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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 796, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated college students' attitude and compliance towards a prevention strategy involving use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in four universities in Guangdong Province (China) based on purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was given to College students (CSs) to measure the supportive attitude towards an outbreak control strategy and adoption of NPIs in respondents. RESULTS: A total of 44,446 CSs participated between 31 January and 10 February 2020; 92.7% of respondents supported the outbreak control strategy. The proportion of respondents who avoided public places, wore a facemask, avoid gatherings, and washed hands more frequently than usual was 94.8, 92.8, 91.2 and 86.9%. respectively. A total of 76.5% respondents adopted all four measures. A supportive attitude was associated with NPI adoption. Students who were female, postgraduate, anxious, and not depressed tended to have a higher supportive attitude and higher chance of NPI adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Higher supportiveness towards the disease control strategy for the Chinese public may lead to higher adoption rate of NPIs. Psychosocial factors were related to a supportive attitude and adoption of the NPI. We believe that our findings could aid policymakers to create NPIs to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(4): 1591-1601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wealth and income are potential modifiable risk factors for dementia, but whether wealth status, which is composed of a combination of debt and poverty, and assessed by wealth and income, is associated with cognitive impairment among elderly adults remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of different combinations of debt and poverty with the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) and to evaluate the mediating role of depression in these relationships. METHODS: We included 15,565 participants aged 51 years or older from the Health and Retirement Study (1992-2012) who were free of CIND and dementia at baseline. Dementia and CIND were assessed using either the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) or a proxy assessment. Cox models with time-dependent covariates and mediation analysis were used. RESULTS: During a median of 14.4 years of follow-up, 4,484 participants experienced CIND and 1,774 were diagnosed with dementia. Both debt and poverty were independently associated with increased dementia and CIND risks, and the risks were augmented when both debt and poverty were present together (the hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals] were 1.35 [1.08-1.70] and 1.96 [1.48-2.60] for CIND and dementia, respectively). The associations between different wealth statuses and cognition were partially (mediation ratio range: 11.8-29.7%) mediated by depression. CONCLUSION: Debt and poverty were associated with an increased risk of dementia and CIND, and these associations were partially mediated by depression. Alleviating poverty and debt may be effective for improving mental health and therefore curbing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the associations of tooth loss and denture use with incident cognitive impairment are inconclusive in older adults, and few prospective studies have examined the potential interaction between tooth loss and denture use in these specific populations. METHODS: Data were assessed from 17,079 cognitively normal older adults aged ≥ 65 years, participating in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). The outcome of interest was cognitive impairment (assessed by the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]). The number of natural teeth and status of denture use were collected by a structural questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 6,456 cases of cognitive impairment were recorded during 88,627 person-years of follow-up. We found that compared with participants with 20+ teeth, those with 10-19, 1-9 and 0 teeth had increased risks of incident cognitive impairment (P-trend < 0.001). Participants without dentures also had a higher risk of incident cognitive impairment, compared with those who wore dentures. Effect modification by denture use was observed (P-interaction = 0.010). Specifically, among those without dentures, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for participants with 10-19, 1-9 and 0 teeth were 1.19 (1.08,1.30), 1.28 (1.17,1.39) and 1.28 (1.16,1.41), respectively, as compared to those with 20+ teeth. In contrary, among denture users, detrimental effect was only observed among those with 0 teeth (HR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.16,1.41). CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese older adults, maintaining 20+ teeth is important for cognitive health; denture use would attenuate the detrimental effects of tooth loss, especially for partial tooth loss, on cognitive impairment.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1452-1462, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary diversity is widely recommended in national and international guidelines; however, whether the beneficial effects on cognitive function still apply in the oldest-old (80+) has rarely been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary diversity with cognitive function among the oldest-old in a large prospective cohort in China. METHODS: We conducted a long-term prospective analysis on 11,970 participants aged 80+ (6581 octogenarians, 3730 nonagenarians, and 1659 centenarians). We constructed the baseline dietary diversity score (DDS) based on eight food items of a food frequency questionnaire. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was used to classify the participants as having cognitive impairment or not and was also used as a continuous metric. Non-linear associations of DDS with cognitive impairment was evaluated by cox models with penalized splines. We used mixed-effect models for longitudinal data with repeated measurements of MMSE (for up to seven time during the follow-up between 1998 and 2014). RESULTS: We documented 4778 cognitive impairment during 46,738 person-years of follow-up. Each one unit increase in DDS was associated with a 4% lower risk of cognitive impairment (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.96; 95% confidential interval (CI): 0.94-0.98). Compared to participants with DDS of 0 score, those with a DDS of 1-2, 3-4, and higher than 5 scores had a lower cognitive impairment risk, the HRs were 0.86 (0.79-0.95), 0.82 (0.74-0.91), and 0.72 (0.64-0.82) respectively, and a significant trend emerged (p < 0.001). Compared with DDS of zero score, a DDS of 1-2,3-4, ≥5 was related to slower MMSE decline (ß = 0.128, 0.162, 0.301, respectively, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Even after the age of 80, dietary diversity may offer a simple and straightforward mean of identifying and screening individuals at high risk for cognitive impairment. Recommendation of dietary diversity may be advocated to attenuate cognitive decline and decrease the risk of cognitive impairment in the oldest-old, especially in a low income or middle-income countries.

