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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(40): 9065-9069, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584058

RESUMO

The efficient ruthenium-catalyzed meta-selective CAr-H nitration of azole ring substituted arenes has been developed. In this work, Ru3(CO)12 was used as the catalyst, AgNO2 as the nitro source, HPcy3+·BF4- as the ligand, pivalic acid as the additive, and DCE as the solvent, and a wide spectrum of arenes bearing thiazole, pyrazolyl or removable oxazoline directing groups were tolerated in this meta-selective CAr-H nitration, affording the nitrated products in moderate to good yields. Moreover, this study reveals a gentler and environmentally friendly way to access meta-nitration arenes compared to the traditional process.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 100(2-1): 022309, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574612

RESUMO

Cascading failures in the internet have attracted recent attention due to their unpredictability and destructive consequences. Exploring the failure behavior patterns is necessary because they can provide effective intervention approaches to prevent huge network disasters. To analyze internet flow behaviors during cascading failures (chain reactions in router and link failures), we characterize the internet as two coupled networks, the router network and the flow network. Here the flow network is an abstract representation of data correlations obtained from the router network. We use this coupled network to build a cascading failure model for studying flow transmission and competition, which is reflected in bandwidth competition given by limited link capacity. We first study the dependency between routers and flows to explore the flow transmission efficiency when a failure event occurs. Moreover, we find that rerouting enables flow competition area (the number of flows with which one flow has a competitive relationship) to initially remain stable during a failure episode, but that it then quickly drops due to poor physical network connectivity. Additionally, in the early stage after the failure event, the degree of flow competition sharply increases because of the growing number of the flows and congestion. Subsequently, the flow competition decreases due to the failure of flow transmission.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599564

RESUMO

Inflammatory macrophage (Mφ)-mediated atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Photothermal therapy (PTT) has been demonstrated as an efficient strategy in killing target cells, and its application in the treatment of inflammation in atherosclerosis is developing. However, the choice of nanomaterials, mechanisms, and side effects are seldom considered. In this study, semiconductor nanomaterials, that is, MoO2 nanoclusters, were synthesized and used for the first time in PTT for inflammatory Mφ-mediated atherosclerosis. Based on cell differential phagocytosis, the optimum amount of MoO2 and treatment time were selected to exert the maximum ablation effect on Mφ and minimal damage on endothelial cells without requiring additional target or selective groups. Moreover, MoO2-based PTT shows an excellent therapeutic effect on atherosclerosis by eliminating Mφ in animal models, with no significant side effects observed. This study explores a new method of nanotechnology and pharmaceutical development by using and optimizing cost-effective metal oxide nanostructures in the treatment of atherosclerosis and motivates further research on minimizing the side effects of related materials.

4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 105: 110086, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546413

RESUMO

Chitosan (CS) has been reported to have utility for various potential applications in biomedicine, tissue engineering, and cosmetics, as well as in the formulation of antibacterial agents because it exhibits a variety of desirable attributes, including low-toxicity, biodegradability, excellent biocompatibility, and broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. However, the full realization of CS's biomedical applications are practically constrained by its poor solubility. The goal of the present study is to prepare hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBCS) and investigate its impacts on immunocompetence, and its antibacterial activity. In the current study, HBCS was synthesized by modifying the hydroxybutyl group on the chitosan molecule using an etherification method. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized HBCS were characterized by various methods. Results showed that hydro-soluble HBCS exhibited excellent hygroscopicity and moisture retention. It was also found that HBCS exhibited notable cytocompatibility when cultured with mouse embryo fibroblasts. HBCS was able regulate immuno-functionality and promote immunocompetence by improving phagocytosis of macrophages and reinforcing lymphocyte activity in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, HBCS was also found to inhibit L-929 cell migration, indicating the impeded migration and metastasis behaviors of fibrosarcoma cells. Additionally, HBCS displayed favorable antimicrobial functionality against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. This study demonstrated that HBCS could in turn lock moisture, can promote immunocompetence activity, can inhibit fibrosarcoma cell migration, and exhibits anti-bacterial functionality. Taken together, these results indicate that HBCS shows substantial promise for applications in cosmetics, biomedicine, and antibacterial therapies.

