with the control embryos whose mothers were reared in clean air, 25 and 55 circRNAs were found to be downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in the air pollution-exposed group. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses of circRNA-coexpressed genes indicated that segmentation, brain development, and system development together with lysine degradation, Rap1 signaling pathway, and adrenergic signaling were deregulated by in utero air pollution exposure. We also identified the central role of three circRNAs, namely circ_015003, circ_030724, and circ_127215 in the circRNA-microRNA interaction network. These data suggested that circRNA deregulation might play a crucial role in the development of air pollution-associated congenital malformations.

3.
Anesthesiology ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Low vitamin D is common in the general populationIn nonsurgical populations, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and coronary artery diseaseIn nonsurgical populations, low vitamin D concentrations are also associated with increased risk of some infections and renal injury WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: Vitamin D deficiency was common in this surgical populationPreoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomesThere was an association between low vitamin D and a composite of infectious complications, and also evidence for an association with decreased kidney function BACKGROUND:: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml · min · 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(11): 7717-7725, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557384

RESUMO

Air pollution has been a serious public health issue over the past few decades particularly in developing countries. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy poses potential threat to offspring as the deleterious substances might pass through placenta to alter foetal development. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in the development of many diseases, including congenital defects. Here, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs in air pollution-exposed rat embryos compared with control group. Our data suggested that 554 lncRNAs (216 up-regulated and 338 down-regulated) were significantly differentially expressed in the air pollution-exposed embryos. Moreover, potential cellular functions of these deregulated lncRNAs were predicted via KEGG signal pathway/GO enrichment analyses, which suggested the possible involvements of neurological process, sensory perception of smell and the G-protein signalling pathway. Furthermore, potential functional network of deregulated lncRNAs and their correlated mRNAs in the development of congenital spinal abnormality was established. Our data suggested that lncRNAs may play a vital role in the pathophysiology of air pollution-exposed congenital spinal malformation.

5.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 12(10): 653-666, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431500

RESUMO

Chemoprevention is cost-effective for colorectal cancer when targeted at intermediate- or high-risk populations. Bufalin is a cardiac glycoside extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) "Chan Su," which has been used as an anticancer agent. On the basis of the relative safety of bufalin, we investigated whether bufalin could act as a chemoprophylactic agent to prevent colon tumorigenesis in two murine models, namely colitis-associated colorectal cancer and Apc germline mutation-developed colorectal cancer. Our results revealed that long-term (12-16 weeks) administration of low-dose bufalin (0.5 mg/kg) effectively suppressed tumorigenesis in both colorectal cancer models, accompanied by attenuated epithelial cell proliferation (reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, lower levels of cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinases-2/4, and higher levels of p21 and p27) and promoted apoptosis (increased TUNEL positivity and caspase-3/9 cleavages, reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, and increased levels of Bax and Bak). Bufalin also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory mediators [reduced levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor TNFα, IL1ß, IL6, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-1, CXCL-2, and CXCL-5] in the colitis-associated colorectal cancer model. These effects were associated with the inhibition of oncogenic NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways. Our findings unveil a novel chemoprophylactic action of bufalin in colorectal cancer in vivo and provided efficacy data and mechanistic evidence for further clinical evaluation of this TCM compound for colorectal cancer chemoprevention in individuals at risk of colorectal cancer.

6.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408699

RESUMO

Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation process enclosing the bulk of cytosolic components for lysosomal degradation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Accumulating evidences showed that a specialized form of autophagy, known as xenophagy, could serve as an innate immune response to defend against pathogens invading inside the host cells. Correspondingly, infectious pathogens have developed a variety of strategies to disarm xenophagy, leading to a prolonged and persistent intracellular colonization. In this review, we first summarize the current knowledge about the general mechanisms of intracellular bacterial infections and xenophagy. We then focus on the ongoing battle between these two processes.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3391, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358770

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome that elevates the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although alteration of lipid metabolism has been increasingly recognized as a hallmark of cancer cells, the deregulated metabolic modulation of HCC cells in the NAFLD progression remains obscure. Here, we discovers an endoplasmic reticulum-residential protein, Nogo-B, as a highly expressed metabolic modulator in both murine and human NAFLD-associated HCCs, which accelerates high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet-induced metabolic dysfunction and tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake triggers CEBPß expression to directly upregulate Nogo-B, which interacts with ATG5 to promote lipophagy leading to lysophosphatidic acid-enhanced YAP oncogenic activity. This CD36-Nogo-B-YAP pathway consequently reprograms oxLDL metabolism and induces carcinogenetic signaling for NAFLD-associated HCCs. Targeting the Nogo-B pathway may represent a therapeutic strategy for HCC arising from the metabolic syndrome.