5.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association blood pressure (BP) guidelines lowered the hypertension threshold from a SBP/DBP level of at least 140/90 mmHg to at least 130/80 mmHg. The cardiovascular impact of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) under the new definition remains unclear. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank study, which is a prospective population-based cohort study. Participants were categorized into five groups: normal BP, normal high BP, ISH, IDH and systolic and diastolic hypertension. The primary endpoint for this study was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal ischaemic stroke, nonfatal haemorrhagic stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. We also explored the results for the above-mentioned CVD outcomes separately. Baseline BP measurements were obtained twice after the participant had been at rest for at least 5 min in a seated position. RESULTS: We included 385 955 participants who were not taking antihypertensive medications, were free of CVD at baseline and had available data on BP measurements. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 8959 CVD events were recorded, including 4729 nonfatal MIs, 2287 nonfatal ischaemic strokes, 813 nonfatal haemorrhagic strokes, and 1826 CVD deaths. According to the hypertension threshold of at least 130/80 mmHg by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, both ISH (hazard ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.27, 1.15) and IDH (hazard ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.15, 1.43) were significantly associated with a higher overall CVD risk than normal BP. ISH was associated with most CVD risk, except for ischaemic stroke, while the excess CVD risk associated with IDH appeared to be driven mainly by MI and CVD death. We found heterogeneity by sex and age regarding the effects of IDH on overall CVD risk, with significant associations in younger adults (age <60 years) and women and null associations in men and older adults (age ≥60 years). CONCLUSION: ISH was associated with the risk of most CVD events, while the association between IDH and CVD risk was mainly driven by MI incidence and CVD death. Further research is needed to identify participants with IDH who have a particular risk for developing CVD.

6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(6): 1361-1370, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620747

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the associations of diabetes duration and glycaemic control (defined by plasma glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] level) with the risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality and to determine whether the addition of either or both to the established CVD risk factors can improve predictions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 435 679 participants from the UK Biobank without CVD at baseline were included. Cox models adjusting for classic risk factors (sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, lipid profiles and medication use) were used, and predictive utility was determined by the C-index and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS: Compared with participants without diabetes, participants with longer diabetes durations and poorer glycaemic control had a higher risk of fatal/nonfatal CVD. Among participants with diabetes, the fully-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes durations of 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and ≥15 years were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.34), 1.50 (95% CI 1.26, 1.79) and 2.22 (95% CI 1.90, 2.58; P-trend <0.01), respectively, compared with participants with diabetes durations <5 years. In addition, those with the longest disease duration (≥15 years) and poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥64 mmol/mol [8%]) had the highest risk of fatal/nonfatal CVD (HR 3.12, 95% CI 2.52, 3.86). Among participants with diabetes, the addition of both diabetes duration and glycaemic control levels significantly improved both the C-index (change in C-index +0.0254; 95% CI 0.0111, 0.0398) and the overall NRI for fatal/nonfatal CVD (0.0992; 95% CI 0.0085, 0.1755) beyond the use of the classic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Both longer diabetes duration and poorer glycaemic control were associated with elevated risks of CVD and mortality. Clinicians should consider not only glycaemic control but also diabetes duration in CVD risk assessments for participants with diabetes.