5.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e1900322, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531908

RESUMO

Four conjugated polymers are synthesized through indacenodithiohene (IDT) unit copolymerized with thiophene and thiophene derivatives. Indacenodithiohene-co-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (IDT-TT) and indacenodithiohene-co-trans-1,2-di(2-thienyl)ethylene (IDT-TVT) exhibit better charge transport mobilities than indacenodithiohene-co-thiophene (IDT-T) and indacenodithiohene-co-3,4-ethoxylene dioxythiophene (IDT-EDOT), and also display superior thermoelectric properties after doping. Theoretical calculations suggest that IDT-EDOT and IDT-TVT have better coplanarities; the inferior performance for IDT-EDOT might be due to its low molecular weight. Meanwhile, it is worth mentioning that via the synergistic effect of two dopants (CN6CP, CuTFSI), the electrical conductivities of the polymers are further improved. The XPS data shows that the coordination interaction between copper ion and the cyano groups of CN6CP introduces cupric ions into the polymer films, which leads to the increase of the doping ratio.

6.
Opt Express ; 27(18): 25595-25602, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510429

RESUMO

The absorption region of a water-based absorber was expanded by introducing tetramethylurea (TMU) into the inclusion, whose dielectric properties are tunable through the concentration of TMU. The dielectric spectroscopy of a TMU/water mixture was deconstructed using a Debye model. We designed a four-layer ultra-broadband microwave absorber with a supernatant micro-structure. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the absorber can achieve 90% perfect absorption, covering a broad frequency range of 4-40 GHz. The concentration dependence of the absorber was also studied experimentally and numerically. The concentration control provides a more practical and large frequency-region modulation of perfect absorption.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109403, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562977

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a most aggressive malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC are still completely unclear. LINC00473 is identified as a tumor promoter in many cancers. In this investigation, the function of LINC00473 was specifically focused on. We exhibited that LINC00473 was obviously elevated in HCC cells compared to QSG-7701 cells. Functionally, down-regulation of LINC00473 could prevent HCC cell viability and cell proliferation. For another, HCC cell colony formation capacity was greatly restrained while cell apoptosis was triggered by loss of LINC00473. Meanwhile, would-healing assay and transwell invasion experiments were employed in our present study. As demonstrated, we observed that HCC cell migratory and invasive ability were obviously suppressed by the silence of LINC00473. Apart from these, mechanistic investigations implied miR-195 was a sponge target of LINC00473. It is widely established miR-195 is a famous tumor inhibitory gene regulator in various cancers. Here, we confirmed the binding correlation between LINC00473 and miR-195 using RIP assay. Subsequently, in vivo experiments were employed and it was manifested that LINC00473 was able to promote HCC tumor growth via acting as a ceRNA to inhibit miR-195. HMGA2 is a kind of nuclear-binding protein and it is involved in various cancers. We predicted it as a target of miR-195 and we confirmed their correlation. In addition, HMGA2 was repressed by loss of LINC00473, which was rescued by miR-195 inhibitors. Then, we found that angiogenic fator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was inhibited by loss of LINC00473 whereas anti-angiogenic factor EPN2 was induced in vivo. Taken all these together, our study revealed the significance of LINC00473/miR-195/HMGA2 signaling axis for the first time in HCC progression. It was suggested the potential possibility of LINC00473 as an indicator for HCC.

8.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484148

RESUMO

For human-robot co-manipulation by robotic exoskeletons, the interaction forces provide a communication channel through which the human and the robot can coordinate their actions. In this article, an optimization approach for reshaping the physical interactive trajectory is presented in the co-manipulation tasks, which combines impedance control to enable the human to adjust both the desired and the actual trajectories of the robot. Different from previous studies, the proposed method significantly reshapes the desired trajectory during physical human-robot interaction (pHRI) based on force feedback, without requiring constant human guidance. The proposed scheme first formulates a quadratically constrained programming problem, which is then solved by neural dynamics optimization to obtain a smooth and minimal-energy trajectory similar to the natural human movement. Then, we propose an adaptive neural-network controller based on the barrier Lyapunov function (BLF), which enables the robot to handle the uncertain dynamics and the joint space constraints directly. To validate the proposed method, we perform experiments on the exoskeleton robot with human operators for co-manipulation tasks. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed controller could complete the co-manipulation tasks effectively.