8.
Pharmacol Res ; 149: 104352, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323332

RESUMO

Mammalian / mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical sensor of environmental cues that regulates cellular macromolecule synthesis and metabolism in eukaryotes. DNA methylation is the most well-studied epigenetic modification that is capable of regulating gene transcription and affecting genome stability. Both dysregulation of mTOR signaling and DNA methylation patterns have been shown to be closely linked to tumor progression and serve as promising targets for cancer therapy. Although their respective roles in tumorigenesis have been extensively studied, whether molecular interplay exists between them is still largely unknown. In this review, we provide a brief overview of mTOR signaling, DNA methylation as well as related serine and one-carbon metabolism, one of the most critical aspects of metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Based on the latest understanding regarding the regulation of metabolic processes by mTOR signaling as well as interaction between metabolism and epigenetics, we further discuss how serine and one-carbon metabolism may serve as a bridge that links mTOR signaling and DNA methylation to promote tumor growth. Elucidating their relationship may provide novel insight for cancer therapy in the future.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 649, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostication of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) currently relies on tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging but clinical outcomes of patients of the same histoclinical stage are heterogeneous. It is therefore imperative to devise novel molecular tests to stratify CRC patients. Our previous work demonstrated that eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (EEF2K) is a tumor suppressor in CRC. Herein, we investigated EEF2K expression in CRC and determined its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR and Westerns blots were used to examine EEF2K expression in primary tumor and the adjacent non-tumor tissues of CRC patients (n = 20). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were used to assess the association between clinical outcomes of CRC patients and EEF2K protein expression determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray (n = 151). RESULTS: EEF2K was significantly downregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in tumors of CRC patients. Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that CRC patients with high tumor grade, advanced TNM staging and low EEF2K expression were associated with worse overall survival. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that low EEF2K expression was an independent factor for predicting poorer overall survival in CRC patients (p = 0.014; Hazard ratio = 2.951; 95% confidence interval: 1.240-7.024). The 5-year survival rate was 82.8% in the EEF2K-high-expression group versus 63.9% in the EEF2K-low-expression group (p = 0.0118). The association of overall survival with EEF2K expression in CRC patients was verified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. CONCLUSIONS: EEF2K is downregulated in CRC and its expression can be employed as a prognostic marker for CRC patients independent of TNM staging.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(8): 4883-4890, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140726

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to persistent locomotor dysfunction and somatosensory disorders, which adversely affect the quality of life of patients and cause a significant economic burden to the society. The efficacies of current therapeutic interventions are still far from satisfaction as the secondary damages resulting from the complex and progressive molecular alterations after SCI are not properly addressed. Recent studies revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abundant in the brain and might play critical roles in several nervous system disorders. At the cellular level, lncRNAs have been shown to regulate the expression of protein-coding RNAs and hence participate in neuronal death, demyelination and glia activation. Notably, SCI is characterized by these biological processes, suggesting that lncRNAs could be novel modulators in the pathogenesis of SCI. This review describes recent progresses in the lncRNA transcriptome analyses and their molecular functions in regulating SCI progression.

