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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140392, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927558

RESUMO

Environmental pollution by the psychoactive drug diazepam (DZP) has been suggested to disrupt various behavioral traits of fishes. Exposure to DZP in natural waters may be of episodic duration, but there are few reports on the persistence of abnormal behaviors of fishes caused by such acute exposure. In the current study, we exposed juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) to sublethal doses of DZP (1200, 120, and 12 µg/L) for four days and evaluated their behavioral traits and brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels at days 0 (i.e., immediately after the 4-day exposure), 7, and 21 of the recovery period. Exposure to DZP induced short-term impairment of swimming ability and two-fish interactions of zebrafish. In contrast, DZP induced persistent and/or delayed effects on locomotor activity of zebrafish, i.e., hypoactivity at 1200 µg/L and hyperactivity at 120 and 12 µg/L, that could be still observed on days 7 and/or 21 during the recovery period. DZP exposure also exhibited concentration-specific effects on brain GABA levels in zebrafish, i.e., decreased at 1200 µg/L and increased at 120 and 12 µg/L. Correlation analysis suggested that the changes in brain GABA levels may contribute to the persistence of abnormalities in the locomotor activity of zebrafish. Our findings suggest that zebrafish need a long time to recover from acute exposure to DZP, thus highlighting that the persistence of behavioral abnormalities induced by such psychoactive drugs should be considered in order to better assess their risks in natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Encéfalo , Diazepam , Ecossistema , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
2.
Small ; : e2002698, 2020 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893486

RESUMO

A combined photothermal-catalytic system that contains a single active element, without using different entities for separate roles (catalytic vs photothermal), is designed here for efficient catalytic reactions. Herein, ultrathin (sub-6 nm) rectangular-like KNdF4 nanoplates consisting of 3-4 unit cell layers are prepared where the Nd3+ ions act as a Lewis acid catalyst. In addition, the nanoplates undergo light-to-heat conversion when irradiated with NIR light due to cross-relaxation and nonradiative relaxation processes from excited Nd3+ . The cyanosilylation of a series of ketones is performed using the nano-hotplate catalysts to give near quantitative yields of the cyanohydrin trimethylsilyl ethers. This is because of the high surface area-to-volume ratio of the thin nanoplates that provides a large number of surface Nd3+ catalytic sites for reaction. The reaction kinetics are enhanced by the photothermal effect, leading to the observed > 10-fold increase in product yields.

3.
J Med Chem ; 63(18): 10380-10395, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816483

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a major liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. The current standard of care for CHC can achieve cure rates above 95%; however, the drugs in current use are administered for a period of 8-16 weeks. A combination of safe and effective drugs with a shorter treatment period is highly desirable. We report synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 2',3'- and 2',4'-substituted guanosine nucleotide analogues. Their triphosphates exhibited potent inhibition of the HCV NS5B polymerase with IC50 as low as 0.13 µM. In the HCV replicon assay, the phosphoramidate prodrugs of these analogues demonstrated excellent activity with EC50 values as low as 5 nM. A lead compound AL-611 showed high levels of the nucleoside 5'-triphosphate in vitro in primary human hepatocytes and in vivo in dog liver following oral administration.

4.
Food Funct ; 11(7): 6692, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697228

RESUMO

Correction for 'Bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanin monomers following in vitro simulated gastric-intestinal digestion and in vivo metabolism in rats' by Yao Chen et al., Food Funct., 2019, 10, 6052-6061, DOI: .

5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(3): 1265-1275, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608628

