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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363866

RESUMO

The accumulation of amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides in the brain is considered to be the initial event in the Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurotoxicity mediated by Aß has been demonstrated to damage the cognitive function. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of O-1602, a specific G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) agonist, on the impairment of learning and memory induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) of Aß1-42 (400 pmol/mouse) in mice. Our results showed that i.c.v. injection of aggregated Aß1-42 into the brain of mice resulted in cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity. In contrast, O-1602 (2.0 or 4.0 µg/mouse, i.c.v.) can improve memory impairment induced by Aß1-42 in the Morris water maze (MWM), and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Besides, we found that O-1602 reduced the activity of ß-secretase 1 (BACE1) and the level of soluble Aß1-42 in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Importantly, O-1602 treatment reversed Aß1-42-induced GPR55 down-regulation, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as suppressed apoptosis as indicated by decreased TUNEL-positive cells, and increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. O-1602 treatment also pronouncedly ameliorated synaptic dysfunction by promoting the upregulation of PSD-95 and synaptophysin (SYN) proteins. Moreover, O-1602 concurrently down regulated the protein levels of RhoA, and ROCK2, the critical proteins in the RhoA/ROCK2 pathway. This study indicates that O-1602 may reverse Aß1-42-induced cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in mice by inhibiting RhoA/ROCK2 pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that GPR55 could be a novel and promising target for the treatment of AD.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: : Research suggests optimizing sleep, exercise and work-life balance may improve resident physician burnout. Wearable biosensors may allow residents to detect and correct poor sleep and exercise habits before burnout develops. Our objectives were to evaluate the feasibility of a wearable biosensor to characterize exercise/sleep in neurology residents and examine its relationship to self-reported, validated survey measures. We also assessed the device's impact on well-being and barriers to use. METHODS: This prospective cohort study evaluated the WHOOP Strap 2.0 in neurology residents. Participants completed regular online surveys, including self-reported hours of sleep/exercise, and validated sleep/exercise scales at 3-month intervals. Autonomic, exercise, and sleep measures were obtained from WHOOP. Changes were evaluated over time via linear regression. Survey and WHOOP metrics were compared using Pearson correlations. RESULTS: Sixteen (72.7%) of 22 eligible participants enrolled. Eleven (68.8%) met the minimum usage requirement (6+ months) and were classified as "consecutive wearers". Significant increases were found in sleep duration and exercise intensity. Moderate-to-low correlations were found between survey responses and WHOOP measures. Most (73%) participants reported a positive impact on well-being. Barriers to use included "Forgetting to wear" (20%) and "not motivational" (23.3%). CONCLUSION: Wearable biosensors may be a feasible tool to evaluate sleep/exercise in residents.

3.
Food Chem ; 372: 131213, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638060

RESUMO

The metabolic fate of dietary compounds is closely related to their biological functions. Pterostilbene (PT) is a methylated stilbene found in many plant foods. Herein, we investigated gastrointestinal biotransformation and tissue distribution of PT in mice fed with 0.05% PT (w/w) for 5 weeks. PT and its major metabolites i.e. PT sulfate (PT-S), pinostilbene, pinostilbene sulfate, hydroxylated PT and hydroxylated PT sulfate were identified and quantified in the mucosa and content of the digestive tissues, blood, urine and vital organs. The results showed PT underwent demethylation, hydroxylation and conjugation in the small intestine, while the conjugated metabolites were largely deconjugated in the colon. Anaerobic fermentation with mouse cecal bacteria demonstrated the microbiota mediated deconjugation and demethylation of PT-S and PT, respectively. In conclusion, oral consumption of PT led to extensive biotransformation in mouse gastrointestinal tract and the metabolites of PT might play important roles in the bioactivity of PT.