11.
Theranostics ; 9(6): 1651-1665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037129

RESUMO

Rationale: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator in the development of chronic pain. Sortilin is known to interact with proBDNF and regulate its activity-dependent secretion in cortical neurons. In a rat model of inflammatory pain with intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), we examined the functional role of proBDNF-sortilin interaction in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Methods: Expression and co-localization of BDNF and sortilin were determined by immunofluorescence. ProBDNF-sortilin interaction interface was mapped using co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. The analgesic effect of intrathecal injection of a synthetic peptide interfering with proBDNF-sortilin interaction was measured in the CFA model. Results: BDNF and sortilin were co-localized and their expression was significantly increased in ipsilateral L4/5 DRG upon hind paw CFA injection. In vivo adeno-associated virus-mediated knockdown of sortilin-1 in L5 DRG alleviated pain-like responses. Mapping by serial deletions in the BDNF prodomain indicated that amino acid residues 71-100 supported the proBDNF-sortilin interaction. A synthetic peptide identical to amino acid residues 89-98 of proBDNF, as compared with scrambled peptide, was found to interfere with proBDNF-sortilin interaction, inhibit activity-dependent release of BDNF in vitro and reduce CFA-induced mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in vivo. The synthetic peptide also interfered with capsaicin-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in ipsilateral spinal cord of CFA-injected rats. Conclusions: Sortilin-mediated secretion of BDNF from DRG neurons contributes to CFA-induced inflammatory pain. Interfering with proBDNF-sortilin interaction reduced activity-dependent release of BDNF and might serve as a therapeutic approach for chronic inflammatory pain.

12.
JAMA ; 321(18): 1788-1798, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087023

RESUMO

Importance: Unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea increases cardiovascular risks in the general population, but whether obstructive sleep apnea poses a similar risk in the perioperative period remains uncertain. Objectives: To determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day risk of cardiovascular complications after major noncardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study involving adult at-risk patients without prior diagnosis of sleep apnea and undergoing major noncardiac surgery from 8 hospitals in 5 countries between January 2012 and July 2017, with follow-up until August 2017. Postoperative monitoring included nocturnal pulse oximetry and measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations. Exposures: Obstructive sleep apnea was classified as mild (respiratory event index [REI] 5-14.9 events/h), moderate (REI 15-30), and severe (REI >30), based on preoperative portable sleep monitoring. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of myocardial injury, cardiac death, heart failure, thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, and stroke within 30 days of surgery. Proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative cardiovascular complications. Results: Among a total of 1364 patients recruited for the study, 1218 patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 9] years; 40.2% women) were included in the analyses. At 30 days after surgery, rates of the primary outcome were 30.1% (41/136) for patients with severe OSA, 22.1% (52/235) for patients with moderate OSA, 19.0% (86/452) for patients with mild OSA, and 14.2% (56/395) for patients with no OSA. OSA was associated with higher risk for the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.19-2.01]; P = .01); however, the association was significant only among patients with severe OSA (adjusted HR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.49-3.34]; P = .001) and not among those with moderate OSA (adjusted HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 0.98-2.09]; P = .07) or mild OSA (adjusted HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 0.97-1.91]; P = .08) (P = .01 for interaction). The mean cumulative duration of oxyhemoglobin desaturation less than 80% during the first 3 postoperative nights in patients with cardiovascular complications (23.1 [95% CI, 15.5-27.7] minutes) was longer than in those without (10.2 [95% CI, 7.8-10.9] minutes) (P < .001). No significant interaction effects on perioperative outcomes were observed with type of anesthesia, use of postoperative opioids, and supplemental oxygen therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Among at-risk adults undergoing major noncardiac surgery, unrecognized severe obstructive sleep apnea was significantly associated with increased risk of 30-day postoperative cardiovascular complications. Further research would be needed to assess whether interventions can modify this risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polissonografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2037, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048690

RESUMO

Genome-wide analysis of genomic signatures might reveal novel mechanisms for gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis. Here, we analysis structural variations (SVs) and mutational signatures via whole-genome sequencing of 168 GCs. Our data demonstrates diverse models of complex SVs operative in GC, which lead to high-level amplification of oncogenes. We find varying proportion of tandem-duplications (TDs) among individuals and identify 24 TD hotspots involving well-established cancer genes such as CCND1, ERBB2 and MYC. Specifically, we nominate a novel hotspot involving the super-enhancer of ZFP36L2 presents in approximately 10% GCs from different cohorts, the oncogenic role of which is further confirmed by experimental data. In addition, our data reveal a mutational signature, specifically occurring in noncoding region, significantly enriched in tumors with cadherin 1 mutations, and associated with poor prognoses. Collectively, our data suggest that TDs might serve as an important mechanism for cancer gene activation and provide a novel signature for stratification.