RESUMO

To explore the water purification efficiency and phytoplankton control efficiency of the water source ecological purification system, and evaluate the effectiveness of the functional group (FG) and morphology-based functional group (MBFG) in response to the internal environment and water quality of the water source ecological purification system, in the summer of 2018, the water quality and phytoplankton functional groups of each unit of the Yanlong Lake ecological purification system were monitored and analyzed. The results showed that the Yanlong Lake water source ecological purification system can effectively purify the water. The average values of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity in the influent water were 0.20 mg·L-1, 1.91 mg·L-1, 2.88 mg·L-1, and 60.23 NTU, respectively; after system treatment, these were 0.09 mg·L-1, 0.95 mg·L-1, 6.26 mg·L-1, and 39.53 NTU, respectively. Simultaneously, the spatial distribution of water quality within the system was heterogeneous, with significant spatial differences in dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and turbidity (P<0.001). The Yanlong Lake water source ecological purification system could effectively control the density of phytoplankton (4.42×105-4.32×106 cells·L-1) when the effluent was in a mild eutrophication state. This reduced the risk of algal blooms. There were five absolute advantage FG:B, P, TC, J, and W1. There were six absolute advantage MBFG:GroupⅠ, GroupⅢ, GroupⅣ, GroupⅤ, GroupⅥ, and GroupⅦ. Both absolute dominant functional groups were effective in indicating changes in habitat conditions. The results of RDA analysis found that the environmental interpretation of the MBFG was higher than that of the FG. The results suggested that it is more appropriate to study the dynamics of phytoplankton in the Yanlong Lake ecological purification system in summer by selecting the MBFG classification method.

6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127238, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563064

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) are phthalate compounds frequently detected in the environment. Despite increasing awareness of their toxicity in human and animals, the male reproductive toxicity of their combined exposure remains elusive. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether combined exposure to DBP and DiBP could induce male reproductive toxicity, and to explore the potential toxicological mechanisms. Adult male zebrafish were exposed to DBP (11, 113 and 1133 µg L-1), DiBP (10, 103 and 1038 µg L-1) and their mixtures (Mix) (11 + 10, 113 + 103, 1133 + 1038 µg L-1) for 30 days, and their effects on plasma hormone secretion, testis histology and transcriptomics were examined. Highest concentrations of Mix exposure caused greater imbalance ratio of T/E2 and more severe structural damage to testis than single exposure. These effects were consistent with the testis transcriptome analysis for which 4570 genes were differentially expressed in Mix exposure, while 2795 and 1613 genes were differentially expressed in DBP and DiBP, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis showed that both single and combined exposure of DBP and DiBP could affect cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. The difference was that combined exposure could also affect steroid hormone synthesis, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, retinol metabolism, and PPAR signaling pathways. These results demonstrated that combined exposure to DBP and DiBP could disrupt spermatogenesis and elicit male reproductive toxicity in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 155: 740-750, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240742

RESUMO

Abelmoschus esculentus L (okra) is widely used as a healthy vegetable and favourable source of dietary medicine. Okra flowers which are by-products of okra, are rich in polysaccharide, polyphenols and trace elements etc., however, except a few for health tea, most of them were discarded as the waste of resources. In this study, a polysaccharide named AEFP22 was extracted, purified and identified from okra flowers, and its physicochemical property and antioxidant activity were also elucidated. AEFP22, with a molecular weight of 2.741 × 105 Da, was composed of Rha, GalA and Gal in the ratio of 1: 1.02: 0.86. The methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated AEFP22 was composed of [2)-α-D-Rhap-(1 â†’ 4)-α-D-GalpA-(1 â†’ 2,4)-α-D-Rhap-(1 â†’ 4)-α-D-GalpA-(1] with branch of terminal T-α-D-Galp pointed at C4 of 1,2,4-α-D-Rhap. The Conge-red test, Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) further revealed the triple-helical conformation, irregular sheet structure with molecule aggregations of AEFP22. The physicochemical property analysis indicated AEFP22 possessed stable thermal property and exhibited shear-thinning and normal Newtonian fluid in different concentrations, -7.04 mV zeta potential and polymerization phenomenon existed in AEFP22 solution. AEFP22 exhibited good 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability. These results indicated potential utilization of AEFP22 in nutritional food and material application.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339585

RESUMO

A variety of beneficial pharmacological activities have been reported for Se-enriched Grifola frondosa polysaccharides. However, little has been reported on its absorption, and its intestinal uptake and transport profiles remain unknown. Based on our previous research, the aim of this study was to investigate its absorption from two aspects - the polysaccharides and selenium of Se-enriched Grifola frondosa polysaccharides (Se-GFP-22) across Caco-2 cells in vitro. The Caco-2 cells monolayer culture model was successfully constructed to study the transport and uptake of Se-GFP-22. The results revealed that the uptake and transport of Se-GFP-22 were time- and concentration- dependent. Transport studies illustrated that Se-GFP-22 could penetrate Caco-2 cells, mainly mediated through the same routes as endocytosis and selenium in the organic selenium (Se-GFP-22) was more easily absorbed than that in the inorganic selenium control group (sodium selenite). The uptake of Se-GFP-22 may be a macropinocytosis pathway, which was an accumulation from cytoplasm to nucleus process. Se-GFP-22 was a moderately absorbed biological macromolecule testified by the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) value and transport rates. This work illustrates the characteristics on uptake and transport of Se-GFP-22 and all these results may help to explore the mechanism of polysaccharide absorption in vitro.