9.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900343, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408587

RESUMO

SCOPE: Maternal obesity has been associated with increased placental lipotoxicity and impaired mitochondrial function. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an important regulator of both lipid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. The present study aims to determine whether supplementation of the maternal diet with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can decrease placental lipid deposition and improve antioxidant ability, in a SIRT1-dependent manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pregnant SIRT1+/- mice (mated with male SIRT1+/- ) are fed a high-fat diet consisting of 60% of the kcal from fat, or an equienergy EPA diet for 18.5 d. Supplementation with EPA significantly changes maternal plasma, placental and fetal fatty acid composition, and decreases placental and fetal lipid content. In addition, placental antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation products are increased, placental uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and PPARγ coactivator-1 α (PGC1α) expression are activated, and mitochondrial swelling decreases. While SIRT1 deficiency has little effect on placental fatty acid composition and lipid content, decreased fetal lipid deposition is observed, placental PGC1α expression decreases, mitochondrial swelling increases, and placental total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity increases. Both EPA and SIRT1 have no effect on BODIPY-FL-C16 uptake. Interestingly, there is no significant interaction between diet and genotype. CONCLUSION: Maternal EPA feeding decreases placental lipid deposition and improves placental oxidative stress homeostasis independent of SIRT1.

10.
Cell Prolif ; 52(5): e12635, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs are powerful regulators in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumorigenesis. MicoRNA-191 (miR-191) has been reported to play an important role in HCC, However, the regulatory mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-191 in HCC and studied its underlying mechanisms of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of miR-191 in HCC tissues was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The role of miR-191 in HCC cells was examined by using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Downstream targets of miR-191 were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dual-luciferase assays were performed to validate the interaction between miR-191 and its targets. RESULTS: The expression of miR-191 was significantly higher in HCC patients and a higher miR-191 expression predicted poorer prognosis. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data sets suggested that miR-191 positively correlated with cell cycle progression. Gain and loss of function assays showed that miR-191 promoted cell cycle progression and proliferation. Luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-191 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of KLF6 mRNA. Furthermore, circular RNA has_circ_0000204 could sponge with miR-191, resulting in inactivation of miR-191. CONCLUSIONS: Our study sheds light on the novel underlying mechanism of miR-191 in HCC, which may accelerate the development of cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Fator 6 Semelhante a Kruppel/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Humanos , Fator 6 Semelhante a Kruppel/química , Fator 6 Semelhante a Kruppel/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , RNA/genética , Transplante Heterólogo
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9036, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227774

RESUMO

In this paper, a broadband and tunable radar cross section (RCS) reduction structure is proposed by using the hybrid physical mechanism that is based on high-order reflections and Salisbury-type absorption. Our design combines the high-index grating structure with a traditional Salisbury screen in which the lossy sheet is made of a graphene structure. When it is illuminated by a plane wave with normal incidence, the Salisbury screen can absorb the incoming wave, and the introducing high-index grating structure could further reduce the backward scattering wave by generating high-order reflection beams, which broadens the RCS reduction bandwidth. In addition, the RCS reduction level can be dynamically controlled by tuning the surface resistance of the graphene layer. Simulated results show that the proposed structure can realize tunable RCS reduction between 4.1 and 18 GHz under normal incidence with different graphene resistances. Experimental results are in accordance with those of the simulation results. In addition, the scattering field distributions and the plots of surface power loss density have been illustrated to analyze the RCS-reduction mechanism of our structure.

12.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 116: 22-31, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153514

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), leading to about a million deaths each year. EspR is a DNA binding protein of Mtb which regulates expression of multiple genes and the activity of ESX-1 secretion system of the bacteria, with itself being secreted out as a substrate of ESX-1. We explored the function of secreted EspR in host cells by overexpressing the protein in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, infecting the cells with BCG which does not secrete EspR, and evaluating the antimicrobial responses of the cells. We found that EspR resulted in an increased intracellular bacteria load in macrophages. This is due to its inhibition on BCG induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as host cell apoptosis. Mechanism study showed that EspR directly interacted with adaptor protein myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), suppressed MyD88 dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL-1R signal activation, thus reduced inflammatory responses and apoptosis in macrophages and promoted mycobacteria survival.