Assuntos
Oncogenes/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(6): 4290-4300, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973211

RESUMO

Impaired autophagic degradation of intracellular lipids is causally linked to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Pharmacological agents that can restore hepatic autophagic flux could therefore have therapeutic potentials for this increasingly prevalent disease. Herein, we investigated the effects of polydatin, a natural precursor of resveratrol, in a murine nutritional model of NASH and a cell line model of steatosis. Results showed that oral administration of polydatin protected against hepatic lipid accumulation and alleviated inflammation and hepatocyte damage in db/db mice fed methionine-choline deficient diet. Polydatin also alleviated palmitic acid-induced lipid accumulation in cultured hepatocytes. In both models, polydatin restored lysosomal function and autophagic flux that were impaired by NASH or steatosis. Mechanistically, polydatin inhibited mTOR signalling and up-regulated the expression and activity of TFEB, a known master regulator of lysosomal function. In conclusion, polydatin ameliorated NASH through restoring autophagic flux. The polydatin-regulated autophagy was associated with inhibition of mTOR pathway and restoration of lysosomal function by TFEB. Our study provided affirmative preclinical evidence to inform future clinical trials for examining the potential anti-NASH effect of polydatin in humans.

16.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 140, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autophagy, a process for degrading intracellular substances to maintain basal metabolic turnover, is known to be perturbed in gastric cancer. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) with its ligand (PD-L1) are important immune checkpoint proteins and their regulation by autophagy has been reported in mouse melanoma and human ovarian cancer. Here, we explored the interplay between autophagy and the PD1/PD-L1 axis in gastric cancer. METHODS: The expression of PD-L1 in gastric cancer cells was detected by Western blot and flow cytometry analysis. The effect of autophagy inhibition on PD-L1 expression was examined in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of the regulation of PD-L1 by autophagy were evaluated in gastric cancer cell lines. The clinical relevance of autophagy-related markers p62/SQSTM1 and LC3 with PD-L1 was evaluated in 137 patients with gastric cancer. RESULTS: We found that inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors or small interfering RNAs increased the levels of PD-L1 in cultured gastric cancer cells and in xenografts. Interferon (IFN)-γ also promoted PD-L1 gene transcription, whose action was enhanced by autophagy inhibition. Mechanistically, autophagy inhibition led to the accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, in which NF-κB inhibition or p62/SQSTM1 knockdown attenuated PD-L1 induction by autophagy inhibition. Immunohistochemical staining of primary tumor tissues of 137 patients with gastric cancer showed that LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 protein levels were positively correlated with PD-L1 (LC3, p < 0.001; p62/SQSTM1, p < 0.05). The expression of PD-L1 was also positively correlated with tumor lymphocyte infiltration (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We discovered that autophagy regulates PD-L1 expression in gastric cancer through the p62/SQSTM1-NF-κB pathway. Pharmacological modulation of autophagy may thus influence the therapeutic efficacy of PD-L1 blockade in gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo
17.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(10): 17896-17904, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883755

RESUMO

Air pollution exposure has been increasing extensively and there are evidence suggesting that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy can lead to congenital defects in the offspring. Recent findings suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) might play important roles in the pathogenesis of developmental defects. However, the miRNAs profile pattern in the air pollution-exposed embryos remains unknown. RNA sequencing was performed to determine the differentially expressed miRNAs in the rat embryos (gestation day 9) with or without air pollution exposure. The potential functions and the associated mechanisms of these differentially expressed miRNAs were determined using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses. The regulatory networks of mRNA-miRNA interactions were also reconstructed. As compared with the control group, a total of 291 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the rat embryos from the air pollution-exposed group, in which 204 and 87 miRNAs were significantly downregulated and upregulated, respectively. These miRNAs were predicted to deregulate mitotic spindle organization, cellular respiration, glycolate metabolism, and proteasome. Extensive regulation of target genes by miR-346, miR-504, miR-214-3p and miR-1224 was also predicted. Our results suggested that miRNAs may play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of air pollution-induced congenital spinal defects through deregulating multiple biological processes.