9.
Arch Toxicol ; 94(4): 1279-1302, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303808

RESUMO

In the present study, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure on pubertal normal (P-normal) and pubertal type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM) mice were investigated by typical neurobehavioral methods and transcriptome analysis. Pubertal male ICR mice were orally exposed to DEHP (0.18, 1.8, 18 and 180 mg/kg/d) for 3 weeks. In Open field test, DEHP significantly increased the time in central area staying and decreased the total distance and clockwise (CW) rotation of P-normal and P-T2DM mice. Morris water maze showed that DEHP significantly increased the latency in locating platform and decreased the original platform quadrant and residence time in target quadrant of P-normal and P-T2DM mice. Transcriptome analysis results revealed the effects of DEHP exposure on neural signaling pathway including biogenic amines neurotransmitters, nerve receptors, neurobiological processes, etc. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting results showed that DEHP significantly decreased the contents of 5-HT, cAMP, GABA and Ca2+, the levels of CREB, phosphorylation of PKA, ERK1/2 and CREB, increased the levels of CaM and phosphorylation of CaMKII in P-normal and P-T2DM mice. Factorial analysis results showed that P-T2DM mice were more sensitive than those of P-normal mice. The potential neurotoxicity mechanism of DEHP may be synergistically mediated by the cAMP-PKA-ERK1/2-CREB signaling and the Ca2+ signaling pathway.

10.
Nature ; 577(7792): 682-688, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942069

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular pathogen that uses several strategies to interfere with the signalling functions of host immune molecules. Many other bacterial pathogens exploit the host ubiquitination system to promote pathogenesis1,2, but whether this same system modulates the ubiquitination of M. tuberculosis proteins is unknown. Here we report that the host E3 ubiquitin ligase ANAPC2-a core subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-interacts with the mycobacterial protein Rv0222 and promotes the attachment of lysine-11-linked ubiquitin chains to lysine 76 of Rv0222 in order to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of ANAPC2 by specific short hairpin RNA abolishes the inhibitory effect of Rv0222 on proinflammatory responses. Moreover, mutation of the ubiquitination site on Rv0222 impairs the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines by Rv0222 and reduces virulence during infection in mice. Mechanistically, lysine-11-linked ubiquitination of Rv0222 by ANAPC2 facilitates the recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to the adaptor protein TRAF6, preventing the lysine-63-linked ubiquitination and activation of TRAF6. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized mechanism that M. tuberculosis uses to suppress host immunity, and provide insights relevant to the development of effective immunomodulators that target M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Ubiquitinação , Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase/química , Animais , Subunidade Apc2 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 6 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Virulência/imunologia
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(9): 9247-9260, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916164