13.
Opt Express ; 27(6): 9061-9070, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052715

RESUMO

Due to the strong capability to control electromagnetic (EM) wave, metasurfaces have garnered considerable interest and brought in many intriguing EM functional devices. However, most of such devices can only work in either transmitted or reflected mode, and it is still very challenging to achieve a simultaneous control of reflection and transmission in one device. Here, we present a cascaded metasurface which integrates the resonant and geometrical phase cells, to manipulate the transmitted and reflected wave independently. By specific design of phase distribution, the reflected and transmitted wavefront can be respectively reshaped on the shared aperture at two different frequency bands. As a proof of concept, a bidirectional beam deflector is realized by our metasurface and experimentally demonstrated at the microwave region. Both simulated and experimental results show that the transmitted and reflected beams can be simultaneously deflected to the predesigned angles. Furthermore, this metasurface exhibits isotropic EM responses under the different linear polarized wave in the reflected mode, while behaves anisotropic EM responses under the different circular polarized waves in the transmitted mode. Our approach provides a simple way to realize full-space EM manipulation, which could be developed for potential applications in mutlifunctional devices and integrated systems.

15.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(6): 1137-1143, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001930

RESUMO

Abdominal arterial aneurysm (AAA) shares many features with autoimmune diseases and appears to be a T-cell-mediated process. In addition, certain epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, are associated with AAA. In this study, we investigated epigenetic modifications in regulatory T cells (Tregs) from AAA patients. We used flow cytometry to sort FOXP3+ CD4+ CD25+ Tregs from the peripheral blood of AAA patients and from healthy controls (HC), and then detected DNA methylation and histone modifications by ELISA. The DNA methylation rate of Tregs was significantly higher in AAA patients than in the HC group (0.159 ± 0.08% vs 0.098 ± 0.03%, P < 0.05), while the acetylation rates of H3 and H3K9 histones were lower in the AAA than in the HC group. We also examined the expression of mRNA encoding enzymes that catalyze making and removing epigenetic modifications by real-time PCR: we found that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and DNMT3A were higher in the AAA than in the HC group, mRNA levels of methyl-CpG-binding domain protein (MBD) 2 and MBD4 were higher in the AAA than in the HC group (MBD2: 6.21 ± 2.57 vs 3.04 ± 1.45; MBD4: 7.76 ± 3.48 vs 4.97 ± 3.10; both P < 0.05), and mRNA levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 and HDAC5 were significantly up-regulated in the AAA compared with the HC group (HDAC1: 2.17 ± 1.18 vs 1.51 ± 0.99; HDAC5: 1.35 ± 0.49 vs 0.94 ± 0.76; both P < 0.05). Together, our results reveal that rates of DNA methylation and histone modifications of Tregs are significantly altered in AAA patients.

16.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 130: 10-22, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876857

RESUMO

The apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes critically contributes to cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important regulators for a variety of biological functions. Circ-Ttc3 represents one of the top highest expressed circRNAs in the heart; however, its role in MI remains unknown. Herein, we found that circ-Ttc3 was markedly upregulated in the ischemic myocardium and the cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxic insult. Forced expression of circ-Ttc3 in cardiomyocytes counteracted hypoxia-induced ATP depletion and apoptotic death, in sharp contrast to circ-Ttc3 knockdown. Accordingly, experiments with AAV9-cTnt-mediated knockdown of cardiac circ-Ttc3 in a rat model of MI recapitulated the in vitro findings, and showed the deterioration of cardiac dysfunction after MI. Furthermore, we identified that circ-Ttc3 sponged an endogenous miR-15b-5p to sequester and inhibit its activity, leading to the increased Arl2 expression. Conversely, knockdown of Arl2 partially abolished the beneficial effects of circ-Ttc3 overexpression on ATP production and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Thus, our findings revealed the cardioprotective role of circ-Ttc3 in MI. The miR-15b-Arl2 regulatory cascade underlies the protection against MI-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by circ-Ttc3.

