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1.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am ; 30(1): 109-120, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802574

RESUMO

Treatment strategies and recommended surveillance imaging differ for head and neck cancers depending on subsite and neoplasm type, and pose confusion for referring physicians and interpreting radiologists. The superior soft tissue resolution offered by magnetic resonance imaging is most useful in the surveillance of cancers with high propensities for intraorbital, intracranial, or perineural disease spread, which most commonly include those arising from the sinonasal cavities, nasopharynx, orbits, salivary glands, and the skin. This article discusses recommended surveillance protocoling and reviews treatment approaches, common posttreatment changes, and pearls for identifying disease recurrence in a subsite-based approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126717, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339992

RESUMO

Laboratory scale recycling of marine plastic litter consisting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle sorting, pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was conducted to identify the technical and environmental implications of the technology when dealing with real waste streams. Collected seashore and underwater plastics (SP and UP, respectively) contained large quantities of PET bottles (33.2 wt% and 61.4 wt%, respectively), suggesting PET separation was necessary prior to pyrolysis. After PET sorting, marine litter was converted into pyrolysis oil and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Water-based washing of litter prior to pyrolysis did not significantly change the composition of pyrolysis products and could be avoided, eliminating freshwater consumption. However, distinct differences in oil and MWCNT properties were ascribed to the variations in feedstock composition. Maintaining consistent product quality would be one of challenges for thermochemical treatment of marine litter. As for the environmental implications, life cycle assessment (LCA) demonstrated positive benefits, including improved climate change and fossil depletion potentials. The highest positive environmental impacts were associated with MWCNT production followed by pyrolysis oil and PET recovery. The benefits of proposed approach combining PET sorting, pyrolysis and CVD allowed to close the waste loop by converting most of the marine litter into valuable products.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Plásticos , Laboratórios , Polietilenotereftalatos , Reciclagem
4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 712398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859062

RESUMO

Background: Dingji Fumai Decoction (DFD), a traditional herbal mixture, has been widely used to treat arrhythmia in clinical practice in China. However, the exploration of the active components and underlying mechanism of DFD in treating atrial fibrillation (AF) is still scarce. Methods: Compounds of DFD were collected from TCMSP, ETCM, and literature. The targets of active compounds were explored using SwissTargetPrediction. Meanwhile, targets of AF were collected from DrugBank, TTD, MalaCards, TCMSP, DisGeNET, and OMIM. Then, the H-C-T-D and PPI networks were constructed using STRING and analyzed using CytoNCA. Meanwhile, VarElect was utilized to detect the correlation between targets and diseases. Next, Metascape was employed for systematic analysis of the mechanism of potential targets and protein complexes in treating AF. AutoDock Vina, Pymol, and Discovery Studio were applied for molecular docking. Finally, the main findings were validated through molecular biology experiments. Results: A total of 168 active compounds and 1,093 targets of DFD were collected, and there were 89 shared targets between DFD and AF. H-C-T-D network showed the relationships among DFD, active compounds, targets, and AF. Three functional protein complexes of DFD were extracted from the PPI network. Further systematic analysis revealed that the regulation of cardiac oxidative stress, cardiac inflammation, and cardiac ion channels were the potential mechanism of DFD in treating AF. Addtionally, molecular docking verified the interactions between active compounds and targets. Finally, we found that DFD significantly increased the level of SIRT1 and reduced the levels of ACE, VCAM-1, and IL-6. Conclusions: DFD could be utilized in treating AF through a complicated mechanism, including interactions between related active compounds and targets, promoting the explanation and understanding of the molecular biological mechanism of DFD in the treatment of AF.

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; : 183828, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861222

RESUMO

Phenylthiosemicarbazones (PTSCs) are proton-coupled anion transporters with pH-switchable behaviour known to be regulated by an imine protonation equilibrium. Previously, chloride/nitrate exchange by PTSCs was found to be inactive at pH 7.2 due to locking of the thiourea anion binding site by an intramolecular hydrogen bond, and switched ON upon imine protonation at pH 4.5. The rate-determining process of the pH switch, however, was not examined. We here develop a new series of PTSCs and demonstrate their conformational behaviour by X-ray crystallographic analysis and pH-switchable anion transport properties by liposomal assays. We report the surprising finding that the protonated PTSCs are extremely selective for halides over oxyanions in membrane transport. Owing to the high chloride over nitrate selectivity, the pH-dependent chloride/nitrate exchange of PTSCs originates from the rate-limiting nitrate transport process being inhibited at neutral pH.