7.
J Diabetes ; 13(1): 33-42, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological evidence on the sex-specific association of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, as reflected by larger waist circumference (WC), with incident diabetic neuropathy (DN) remains limited. METHODS: We used data from a patient cohort with a median 10-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus at the time of recruitment. A composite outcome of four types of predefined DN (Neuro 1-4) was used as the outcome of interest. Because of sex differences in abdominal obesity, analyses were conducted separately for men and women. RESULTS: Among the 7442 participants (4551 men and 2891 women) recruited in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study, 3999 cases of incident DN were documented (2529 in men and 1470 in women). Larger WCs were associated with a higher risk of DN among both men and women. Compared with the lowest quintile, the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest quintile was 1.30 (95% CI 1.13-1.49) among men (Ptrend <.001). For women, the HR for the highest vs lowest quintile was 1.25 (95% CI 1.04-1.51) (Ptrend <.001). A linear relationship between WC and DN was observed in men, and in women, the risk of DN increased as the WC quintile increased before it appeared to plateau. The relationship between body mass index and incident DN was similar to the results observed for WC. CONCLUSION: General and abdominal obesity were both associated with an increased risk of incident DN among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, regardless of sex.

8.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A few studies of Western populations have found inconsistent results regarding the associations between vitamin D status and physical function. We explored the association between circulating vitamin D status (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25[OH]D) and incident activities of daily living (ADL) disability among Chinese older adults. DESIGN: Community-based longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: and Participants: A total of 2453 men and women (median age 84.0 years) in 7 Chinese longevity areas were included. MEASURES: Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident ADL, with adjustments for potential sociodemographic, and lifestyle confounders and biomarkers. Because there was a statistically significant interaction between plasma 25(OH)D and sex in relation to incident ADL, men and women were analyzed separately. RESULTS: The median concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D were 46.6 nmol/L and 36.4 nmol/L for men and women, respectively. Compared with the lowest quartile in the fully adjusted model, the HR for incident ADL disability for the highest quartile was 0.55 (95% CI 0.36-0.85) for women; for men, a null association was indicated (HRhighest vs lowest 0.61, 95% CI 0.37-1.00). However, when using the recommended circulating 25(OH)D thresholds by the US Institute of Medicine, those with vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L) had better ADL disability prognoses than those with vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) in both sexes (men HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28-0.72; women HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.90). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The relationship between plasma 25(OH)D concentration and incident ADL disability was sex-specific among Chinese older adults. However, participants with recommended vitamin D sufficiency may have better disability prognoses in both sexes, suggesting that the recommended 25(OH)D concentration for bone health may extend to functional outcomes such as ADL disability in Chinese older adults.