4.
J Nutr ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the colorectal cancer risk, in part by elevating colonic proinflammatory cytokines. Curcumin (CUR) and supplemental vitamin B-6 each suppress colonic inflammation. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the combination of CUR and vitamin B-6 amplifies each supplement's effects and thereby suppress obesity-promoted tumorigenesis. METHODS: Male Friend Virus B (FVB) mice (4-week-old; n = 110) received 6 weekly injections of azoxymethane beginning 1 week after arrival. Thereafter, they were randomized to receive a low-fat diet (10% energy from fat), a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% energy from fat), a HFD containing 0.2% CUR, a HFD containing supplemental vitamin B-6 (24 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg), or a HFD containing both CUR and supplemental vitamin B-6 (C + B) for 15 weeks. Colonic inflammation, assessed by fecal calprotectin, and tumor metrics were the primary endpoints. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of the combination was also determined in human colonic organoids. RESULTS: HFD-induced obesity produced a 2.6-fold increase in plasma IL-6 (P < 0.02), a 1.9-fold increase in fecal calprotectin (P < 0.05), and a 2.2-fold increase in tumor multiplicity (P < 0.05). Compared to the HFD group, the C + B combination, but not the individual agents, decreased fecal calprotectin (66%; P < 0.01) and reduced tumor multiplicity and the total tumor burden by 60%-80% (P < 0.03) in an additive fashion. The combination of C + B also significantly downregulated colonic phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, Wnt, and NF-κB signaling by 31%-47% (P < 0.05), effects largely absent with the single agents. Observations that may explain how the 2 agents work additively include a 2.8-fold increased colonic concentration of 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid (P < 0.05) and a 1.3-fold higher colonic concentration of the active coenzymatic form of vitamin B-6 (P < 0.05). In human colonic organoids, micromolar concentrations of CUR, vitamin B-6, and their combination suppressed secreted proinflammatory cytokines by 41%-93% (P < 0.03), demonstrating relevance to humans. CONCLUSIONS: In this mouse model, C + B is superior to either agent alone in preventing obesity-promoted colorectal carcinogenesis. Augmented suppression of procancerous signaling pathways may be the means by which this augmentation occurs.

5.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3498-3505, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522176

RESUMO

Sox transcription factors play many diverse roles during development, including regulating stem cell states, directing differentiation, and influencing the local chromatin landscape. Sox10 has been implicated in the control of stem/progenitor activity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, yet it has not been studied in relation to the hair follicle cycle or hair follicle stem cell (HFSC) control. To elucidate the role of Sox10 in hair follicle cycle control, we performed immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analysis of its expression during hair morphogenesis, the postnatal hair cycle, and the depilation-induced murine hair follicle cycle. During hair follicle morphogenesis, Sox10 was expressed in the hair germ and peg. In telogen, we detected nuclear Sox10 in the hair bulge and germ cell cap, where HFSCs reside, while in anagen and catagen, Sox10 was detected in the epithelial portion, such as the strands of keratinocytes, the outer root sheath (ORS) in anagen, and the regressed epithelial strand of hair follicle in catagen. These results suggest that Sox10 may be involved in early hair follicle morphogenesis and postnatal follicular cycling.

6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524977

RESUMO

Objective To examine the association of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk with sleep factors, genetic risk, and their combination effects. Design Large prospective population-based cohort study. Methods This population-based prospective cohort study included 360 403 (mean [SD] age: 56.6 [8.0] years) participants without T2D at baseline from the UK Biobank. Genetic risk was categorized as high (highest quintile), intermediate (quintiles 2 to 4), and low (lowest quintile) based on a polygenic risk score for T2D. Sleep scores, including long or short sleep duration, insomnia, snoring, late chronotype, and excessive daytime sleepiness, were categorized as an unfavourable, intermediate, or favourable sleep and circadian pattern. Results During a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 13 120 incident T2D cases were recorded. Among the participants with an unfavourable sleep and circadian pattern, 6.96% (95% CI, 6.68%-7.24%) developed T2D versus 2.37% (95% CI, 2.28%-2.46%) of participants with a favourable sleep and circadian pattern (adjusted HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.45-1.62). Of participants with a high genetic risk, 5.53% (95% CI, 5.36%-5.69%) developed T2D versus 2.01% (95% CI, 1.91%-2.11%) of participants with a low genetic risk (adjusted HR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.72-3.07). The association with sleep and circadian patterns was independent of genetic risk strata. Participants in the lowest quintile with an unfavourable sleep and circadian pattern were 3.97-fold more likely to develop T2D than those in the lowest quintile with a favourable sleep and circadian pattern. Conclusions Sleep and circadian patterns and genetic risk were independently associated with incident T2D. These results indicate the benefits of adhering to a healthy sleep and circadian pattern in entire populations, independent of genetic risk.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e26025, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin and subcutaneous disease is the fourth-leading cause of the nonfatal disease burden worldwide and constitutes one of the most common burdens in primary care. However, there is a severe lack of dermatologists, particularly in rural Chinese areas. Furthermore, although artificial intelligence (AI) tools can assist in diagnosing skin disorders from images, the database for the Chinese population is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a database for AI based on the Chinese population and presents an initial study on six common skin diseases. METHODS: Each image was captured with either a digital camera or a smartphone, verified by at least three experienced dermatologists and corresponding pathology information, and finally added to the Xiangya-Derm database. Based on this database, we conducted AI-assisted classification research on six common skin diseases and then proposed a network called Xy-SkinNet. Xy-SkinNet applies a two-step strategy to identify skin diseases. First, given an input image, we segmented the regions of the skin lesion. Second, we introduced an information fusion block to combine the output of all segmented regions. We compared the performance with 31 dermatologists of varied experiences. RESULTS: Xiangya-Derm, as a new database that consists of over 150,000 clinical images of 571 different skin diseases in the Chinese population, is the largest and most diverse dermatological data set of the Chinese population. The AI-based six-category classification achieved a top 3 accuracy of 84.77%, which exceeded the average accuracy of dermatologists (78.15%). CONCLUSIONS: Xiangya-Derm, the largest database for the Chinese population, was created. The classification of six common skin conditions was conducted based on Xiangya-Derm to lay a foundation for product research.