6.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 103, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719679

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the genetic factors partly influence the development of same-sex sexual behavior, but most genetic studies have focused on people of primarily European ancestry, potentially missing important biological insights. Here, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a total sample of 1478 homosexual males and 3313 heterosexual males in Han Chinese populations and identified two genetic loci (rs17320865, Xq27.3, FMR1NB, Pmeta = 8.36 × 10-8, OR = 1.29; rs7259428, 19q12, ZNF536, Pmeta = 7.58 × 10-8, OR = 0.75) showing consistent association with male sexual orientation. A fixed-effect meta-analysis including individuals of Han Chinese (n = 4791) and European ancestries (n = 408,995) revealed 3 genome-wide significant loci of same-sex sexual behavior (rs9677294, 2p22.1, SLC8A1, Pmeta = 1.95 × 10-8; rs2414487, 15q21.3, LOC145783, Pmeta = 4.53 × 10-9; rs2106525, 7q31.1, MDFIC, Pmeta = 6.24 × 10-9). These findings may provide new insights into the genetic basis of male sexual orientation from a wider population scope. Furthermore, we defined the average ZNF536-immunoreactivity (ZNF536-ir) concentration in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) as lower in homosexual individuals than in heterosexual individuals (0.011 ± 0.001 vs 0.021 ± 0.004, P = 0.013) in a postmortem study. In addition, compared with heterosexuals, the percentage of ZNF536 stained area in the SCN was also smaller in the homosexuals (0.075 ± 0.040 vs 0.137 ± 0.103, P = 0.043). More homosexual preference was observed in FMR1NB-knockout mice and we also found significant differences in the expression of serotonin, dopamine, and inflammation pathways that were reported to be related to sexual orientation when comparing CRISPR-mediated FMR1NB knockout mice to matched wild-type target C57 male mice.

7.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834512

RESUMO

In the past few years, we have demonstrated the efficacy of a nanoparticle system, super carbonate apatite (sCA), for the in vivo delivery of siRNA/miRNA. Intravenous injection of sCA loaded with small RNAs results in safe, high tumor delivery in mouse models. To further improve the efficiency of tumor delivery and avoid liver toxicity, we successfully developed an inorganic nanoparticle device (iNaD) via high-frequency ultrasonic pulverization combined with PEG blending during the production of sCA. Compared to sCA loaded with 24 µg of miRNA, systemic administration of iNaD loaded with 0.75 µg of miRNA demonstrated similar delivery efficiency to mouse tumors with little accumulation in the liver. In the mouse therapeutic model, iNaD loaded with 3 µg of the tumor suppressor small RNA MIRTX resulted in an improved anti-tumor effect compared to sCA loaded with 24 µg. Our findings on the bio-distribution and therapeutic effect of iNaD provide new perspectives for future nanomedicine engineering.

8.
Zookeys ; 1070: 13-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819768

RESUMO

Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are widely used in research studies on phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the mitogenome of the scentless plant bug Myrmuslateralis Hsiao, 1964 (Heteroptera, Rhopalidae). The complete 17,309 bp genome encoded 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a control region. The mitogenome revealed a high A+T content (75.8%), a positive AT-skew (0.092), and a negative GC-skew (-0.165). All 13 PCGs were found to start with ATN codons, except for cox1, in which TTG was the start codon. The Ka/Ks ratios of 13 PCGs were all lower than 1, indicating that purifying selection evolved in these genes. All tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 and trnV, which lack dihydrouridine arms. Phylogenetic trees were constructed and analyzed based on the PCG+rRNA from 38 mitogenomes, using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, showed that M.lateralis and Chorosomamacilentum Stål, 1858 grouped together in the tribe Chorosomatini. In addition, Coreoidea and Pyrrhocoroidea were sister groups among the superfamilies of Trichophora, and Rhopalidae was a sister group to Alydidae + Coreidae.

9.
Org Lett ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822247

RESUMO

The application of a C(vinyl), C(aryl)-palladacycle from vinyl-containing substrates is challenging due to the interference of a reactive double bond in palladium catalysis. This Letter describes a [4 + 2] or [4 + 3] cyclization based on a C(vinyl), C(aryl)-palladacycle by employing α-oxocarboxylic acids as the insertion units under a palladium/air system. The reaction proceeded through the key vinyl C-H activation and dual decarboxylation sequence, forming phenanthrenes and cyclohepta[1,2,3-de]naphthalenes regioselectively in good yields. The synthetic versatility of this protocol is highlighted by the gram-scale synthesis and synthesizing functional material molecule.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(94): 12619-12622, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757362

RESUMO

Four novel two-dimensional porphyrin COFs (M-TP-COF, M = H2, Co, Ni and Mn) with donor-acceptor dyads were fabricated and served as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The ORR catalytic activity of M-TP-COF was tuned by changing the M atom in the center of the porphyrin backbone. The experimental structure-function relationship was in accordance with the results of density functional theory calculations based on the O2-O2*-OOH*-O*-OH*-OH- route.