9.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185862

RESUMO

Owing to the widespread distribution of mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika virus, lack of clinical vaccines and treatments, and poor immunity of populations to new infectious diseases, Zika virus has become a global public health concern. Recent studies have found that Zika virus can continuously infect human brain microvascular endothelial cells. These cells are the primary components of the blood-brain barrier of the cerebral cortex, and further infection of brain tissue may cause severe damage such as encephalitis and fetal pituitary disease. The present study found that a biologically active base, piperlongumine (PL), inhibited Zika virus replication in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, Vero cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PL also significantly increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression, while silencing HO-1 expression and using the reactive oxygen species scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, attenuated the inhibitory effect of PL on Zika virus replication. These results suggest that PL induces oxidative stress in cells by increasing reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, induces an increase in HO-1 expression, thereby inhibiting Zika virus replication. These findings provide novel clues for drug research on the prevention and treatment of Zika virus.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008584, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941447

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently emerged as a global threat. Understanding workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding this new infectious disease is crucial to preventing and controlling it. This study aimed to assess KAP regarding COVID-19 during the outbreak among workers in China. The present study was part of a cross-sectional online survey study conducted based on a large labor-intensive factory, which has 180,000 workers from various Chinese provinces, from 2 February 2020 to 7 February 2020. KAP related to COVID-19 were measured by 32 items, each item was measured with an agree/disagree/unclear format, and only correct responses were given 1 point. KAP regarding COVID-19 were measured with 20 items, 6 items and 6 items, respectively. A total of 123,768 valid responses (68.8%) were included in the analysis. Generally, the levels of knowledge (mean: 16.3 out of 20 points), attitudes (mean: 4.5 out of 6 points), and practices (mean: 5.8 out of 6 points) related to COVID-19 were high. Only 36,373 respondents (29.4%) disagreed that gargling with salt water is effective in protecting against COVID-19. Moreover, older respondents had decreased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001), while better-educated respondents had increased levels of knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 (both P values for the trend <0.001). These results suggest that Chinese workers are highly aware of COVID-19, but health authorities still need to provide correct information on COVID-19 prevention and strengthen health interventions, particularly for older and less-educated workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 495-502, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has gained intense attention globally. However, little is known about the COVID-19-ralated mental health status among workers. METHODS: The cross-sectional online survey with 123,768 workers was conducted from February 2, 2020 to February 7, 2020 on a mega-size labor-intensive factory in Shenzhen, China. Oral consent was obtained prior to the questionnaire survey. The information collected in the survey included demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, COVID-19-related information, and demands for psychological education and interventions. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the Zung's Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between related factors and mental health status. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 3.4% and 22.8%, respectively. The dominant epidemic-related factors were having confirmed cases in the community (odds ratio [OR], 2.75, 95% CI, 2.37-3.19) and having confirmed friends (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.69-3.52) for the increased risk of anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. Nevertheless, major traditional risk factors such as general or poor health status and always drinking alcohol were still the dominant factors associated with the increased risk of anxiety and depression symptoms. Overall, 67.3% and 26.8% workers reported desire for psychological education and interventions, respectively. LIMITATIONS: All assessments were self-reported, resulting in a risk of method bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a relatively low prevalence of anxiety symptoms, a relatively high prevalence of depression symptoms, and urgent demand for psychological education and interventions among workers during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego , Feminino , Amigos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008648, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866168

RESUMO

The phenomenon of COVID-19 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (redetectable as positive, RP) emerged globally. The data of incidence rate and risk factors for RP event and the clinical features of RP patients may provide recommendations for virus containment and cases management for COVID-19. We prospectively collected and analyzed the epidemiological, clinical and virological data from 285 adult patients with COVID-19 and acquired their definite clinical outcome (getting PCR positive or not during post-discharge surveillance). By March 10, 27 (9.5%) discharged patients had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in their nasopharyngeal swab after a median duration of 7·0 days (IQR 5·0-8·0). Compared to first admission, RP patients generally had milder clinical symptoms, lower viral load, shorter length of stay and improved pulmonary conditions at readmission (p<0.05). Elder RP patients (≥ 60 years old) were more likely to be symptomatic compared to younger patients (7/8, 87.5% vs. 3/19, 18.8%, p = 0.001) at readmission. Age, sex, epidemiological history, clinical symptoms and underlying diseases were similar between RP and non-RP patients (p>0.05). A prolonged duration of viral shedding (>10 days) during the first hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 5.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50-13.57 for N gene; aOR: 9.64, 95% CI: 3.91-23.73 for ORF gene] and higher Ct value (ORF) in the third week of the first hospitalization (aOR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50-0.95) were associated with RP events. In conclusion, RP events occurred in nearly 10% of COVID-19 patients shortly after the negative tests, were not associated with worsening symptoms and unlikely reflect reinfection. Patients' lack of efficiency in virus clearance was a risk factor for RP result. It is noteworthy that elder RP patients (≥ 60 years old) were more susceptible to clinical symptoms at readmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Diabetes ; 69(11): 2423-2439, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801139