8.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546784

RESUMO

Oat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae (Pga), is one of the most devastating diseases of oat. The most cost-effective and eco-friendly strategy to control this disease is the use of resistant cultivars. However, P. graminis f. sp. avenae can overcome the resistance of cultivars by rapidly changing its virulence. Thus, information on the virulence of P. graminis f. sp. avenae populations and resistance of cultivars is critical to control the disease. The current study was conducted to monitor the virulence composition and dynamics in the P. graminis f. sp. avenae population in China and to evaluate resistance of oat cultivars. Oat leaves naturally infected by P. graminis f. sp. avenae were collected during 2018 and 2019 and 159 isolates were derived from single uredinia. The isolates were tested on 12 international differential lines, and eight races, TJJ, TBD, TJB, TJD, TJL, TJN, TGD, and TKN, were identified for the first time in China. The predominant race was TJD, virulent against Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, Pg4, Pg8, Pg9, and Pg15, accounting for 35.8% and 37.8% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The sub-predominant races were TJN (30.2% in 2018, 28.3% in 2019) and TKN (20.8% in 2018, 12.3% in 2019). All isolates were virulent to Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, and Pg4, and avirulent to Pg6 and Pg16. The three predominant races (TJD, TJN, and TKN) were used to evaluate resistance in 30 Chinese oat cultivars at the seedling and adult-plant stages. Five cultivars, Bayan 1, Baiyan 2, Baiyan 3, Baiyan 5, and Baiyan 9, were highly resistant to the three races at both seedling and adult-plant stages. The results of the virulences and frequencies of P. graminis f. sp. avenae races and the resistant cultivars will be useful in understanding the pathogen migration and evolution and for breeding oat cultivars with stem rust resistance.

9.
Int J Clin Pract ; : e14811, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of renal damage in cirrhosis is critical to prevent hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Although shear wave elastography (SWE) is useful for the assessment of kidney stiffness, no study has yet investigated the clinical feasibility of SWE for predicting HRS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of SWE in predicting HRS in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. METHODS: A total of 131 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites were recruited and followed them for 30 days for the development of AKI. Ultrasonographic examination was performed on all patients at hospital admission. The baseline clinical characteristics, renal biomarkers, renal resistive index (RI) and Young's modulus (YM) were recorded, and their relationship with development HRS was investigated. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients developed AKI, 23 of them were HRS. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group and non-HRS group, the values of serum cystatin C (CystC), urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and renal RI were significantly increased, while the YM value was significantly decreased in the AKI group and HRS group. Correlation analysis showed that YM was significantly and negatively associated with serum creatinine, serum CystC, urinary NGAL and renal RI in addition to the significant association with the AKI stage. Logistic regression and ROC analysis showed that urine NGAL, renal RI and YM were closely related to the development of HRS. Among them, YM had a good predictive ability in predicting the occurrence of HRS, and the predictive value (AUC = 0.894) was improved when combined with renal RI. CONCLUSION: SWE can indicate renal injury in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. The combination of YM and RI has a good predictive value for the occurrence of HRS.