11.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(11): 1058-64, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812025

RESUMO

NOD-like receptor protein 1 (NLRP1) inflammasome plays an important role in the innate immune response of human body. It can promote the activation of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinases(Caspases), further activate interleukin-18 and interleukin-1 ß, and mediate pyroptosis. NlRP1 inflammasome plays a role in traumatic central nervous system injury. In this study, the structure of NLRP1 inflammasome, the activation of NLRP1 inflammasome in traumatic central nervous system injury and the treatment with NLRP1 inflammasome as a target are reviewed.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/lesões , Inflamassomos , Proteínas NLR , Humanos , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771105

RESUMO

To evaluate the important Vitis amurensis germplasm, the quality characteristics and anthocyanin profiles of the ripe berries of 20 V. amurensis grapes and 11 interspecific hybrids in two consecutive years were analysed. Compared with the V. vinifera grapes, V. amurensis grapes had small berries with low total soluble solids and high titratable acids, and were richer in phenolic compounds except for flanan-3-ols in their skins but had lower phenolic contents in their seeds and showed lower antioxidant activities. An outstanding feature of the V. amurensis grapes was their abundant anthocyanin contents, which was 8.18-fold higher than the three wine grapes of V. vinifera. The anthocyanin composition of V. amurensis was characterized by an extremely high proportion of diglucoside anthocyanins (91.71%) and low acylated anthocyanins (0.04%). Interestingly, a new type of speculated 3,5,7-O-triglucoside anthocyanins was first identified and only detected in V. amurensis grapes and hybrids. Based on the total phenolic and anthocyanin characteristics, V. amurensis grapes were set apart from V. vinifera cultivars and the interspecific hybrids, for the same qualities, fell between them, as assessed by principal component analysis.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22685, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811470

RESUMO

Elastic waves have different attenuation laws when propagating in various materials, which is one of the important challenges in the application of non-destructive testing methods, such as acoustic emission (AE) technology in geotechnical engineering. The study presented in this paper investigated the influence mechanism of concrete composition materials and parameters on the propagation law of elastic waves using concrete specimens produced in six different particle sizes of sand or gravel. The burst AE signal was generated through the lead-breaking experiment, and ceramic piezoelectric sensors were used to record the signal waveform at different propagation distances. Through parameter analysis, spectrum analysis, and pattern recognition techniques, the influence of the concrete aggregate particle size on AE wave propagation and attenuation was revealed. The results show that the attenuation of elastic wave amplitude, energy spectral density, and frequency all were positively correlated with the aggregate particle size, and the elastic wave spectrum center of gravity generally decreased with the propagation distance. The ring count gradually decreased with the propagation distance, and the specimens with a larger aggregate particle size underwent a relatively faster ring count attenuation rate. The rise time increased rapidly with the propagation of the elastic wave, and the specimens with a larger aggregate particle size experienced a relatively rapid increase in rise time. In addition, in the feature spaces of ring count-amplitude and rise time-amplitude, the size of aggregate has an obvious influence on the distribution of these feature vector.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813475

RESUMO

An infographic is a type of visualization chart that displays pieces of information through information blocks. Existing information block detection work utilizes spatial proximity to group elements into several information blocks. However, prior studies ignore the chromatic and structural features of the infographic, resulting in incorrect omissions when detecting information blocks. To alleviate this kind of error, we use a scene graph to represent an infographic and propose a graph-based information block detection model to group elements based on Gestalt Organization Principles (spatial proximity, chromatic similarity, and structural similarity principle). We also construct a new dataset for information block detection. Quantitative and qualitative experiments show that our model can detect the information blocks in the infographic more effectively compared with the spatial proximity-based method.

15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838858

RESUMO

Cotton fibers mainly consist of cellulose biological macromolecule, and its exceedingly flammable nature has severely restricted its application in the fields requiring flame retardancy. To endow cotton fabric with excellent flame retardancy and superior durability, a high-efficiency durable flame retardant (THPO-P) with ammonium phosphate ester and phosphine oxide groups was synthesized and chemically bonded to cotton fabric through padding-baking method. THPO-P showed high flame-retardant efficiency, and the add-on of 5.9% was sufficient to prepare cotton fabric with self-extinguished feature. With the add-on of 19.9%, treated fabric possessed excellent fire safety and durability. The total heat release and peak heat release rate values reduced by 77.1% and 91.8% in contrast to pristine fabric, respectively. Its LOI value still reached up to 33.4% even after 50 laundering cycles, which was far beyond the flame-retardant standard. THPO-P played flame-retardant role by restraining the release of flammable volatiles, liberating nonflammable gases and promoting the char formation during combustion. The flame-retardant treatment deteriorated the tensile strength, whiteness and softness of cotton fabric.