17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 394-404, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734599

RESUMO

Mitochondria play important roles in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The SS peptide is a tetrapeptide that is located and accumulated in the inner mitochondrial membrane; it reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevents mitochondrial dysfunction. Podocytes are key cellular components in DKD progression. However, whether the SS peptide can exert renal protection through podocytes and the mechanism involved are unknown. In the present study, we explored the mechanisms of the SS peptide on podocyte injury in vivo and in vitro. Compared with the control group, the glomerular podocyte number and expression of WT1 were significantly reduced and TUNEL-positive podocytes were significantly increased in renal tissues in the diabetic rat. These effects were further exacerbated by hypochlorite-modified albumin (HOCl-alb) challenge but prevented by SS-31. In vitro, SS-31 blocked apoptosis in podocyte cell line induced by HOCl-alb. SS-31 prevented oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis signalling by HOCl-alb in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by the release of cytochrome c (cyt c), binding of apoptosis activated factor-1 (Apaf-1) and caspase-9, and activation of caspases. These data suggest that SS-31 may prevent podocyte apoptosis, exerting renal protection in diabetes mellitus, probably through an apoptosis-related signalling pathway involving oxidative stress and culminating in mitochondria.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
J Org Chem ; 84(6): 3201-3213, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776889

RESUMO

Dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of racemic aryl α-amino ß-ketoesters via Ru-diphosphine-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation was realized at 70 °C under 50 atm of hydrogen, affording syn α-amido ß-hydroxy esters in high yields (up to 96%) with high reactivity (TON up to 940) and diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to 99:1 dr, 98% ee). These hydrogenation products provide valuable chiral synthons in many natural products and pharmaceuticals. Gram-scale DKR asymmetric hydrogenation (DKR-AH) was also performed with retained reactivity and stereoselectivity, revealing the synthetic utility of this method.

19.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1976-1981, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779591

RESUMO

The vertical stacking of van der Waals (vdW) materials introduces a new degree of freedom to the research of two-dimensional (2D) systems. The interlayer coupling strongly influences the band structure of the heterostructures, resulting in novel properties that can be utilized for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Based on microwave microscopy studies, we report quantitative electrical imaging on gated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/tungsten diselenide (WSe2) heterostructure devices, which exhibit an intriguing antiambipolar effect in their transfer characteristics. Interestingly, in the region with significant source-drain current, electrons in the n-type MoS2 and holes in the p-type WSe2 segments are nearly balanced, whereas the heterostructure area is depleted of mobile charges. The spatial evolution of local conductance can be ascribed to the lateral band bending and formation of depletion regions along the line of MoS2-heterostructure-WSe2. Our work vividly demonstrates the microscopic origin of novel transport behaviors, which is important for the vibrant field of vdW heterojunction research.

20.
Europace ; 21(6): 950-960, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715302

RESUMO

AIMS: Mitral isthmus (MI) ablation is challenging. We hoped to close those conduction breakthrough sites (CBS) across the MI by elaborate mapping. METHODS AND RESULTS: After the initial linear ablation, elaborately mapping large areas above and below the MI line and inside the coronary sinus (CS) was sequentially performed to identify the CBS. The shortest distance from the CBS to the MI line was measured. The distant CBS (D-CBS) was identified as those CBS >5.0 mm away from the MI line. We prospectively enrolled 177 consecutive patients. Bidirectional conduction blockage across MI was obtained in 50 (28.2%) patients after the initial linear ablation and was achieved in additional 115 (65.0%) patients following elaborate mapping and reinforcement ablation. After initial linear ablation, 272 CBS (2.14 ± 0.99 CBS/person) were identified, and 226 (83.1%) of them were characterized as D-CBS, including 98 sites (36.0%) >10.0 mm and 39 sites (14.3%) >15.0 mm away. Endocardial and epicardial (CS) reinforcement ablation eliminated 119/272 (43.8%) and 58/272 (21.3%) CBS, respectively. Among the 177 eliminated CBS, 138 D-CBS (78.0%, 11.2 ± 5.6 mm) were confirmed in 95 (74.8%) patients. Moreover, CBS along the course of ligament of Marshall was closed by endocardial ablation more frequently than that along the course of great cardiac vein (52.6%% vs. 35.1%, P = 0.004). Eventually, CS ablation was required only in 64 (38.8%) patients. CONCLUSION: Distant CBS, accounted for the majorities of the residual conduction across the MI after initial ablation, could be effectively identified and accurately eliminated by elaborate mapping and ablation around the MI ablation line.

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