RESUMO

Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) (200, 500, and 1000 mg kg-1 bw, i.g.), Pb (Ac)2 (50 mg L-1, p.o.), and NaAsO2 (10 mg L-1, p.o.) were administered individually and as mixtures to weanling male mice for 8 weeks. It was observed that Pb, As, and DOP exposure could significantly inhibit the growth and development of mice. Compared with the Pb, As, and Pb + As groups, the activities of iNOS and TNOS were significantly increased, the levels of AChE and SOD were significantly decreased, and the level of MDA was significantly increased in the Pb + DOP-H, As + DOP-H, and Pb + As + DOP-H groups. The factorial analysis shows that the iNOS, TNOS, and AChE present synergistic effects on Pb, As, and DOP. A significant increase of escape latency and a significant decrease of original platform quadrant stops were observed between Pb + As + DOP-H and Pb + As groups. The factorial analysis shows that there was a synergistic effect on Pb, As, and DOP. Compared with that of the control group, the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax expression in Pb + As, DOP-H, Pb + DOP-H, As + DOP-H, and Pb + As + DOP-H groups were significantly increased in the hippocampus. The expression levels of Bcl-2 expression decreased significantly and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly. Pathological alterations on the hippocampus were found in exposed groups. This result shows that combined exposure of Pb, As, and DOP could induce neurotoxicity, of which possible mechanism is hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Graphical abstract This study shows that there were three components with eigenvalues greater than 1, which together explained 89.40% of total variance. The first component (PC1) showed high loadings on B-SOD, L-SOD, B-MDA, L-MDA, K-MDA, iNOS, tNOS, and AChE and accounted for 46.55% of the total variance after Varimax rotation. PC2 accounted for 23.81% of the total variance with high loadings on B-As, L-As, K-As, and K-SOD, whereas PC3 showed high loadings on B-Pb, L-Pb, and K-Pb and accounted for 19.04% of the total variance.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico , Dietilexilftalato , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Chumbo/toxicidade , Animais , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsênico/toxicidade , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Chumbo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(9): 9318-9326, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916169

RESUMO

In this study, the immature mice were taken to assess the potential neurological toxicity of lead (Pb) and di (n-butyl) phthalates (DBP) combination exposure. Mouse administration with DBP combination with Pb exhibited longer escape latency and lower average number of crossing of the platform. Pb content in the tissues was increased, especially in the brain, after Pb exposure as compared to those without Pb exposure. The alterations of oxidative damages in tissues (MDA and SOD) and biochemical indicators in the brain (AChE, TNOS, and iNOS) were observed, as well as the synergistic effect of joint exposure. Expressions of apoptosis-related protein (bax/bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3) were significantly increased in the hippocampus, while the bcl-2 was remarkably decreased and no significant differences were observed on the bax. The results suggested that the possible mechanisms for the learning and memory ability impairments were as follows: Firstly, the combination exposure induced the occurrence of lipid peroxidation in the brain, leading to damage to the brain cells. Secondly, it destroyed the normal metabolic balance of ACh, causing nerve damage in mice. Thirdly, it induced apoptosis in mouse hippocampal cells. The overall findings revealed that Pb and DBP co-exposure greatly influenced the developmental nervous system and accompanied with synergistic toxic effect.


Assuntos
Dibutilftalato , Chumbo , Animais , Apoptose , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dibutilftalato/química , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Camundongos
13.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124916, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563104

RESUMO

Cadmium contamination in greenhouse vegetable fields greatly limited the sustainable production especially of leafy vegetables. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), as a common soil amendment, has been widely used in the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils, while its remediation efficiency greatly depends on its particle sizes. In this study, a rhizobag pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of HAP (<60 nm, <12 µm and <80 µm) on bioavailability of Cd to celery grown in acidic and slightly Cd-contaminated greenhouse soil. The results suggested that HAP with the largest particle size (<80 µm) had the best effectiveness in reducing Cd uptake especially by the edible part of celery. Specifically, the increase in HAP (<80 µm) addition from 0.5% to 3% prominently reduced Cd concentrations in celery shoot by 19.6%-76.8% as compared with the untreated group. Also, adding HAP (<80 µm) especially at 3% significantly decreased translocation factor (TF) of Cd from celery root to shoot by 30.6% and reduced bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Cd from rhizosphere soil to celery shoot by 76.4%. These were predominantly associated with the significantly increased soil pH and the subsequently decreased soil CaCl2-Cd concentration after adding HAP (<80 µm). Overall, although rhizosphere soil pH was the key factor in controlling Cd uptake by edible celery and regulating BCF and TF of Cd, insignificant root-induced acidification had limited effect on the immobilization efficiency of Cd by HAP (<80 µm). In conclusion, HAP (<80 µm) has good potential for the remediation of Cd-contaminated greenhouse soils.