18.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaau9650, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746470

RESUMO

A rapid, direct, and low-cost method for detecting bacterial toxins associated with common gastrointestinal diseases remains a great challenge despite numerous studies and clinical assays. Motion-based detection through tracking the emerging micro- and nanorobots has shown great potential in chemo- and biosensing due to accelerated "chemistry on the move". Here, we described the use of fluorescent magnetic spore-based microrobots (FMSMs) as a highly efficient mobile sensing platform for the detection of toxins secreted by Clostridium difficile (C. diff) that were present in patients' stool. These microrobots were synthesized rapidly and inexpensively by the direct deposition of magnetic nanoparticles and the subsequent encapsulation of sensing probes on the porous natural spores. Because of the cooperation effect of natural spore, magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and functionalized carbon nanodots, selective fluorescence detection of the prepared FMSMs is demonstrated in C. diff bacterial supernatant and even in actual clinical stool samples from infectious patients within tens of minutes, suggesting rapid response and good selectivity and sensitivity of FMSMs toward C. diff toxins.

19.
J Mol Biol ; 431(4): 643-652, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639409

RESUMO

Gap junctions are hexagonal arrays of protein molecules in the plasma membrane and were first described in Mauthner cell synapses of goldfish. They form pathways for coupling between cells, allowing passive, electrotonic spread of ions and also passage of larger molecules such as amino acids and nucleotides. They are expressed in both excitable and non-excitable tissues. Each gap junction is made of two connexons, which are hexameric proteins of the connexin subunit. In this review, the roles that connexins play in gastrointestinal motility, the mechanisms of altered connexin expression leading to inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal infections, and gastrointestinal symptoms in autistic spectrum disorder are discussed in detail.

20.
Autophagy ; 15(4): 707-725, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612517

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common human pathogenic bacterium. Once infected, it is difficult for the host to clear this organism using the innate immune system. Increased antibiotic resistance further makes it challenging for effective eradication. However, the mechanisms of immune evasion still remain obscure, and novel strategies should be developed to efficiently eliminate H. pylori infection in stomachs. Here we uncovered desirable anti-H. pylori effect of vitamin D3 both in vitro and in vivo, even against antibiotic-resistant strains. We showed that H. pylori can invade into the gastric epithelium where they became sequestered and survived in autophagosomes with impaired lysosomal acidification. Vitamin D3 treatment caused a restored lysosomal degradation function by activating the PDIA3 receptor, thereby promoting the nuclear translocation of PDIA3-STAT3 protein complex and the subsequent upregulation of MCOLN3 channels, resulting in an enhanced Ca2+ release from lysosomes and normalized lysosomal acidification. The recovered lysosomal degradation function drives H. pylori to be eliminated through the autolysosomal pathway. These findings provide a novel pathogenic mechanism on how H. pylori can survive in the gastric epithelium, and a unique pathway for vitamin D3 to reactivate the autolysosomal degradation function, which is critical for the antibacterial action of vitamin D3 both in cells and in animals, and perhaps further in humans. Abbreviations: 1,25D3: 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; ATG5: autophagy related 5; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; BECN1: beclin 1; CagA: cytotoxin-associated gene A; CFU: colony-forming unit; ChIP-PCR: chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction; Con A: concanamycin A; CQ: chloroquine; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; CTSD: cathepsin D; GPN: Gly-Phe-ß-naphthylamide; H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MCOLN1: mucolipin 1; MCOLN3: mucolipin 3; MCU: mitochondrial calcium uniporter; MOI: multiplicity of infection; NAGLU: N-acetyl-alpha-glucosaminidase; PDIA3: protein disulfide isomerase family A member 3; PMA: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PRKC: protein kinase C; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; SS1: Sydney Strain 1; TRP: transient receptor potential; VacA: vacuolating cytotoxin; VD3: vitamin D3; VDR: vitamin D receptor.

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