10.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 7856-7866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524959

RESUMO

Human pose transfer has been becoming one of the emerging research topics in recent years. However, state-of-the-art results are still far from satisfactory. One main reason is that these end-to-end methods are often blindly trained without the semantic understanding of its content. In this paper, we propose a novel method for human pose transfer with consideration of the semantic part-based representation of a human. In particular, we propose to segment the human body into multiple parts, and each of them represents a semantic region of a human. With the proposed part-based layer generators, a high-quality result is guaranteed for each local semantic region. We design a three-stage hierarchical framework to fuse local representations into the final result in a coarse-to-fine manner, which provides adaptive attention for global consistency and local details, respectively. Via exploiting spatial guidance from 3D human model through the framework, our method can naturally handle the ambiguity of self-occlusions which always causes artifacts in previous methods. With semantic-aware and spatial-aware representations, our method outperforms previous approaches quantitatively and qualitatively in better handling self-occlusions, fine detail preservation/synthesis and a higher resolution result.

11.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 19(1): 139, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulosa cells (GCs) in cumulus oophorus highly express follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is the most important mediator of both estradiol synthesis and oocyte maturation. Obese women have elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) levels in their follicular fluids and decreased FSHR expression in GCs, which is related to an altered protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (Akt/GSK3ß) signaling pathway. Such FFA increases accompany 3-fold rises in pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) expression and reduce the Akt phosphorylation status in both the human liver and in insulinoma cell lines. Therefore, in a high FFA environment, we determined if TRIB3 mediates regulation of FSHR via the Akt/GSK3ß signaling pathway in human GCs. METHODS: GCs from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were collected and designated as high and low FFAs cohorts based on their follicular fluid FFA content. GCs with low FFA levels and a human granulosa-like tumor (KGN) cell line were exposed to palmitic acid (PA), which is a dominate FFA follicular fluid constituent. The effects were assessed of this substitution on the Akt/GSK3ß signaling pathway activity as well as the expressions of TRIB3 and FSHR at both the gene and protein levels by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining analyses. Meanwhile, the individual effects of TRIB3 knockdown in KGN cells and p-AKT inhibitors were compared to determine the mechanisms of FFA-induced FSHR downregulation. RESULTS: The average FSH dose consuming per oocyte (FSH dose/oocyte) was elevated and Top embryo quality ratio was decreased in women with high levels of FFAs in their follicular fluid. In these women, the GC TRIB3 and ATF4 protein expression levels were upregulated which was accompanied by FSHR downregulation. Such upregulation was confirmed based on corresponding increases in their gene expression levels. On the other hand, the levels of p-Akt decreased while p-GSK3ß increased in the GCs. Moreover, TRIB3 knockdown reversed declines in FSHR expression and estradiol (E2) production in KGN cells treated with PA, which also resulted in increased p-Akt levels and declines in the p-GSK3ß level. In contrast, treatment of TRIB3-knockdown cells with an inhibitor of p-Akt (Ser473) resulted in rises in the levels of both p-GSK3ß as well as FSHR expression whereas E2 synthesis fell. CONCLUSIONS: During exposure to a high FFA content, TRIB3 can reduce FSHR expression through stimulation of the Akt/GSK3ß pathway in human GCs. This response may contribute to inducing oocyte maturation.

12.
Respiration ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515245

RESUMO

Guidelines have recommended endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy as initial sampling approaches of mediastinal lymph nodes for lung cancer staging. However, the small sample volume might restrict the diagnostic utility of needle aspiration in certain mediastinal diseases. We have recently shown that transbronchial mediastinal cryobiopsy, which is capable of providing larger amounts of intact tissue, improves diagnostic yield in rare tumors and benign diseases compared to EBUS-TBNA. Here, we present a case of mediastinal nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma successfully diagnosed by endoscopic transesophageal cryobiopsy.