RESUMO

Metagenome sequencing has not been used in infected bone specimens. This prospective observational study explored the microbiome and its function in patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) and posttraumatic foot osteomyelitis (PFO) based on 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenome sequencing technologies. Spearman analysis was used to explore the correlation between dominant species and clinical indicators of patients with DFO. High-throughput sequencing showed that all the specimens were polymicrobial. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the DFO group than in the PFO group. Firmicutes, Prevotellaceae, and Prevotella were the most abundant microbes in the DFO group. The most abundant microbes in the PFO group were Proteobacteria, Halomonadaceae, and Halomonas Prevotella denticola, Prevotella jejuni, and Prevotella fusca had positive correlation with the duration of diabetic foot infection (DFI_d). Proteus vulgaris was positively correlated with the infection index, while Bacteroides fragilis was negatively correlated. The microbial functional genes were more abundant in the DFO group than in the PFO group. Metagenome sequencing is feasible for the analysis of the microbiome in infected bone specimens. Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes are dominant in DFO.

15.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(11): 879-887, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk for transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to close contacts of infected persons has not been well estimated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to close contacts in different settings. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Close contacts of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China. PARTICIPANTS: 3410 close contacts of 391 index cases were traced between 13 January and 6 March 2020. Data on the setting of the exposure, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing, and clinical characteristics of index and secondary cases were collected. MEASUREMENT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. Secondary attack rates in different settings were calculated. RESULTS: Among 3410 close contacts, 127 (3.7% [95% CI, 3.1% to 4.4%]) were secondarily infected. Of these 127 persons, 8 (6.3% [CI, 2.1% to 10.5%]) were asymptomatic. Of the 119 symptomatic cases, 20 (16.8%) were defined as mild, 87 (73.1%) as moderate, and 12 (10.1%) as severe or critical. Compared with the household setting (10.3%), the secondary attack rate was lower for exposures in health care settings (1.0%; odds ratio [OR], 0.09 [CI, 0.04 to 0.20]) and on public transportation (0.1%; OR, 0.01 [CI, 0.00 to 0.08]). The secondary attack rate increased with the severity of index cases, from 0.3% (CI, 0.0% to 1.0%) for asymptomatic to 3.3% (CI, 1.8% to 4.8%) for mild, 5.6% (CI, 4.4% to 6.8%) for moderate, and 6.2% (CI, 3.2% to 9.1%) for severe or critical cases. Index cases with expectoration were associated with higher risk for secondary infection (13.6% vs. 3.0% for index cases without expectoration; OR, 4.81 [CI, 3.35 to 6.93]). LIMITATION: There was potential recall bias regarding symptom onset among patients with COVID-19, and the symptoms and severity of index cases were not assessed at the time of exposure to contacts. CONCLUSION: Household contact was the main setting for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among close contacts increased with the severity of index cases. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Guangdong Province Higher Vocational Colleges and Schools Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 275: 188-193, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although studies have suggested experiencing the epidemic of severe infectious diseases increased the prevalence of mental health problems, the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of anxiety and depression symptom in college students in China was unclear. METHODS: A large cross-sectional online survey with 44,447 college students was conducted in Guangzhou, China. The Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale) were used to define the anxiety and depression symptom, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between COVID-19 epidemic and risk of anxiety and depression symptom. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptom was 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5%, 8.0%) and 12.2% (95%CI: 11.9%, 12.5%), respectively. Compared with students who reported have not infected or suspected cases in family members and relatives, students who reported having confirmed (OR=4.06; 95%CI: 1.62, 10.19; P = 0.003), and suspected (OR=2.11; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.00; P = 0.023) cases in family members and relatives had higher risk of depression symptom. Additionally, the proportions of students with anxiety and depression symptom reported more demand of psychological knowledge and interventions than those without (P<0.001). LIMITATIONS: All the data in this study was collected through online questionnaire, and we did not evaluate the reliability and validity. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptom was relatively low in college students, but the COVID-19 epidemic-related factors might be associated with higher depression symptom risk.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(11): 10687-10703, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the independent and joint effects of leisure activities on disability in activities of daily living (ADL) among the oldest-old Chinese population (aged ≥ 80 years). RESULTS: A total of 3696 participants with ADL disability were identified during the median follow-up period of 3.1 years. Compared to the participants who "never" watched TV or listened to the radio and who "never" kept domestic animals or pets, those who engaged in these activities "almost every day" had a significantly lower ADL disability risk (adjusted hazard ratios were 0.74 and 0.66, respectively; both P < 0.001). Furthermore, participants engaging in multiple leisure activities showed a reduced risk of ADL disability (P for trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Frequently watching TV or listening to the radio and keeping domestic animals or pets was associated with a lower risk of ADL disability among the oldest-old Chinese population. METHODS: We included 12,331 participants (aged ≥ 80 years) (mean [SD] age: 89.5 [7.0] years) who managed to perform ADL independently at baseline in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 1998-2014 waves. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine whether leisure activities were associated with ADL disability.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 288-290, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437933