Assuntos
Apium/efeitos dos fármacos , Apium/metabolismo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Durapatita/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Solo/química , Apium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Durapatita/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 560: 555-564, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679783

RESUMO

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has aroused great concern since it applied to the photocatalytic process. However, the inherent shortcomings of bulk g-C3N4, such as small active surface area, low separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers, sluggish charge transport process, etc., result in low-level photocatalytic performance. The rich-nitrogen carbon nitride nanotubes (CNNTs) made by an easy supermolecule self-assembly method could slove these subsisting problems. The CNNTs with unique morphology possess superior separation/migration of photo-excited charge carriers and enhanced photocatalytic performance. Under irradiation with visible light (λ > 400 nm), measured with Pt (3 wt%) as co-catalyst, the CNNTs have a hydrogen evolution rate of 18.06 mmol h-1 g-1 and its apparent quantum yield (AQY) is 12.55% (420 nm). The CNNTs are also applied to degrade antibiotics with simultaneous hydrogen production, providing a method for alleviating energy crisis and environmental pollution issues. The degradation rate of bisphenol A (BPA) is 92% and simultaneously with 13.63 µmol photocatalytic hydrogen generation after irradiation for 5 h.

15.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(11): 3183-3206, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606821

RESUMO

The prevalence of adolescent type 2 diabetes mellitus (A-T2DM) is increasing year by year. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a widely used plasticizer, could exacerbate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study aimed to investigate the metabolic toxicity, susceptibility and mechanism of DEHP exposure to A-T2DM. DEHP was administered orally (0, 0.18, 1.8, 18, and 180 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks to adolescent normal mice (A-normal mice) and established A-T2DM mice. The results of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels showed that the susceptibility of A-T2DM mice to DEHP exposure was more significant than that of A-normal mice. DEHP, interfering with glucose and lipid metabolism of A-normal and A-T2DM mice, caused the body weight increase of A-normal mice and decrease of A-T2DM mice. Besides, DEHP could cause more injury of cardiovascular, hepatic and renal function to A-T2DM mice than A-normal mice. Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed that DEHP exposure interfered with the biological feedback adjustment of endocrine and metabolic system in A-T2DM mice and then led to the development of T2DM. According to the transcriptome results, insulin signaling transduction pathway was applied and researched by immunoassay. It was discovered that DEHP reduced insulin sensitivity and disturbed insulin signaling transduction, glucose utilization, lipid synthesis and protein synthesis. Collectively, DEHP could disturb the endocrine and metabolic functions and increase the insulin resistance in adolescent mice. Moreover, the adolescent T2DM mice are more sensitive to DEHP-induced endocrine and metabolic toxicity than the healthy adolescent mice.

16.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(4): 3172-3176, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572558

RESUMO

MicroRNA-663 (miRNA-663) regulates the expression of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), which participates in the pathogenesis of myocardial fibrosis. Therefore, microRNA-663 may also serve a role in myocardial fibrosis. The present study aimed to determine whether miRNA-663 participates in myocardial fibrosis via interaction with TGF-ß1. In the present study, the expression of miRNA-663 was significantly downregulated, whereas that of TGF-ß1 was significantly upregulated in the endomyocardial biopsies of patients with myocardial fibrosis compared with those in control necropsies. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that the expression levels of miRNA-663 were negatively correlated with those of TGF-ß1 in patients with myocardial fibrosis, but not in the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the downregulation of miRNA-663 distinguished patients with myocardial fibrosis from controls. In the AC16 human cardiomyocyte cell line, miRNA-663 overexpression resulted in downregulated TGF-ß1 expression, whereas exogenous TGF-ß1 treatment exhibited no significant effects on miRNA-663 expression. These results indicate that miRNA-663 may participate in myocardial fibrosis, possibly through interaction with TGF-ß1.

17.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 6052-6061, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486446

RESUMO

Anthocyanins (ANCs) are phytochemicals with several health effects and undergo significant degradation and subsequent biotransformation during complex metabolic processes. The aim of the present study was to determine the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) during the simulated gastric-intestinal digestion in vitro and the metabolism in rats in vivo. Characterization of C3G and its metabolites was conducted by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. After gastric-intestinal digestion, C3G was detected with a recovery of 88.31% in the gastric-digestive system, and a small amount of methylated-C3G occurred. In the intestinal-digestive system, C3G occurred with a recovery of 6.05%, and mainly decomposed into protocatechuic acid (PCA) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde. The pharmacokinetic trial of C3G in rats showed rapid elimination in plasma. In tissues, C3G underwent rapid absorption and metabolism into phenolic acids or their derivatives. C3G and methylated-C3G passed through the blood-brain barrier and caused rapid distribution of C3G in the brain. Understanding the conversion of C3G and its metabolites helps in the future design of dietary interventions and the exploration of biological activities of ACNs.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(18)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546844