14.
Food Chem ; 371: 131137, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562777

RESUMO

The role of amino acids and α-dicarbonyls in the flavor formation of Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) during thermal processing was investigated. Comparisons of the volatile compounds and their concentrations when N-(1-deoxy-α-d-ribulos-1-yl)-glycine reacted with different amino acids or glyoxal (GO) at 100 °C were executed. Additional amino acids, such as glycine (Gly), in ARP models contributed to the diversity of furanoids by the chain elongation of the derived formaldehyde. Whereas the monoanion of additional glutamic acid acted as nucleophile, favored 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine formation; the nonionized amino group of additional lysine were involved in α-dicarbonyls formation, causing pyrazine and methylpyrazine accumulation in the ARP model. Moreover, the high dosage and pH stabilization of additional GO probably promoted the ARP degradation and deoxyosones retro-aldol cleavage, resulting in methylpyrazine rather than furanoids formation. The present work provided the guidance for the controlled flavor formation of ARP in industrial application.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460379

RESUMO

The Family Traveling Salesperson Problem (FTSP) is a variant of the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP), in which all vertices are divided into several different families, and the goal of the problem is to find a loop that concatenates a specified number of vertices with minimal loop overhead. As a Non-deterministic Polynomial Complete (NP-complete) problem, it is difficult to deal with it by the traditional computing. On the contrary, as a computer with strong parallel ability, the DNA computer has incomparable advantages over digital computers when dealing with NP problems. Based on this, a DNA algorithm is proposed to deal with FTSP based on the Adleman-Lipton model. In the algorithm, the solution of the problem can be obtained by executing several basic biological manipulations on DNA molecules with O(N2) computing complexity (N is the number of vertices in the problem without the origin). Through the simulation experiments on some benchmark instances, the results show that the parallel DNA algorithm has better performance than traditional computing. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by deducing the algorithm process in detail. Furthermore, the algorithm further proves that DNA computing, as one of the parallel computing methods, has the potential to solve more complex big data problems.

16.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 103, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling plays a key role in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the underlying mechanisms of excessive activation of NF-κB signaling remain largely unknown. METHODS: We used high throughput RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed circular RNAs (circRNAs) between normal human intestinal epithelial cell lines and CRC cell lines. The identification of protein encoded by circPLCE1 was performed using LC-MS. The function of novel protein was validated in vitro and in vivo by gain or loss of function assays. Mechanistic results were concluded by immunoprecipitation analyses. RESULTS: A novel protein circPLCE1-411 encoded by circular RNA circPLCE1 was identified as a crucial player in the NF-κB activation of CRC. Mechanistically, circPLCE1-411 promoted the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the critical NF-κB regulator RPS3 via directly binding the HSP90α/RPS3 complex to facilitate the dissociation of RPS3 from the complex, thereby reducing NF-κB nuclear translocation in CRC cells. Functionally, circPLCE1 inhibited tumor proliferation and metastasis in CRC cells, as well as patient-derived xenograft and orthotopic xenograft tumor models. Clinically, circPLCE1 was downregulated in CRC tissues and correlated with advanced clinical stages and poor survival. CONCLUSIONS: circPLCE1 presents an epigenetic mechanism which disrupts NF-κB nuclear translocation and serves as a novel and promising therapeutic target and prognostic marker.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10648-10656, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463101