RESUMO

Data are limited on the viral load, viral shedding patterns, and potential infectivity of asymptomatic patients (APs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study included 31 adult patients who were virologically confirmed to have COVID-19 but were asymptomatic on admission. Among these 31 patients, 22 presented symptoms after admission and were defined as asymptomatic patients in the incubation period (APIs); the other nine patients remained asymptomatic during hospitalization and were defined as asymptomatic patients (APs). The median cycle threshold (Ct) value of APs (39.0, interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-39.5) was significantly higher than that of APIs (34.5, IQR 32.2-37.0), indicating a lower viral load in APs. However, the duration of viral shedding remained similar in the two groups (7 days, IQR 5-14 days vs. 8 days, IQR 5-16 days). The study findings demonstrated that although APs with COVID-19 have a lower viral load, they still have certain period of viral shedding, which suggests the possibility of transmission during their asymptomatic period. Further longitudinal surveillance of these asymptomatic cases via virus nucleic acid testing are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 829-836, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of regular glucosamine use with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: This population-based prospective cohort study included 495 077 women and men (mean (SD) age, 56.6 (8.1) years) from the UK Biobank study. Participants were recruited from 2006 to 2010 and were followed up through 2018. We evaluated all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, respiratory and digestive disease. HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause and cause-specific mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: At baseline, 19.1% of the participants reported regular use of glucosamine supplements. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years (IQR 8.3-9.7 years), 19 882 all-cause deaths were recorded, including 3802 CVD deaths, 8090 cancer deaths, 3380 respiratory disease deaths and 1061 digestive disease deaths. In multivariable adjusted analyses, the HRs associated with glucosamine use were 0.85 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.89) for all-cause mortality, 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.90) for CVD mortality, 0.94 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.99) for cancer mortality, 0.73 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.81) for respiratory mortality and 0.74 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.90) for digestive mortality. The inverse associations of glucosamine use with all-cause mortality seemed to be somewhat stronger among current than non-current smokers (p for interaction=0.00080). CONCLUSIONS: Regular glucosamine supplementation was associated with lower mortality due to all causes, cancer, CVD, respiratory and digestive diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Glucosamina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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