RESUMO

Currently, high-speed trains work under various atmospheric environments, and the bogie as a key component suffers serious corrosion. To investigate the corrosion behavior of bogies in industrial atmospheric environments, the periodic immersion wet/dry cyclic corrosion test for SMA490BW steel and automatic metal active gas (MAG) welded joints used for bogies was conducted in the present work. Corrosion weight loss rate, structure, and composition of rust layers as well as electrochemistry parameters were investigated. The results showed that the corrosion weight loss rate decreased with increasing corrosion time; furthermore, the corrosion weight loss rate of the welded joints was lower than that of SMA490BW steel. The XRD results showed that the rust layers formed on SMA490BW steel and its welded joints were mainly composed of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, Fe2O3, and Fe3O4. The observation of surface morphology indicated that the rust layers of the welded joints were much denser and had a much finer microstructure compared with those of SMA490BW steel. After corrosion for 150 h, the corrosion potential of the welded joints with rust layers was higher than that of SMA490BW steel. In short, the welded joints exhibited better corrosion resistance than SMA490BW steel because of the higher content of alloy elements, as shown in this work.

19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 134: 110803, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563530

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) would do serious damage to multiple systems, while coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls, the most toxic member of the family, has been widely taken into consideration. In this study, ICR mice were fed with different doses of PCB126 to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms on immunotoxicity. The results showed that PCB126 caused immunosuppression as evidenced by inhibiting the ratios of thymus and spleen weights, changing the organizational structure and decreasing levels and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2. PCB126 inhibited the SOD activity and spurred the accumulation of MDA in spleen and thymus. Meanwhile, it also disturbed the Nrf2 signaling pathway as evidenced by up-regulating the mRNA expression of Nrf2 and Keap1. Additionally, a remarkable reduction in the mRNA expression of AhR and enhancement in the mRNA expression of Cyp1 enzymes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1) were observed, which increased the ROS levels. PCB126 could increase protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9, while the protein expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. In summary, the results indicated that PCB126 modulated the AhR signaling pathway, which interacted with apoptosis and oxidative stress to induce immunotoxicity, enrich the immunotoxicological mechanisms of PCB126.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/enzimologia , Timo/metabolismo
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 144: 111643, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499389

RESUMO

An electrochemical biosensor was proposed utilizing an improved amplification strategy for the rapid detection of sulfamethazine (as a model target) in aquatic environments. In this competitive immunoassay, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-capped gold nanoparticles (CTAB-AuNPs) were used as a signal amplifier and electrode matrix and coated with an antigen-antibody (Cag-Ab1) specific binding system as a recognition unit for the target compound. In addition, silver nanoparticle labels were functionalized with dendritic fibrous nanosilica (DFNS@AgNPs) and decorated onto chitosan/single walled carbon nanohorn (CS/SWCNH)-modified glass carbon electrodes (GCEs), which improved the electron transfer rate and increased the surface area, enabling more coating antigens to be captured. Under acidic conditions, massive amounts of the Ag+ bound to the surface of the AuNPs dissolved, and consequently, formed Ag+@CTAB-AuNP complexes, which resulted in a distinctly improved peroxidase-like activity and enhanced current response. Furthermore, the destroyed Ab1-Ab2-DFNS conjugation greatly decreased the impedance, bringing about the amplification of the electrochemical signals. After optimization of the parameters, the proposed approach exhibited excellent performance, including good sensitivity (LOD, 0.0655 ng/mL) and satisfactory accuracy (recoveries, 79.02%-118.39%; CV, 3.18%-9.82%), which indicates the great potential of this strategy for the rapid detection of trace pollutants in the environments.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Imunoensaio , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Sulfametazina/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Carbono/química , Quitosana/química , Ouro/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Prata/química , Sulfametazina/química
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