RESUMO

2-Threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), a nonvolatile precursor of flavor and color, is considered to be more stable than its isomeric Amadori compound (ARP). The degradation behavior of TTCA favors higher temperatures and pH. In order to adjust and control the thermal degradation of TTCA to improve its food processing adaptability, a TTCA-Xyl thermal reaction model was constructed to explore the effect of extra-added Xyl on the thermal degradation behavior of TTCA. The results confirmed that the extra-added Xyl was involved in the degradation pathway of TTCA and accelerated its depletion, thus promoting the formation of characteristic downstream products of TTCA including some α-dicarbonyl compounds, and consequently accelerating the browning formation. The isotope-labeling technique was further applied to confirm that the added Xyl could trap the Cys released from the decomposition of ARP and formed additional TTCA, which could promote the movement of chemical equilibrium and gradually accelerate the degradation rate of TTCA as well as melanoidins formation. The higher pH value could even promote this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Xilose , Cisteína , Tiazolidinas
18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 728, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fragility fracture is associated with bone mineral density (BMD), and most databases used in related researches are instrument-matched. Little is known about the relationship between BMD and fragility fracture risk of native Chinese, especially using local databases as reference databases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationship between BMD and risk of fragility fracture in native China. METHODS: 3,324 cases, including 2,423 women (67.7 ± 8.9 years) and 901 men (68.4 ± 11.6 years) having radiological fragility fractures and 3,324 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. We measured BMD at posteroanterior spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), calculated BMD measurement parameters based on our own BMD reference database. RESULTS: BMDs and mean T-scores were lower in case group (with clinical fragility) than in control group (without clinical fragility). In patients with fragility fractures, prevalence of lumbar osteoporosis, low bone mass, and normal BMD were 78.9 %, 19.3 %, and 1.8 %, respectively, in women, and 49.5, 44.8 %, and 5.7 %, respectively, in men. In hip, these prevalence rates were 67.2 %, 28.4 %, and 4.4 % in females, and 43.2 %, 45.9 %, and 10.9 % in males, respectively, showing differences between females and males. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that after adjusting age, height, weight, and body mass index, fracture hazard ratio (HR) increased by 2.7-2.8 times (95 % CI 2.5-3.1) and 3.6-4.1 times (95 %CI 3.0-5.1) for women and men respectively with decreasing BMD parameters. In both sexes, risk of fragility fracture increased approximately 1.6-1.7 times (95 % CI 1.5-1.8) for every 1 T-score reduction in BMD. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of clinical fragility fracture increases with decreasing BMD measurement parameters and anthropometric indicators in native China, and fracture HR varies from gender and site.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Fraturas Ósseas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 706845, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421824

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of diabetes is on the rise globally coupled with its associated complications, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN). Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for the development of DN but it is still unclear which obesity index is the best predictor of incident DN. Methods: Data from the participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study were used to examine the sex-specific association between waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body mass index (BMI) with incident DN risk. Results: Among the 8,887 participants with T2DM (5,489 men and 3,398 women), 5,296 participants (3,345 men and 1,951 women) developed the DN composite outcome during a follow-up period of 24302 person-years. Among men, null associations were observed between all anthropometric measures with incident DN in the multivariate analysis although the 3rd quartile of WHtR showed marginally significant results (P = 0.052). However, among women, both central and general obesity measures were associated with increased risks of incident DN. Compared with participants in the WC <88 cm category, the fully adjusted HR and 95% CI for those in the ≥88 cm of WC was 1.35 (95% CI 1.15-1.57). Compared with the lowest quartile, the fully adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for the 2nd to the 4th quartile of WHtR were 1.09 (95% CI 0.96-1.25), 1.12 (95% CI 0.98-1.28), and 1.14 (95% CI 1.00-1.30) respectively; also, compared with the normal BMI category, the fully adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for class I - class III obese were 1.36 (95% CI 1.10 - 1.67), 1.43 (95% CI 1.16 - 1.78) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.05 - 1.66) respectively. Conclusions: Among participants with T2DM, higher levels of both central and general obesity indexes were associated with DN risk among women but not in men. Women with T2DM should maintain a healthy weight targeted at reducing both central and general obesity to enhance nephroprotection. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov., no. NCT00000620.

20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 304, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404759

RESUMO

A comprehensive analysis of the humoral immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and developing antibody-based diagnostics and therapy. In this work, we performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins in 104 serum samples from 49 critical COVID-19 patients using a peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Our data show that the binding epitopes of IgM and IgG antibodies differ across SARS-CoV-2 proteins and even within the same protein. Moreover, most IgM and IgG epitopes are located within nonstructural proteins (nsps), which are critical in inactivating the host's innate immune response and enabling SARS-CoV-2 replication, transcription, and polyprotein processing. IgM antibodies are associated with a good prognosis and target nsp3 and nsp5 proteases, whereas IgG antibodies are associated with high mortality and target structural proteins (Nucleocapsid, Spike, ORF3a). The epitopes targeted by antibodies in patients with a high mortality rate were further validated using an independent serum cohort (n = 56) and using global correlation mapping analysis with the clinical variables that are associated with COVID-19 severity. Our data provide fundamental insight into humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 immunogenic epitopes identified in this work could also help direct antibody-based COVID-19 treatment and triage patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Taxa de Sobrevida
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