16.
MedComm (2020) ; 2(1): 60-68, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766136

RESUMO

PD-1/PD-L1 (programmed cell death-1 and programmed death-ligand 1) inhibitors utilization in neoadjuvant therapy has been assessed in tumors. This study focused on the clinical benefits of neoadjuvant anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. A comprehensive search was conducted in electronic databases to identify eligible studies. Major response rate (MRR) and complete response rate (CRR) were pooled in this analysis to assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant anti-PD-1/PD-L1 utilization, all grades and high-grade adverse events (AEs) were pooled to evaluate its safety. Twenty studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 828 patients suffering from different tumors. The pooled CRR of triple-negative breast cancer was 0.569 (95% CI 0.514, 0.624, I 2 = 0%) and the pooled MRR of lung cancer was 0.471 (95% CI 0.267, 0.575, I 2 = 0%). The most frequent adverse event was fatigue (0.272 95% CI 0.171, 0.402, I 2 = 87%), and the most common high-grade adverse event was febrile neutropenia (0.084 95% CI 0.063, 0.112, I 2 = 85%). In conclusion, neoadjuvant anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy received satisfactory clinical results in these tumors included.

17.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(11)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779761

RESUMO

Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance associated with animal hosts is easily transmitted to humans either by direct contact with resistant organisms or by transferring resistance genes into human pathogens.Gap statement. There are limited studies on antimicrobial resistance genes and genetic elements of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in veterinary hospitals in Taiwan.Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli from animals.Methodology. Between January 2014 and August 2015, 95 multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from pigs (n=66), avians (n=18), and other animals (n=11) in a veterinary hospital in Taiwan. Susceptibility testing to 24 antimicrobial agents of 14 antimicrobial classes was performed. Antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons, and insertion sequences were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multi-locus sequence typing were used to explore the clonal relatedness of the study isolates.Results. Different antimicrobial resistance genes found in these isolates were associated with resistance to ß-lactams, tetracycline, phenicols, sulfonamides, and aminoglycosides. Fifty-five of 95 E. coli isolates (55/95, 57.9 %) were not susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and bla CTX-M-55 (11/55, 20.0 %) and bla CMY-2 (40/55, 72.7 %) were the most common extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, respectively. Both bla CTX-M and bla CMY-2 were present on conjugative plasmids that contained the insertion sequence ISEcp1 upstream of the bla genes. Plasmid-mediated FOX-3 ß-lactamase-producing E. coli was first identified in Taiwan. Forty isolates (40/95, 42 %) with class 1 integrons showed seven resistance phenotypes. Genotyping of 95 E. coli isolates revealed 91 different XbaI pulsotypes and 52 different sequence types. PFGE analysis revealed no clonal outbreaks in our study isolates.Conclusion. This study showed a high diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes and genotypes among MDR E. coli isolated from diseased livestock in Taiwan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of plasmid-mediated ESBL in FOX-3 ß-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates in Taiwan. MDR E. coli isolates from animal origins may contaminate the environment, resulting in public health concerns, indicating that MDR isolates from animals need to be continuously investigated.

18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 742944, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722294

RESUMO

We aimed to identify a signature comprising N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and molecular subtypes associated with breast cancer (BRCA). We obtained data of BRCA samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The m6A-related lncRNA prognostic signature (m6A-LPS) included 10 lncRNAs previously identified as prognostic m6A-related lncRNAs and was constructed using integrated bioinformatics analysis and validated. Accordingly, a risk score based on the m6A-LPS signature was established and shown to confirm differences in survival between high-risk and low-risk groups. Three distinct genotypes were identified, whose characteristics included features of the tumor immune microenvironment in each subtype. Our results indicated that patients in Cluster 2 might have a worse prognostic outcome than those in other clusters. The three genotypes and risk subgroups were enriched in different biological processes and pathways, respectively. We then constructed a competing endogenous RNA network based on the prognostic m6A-related lncRNAs. Finally, we validated the expression levels of target lncRNAs in 72 clinical samples. In summary, the m6A-LPS and the potentially novel genotype may provide a theoretical basis for further study of the molecular mechanism of BRCA and may provide novel insights into precision medicine.

19.
Front Genet ; 12: 721419, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737763

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer remains to have a high mortality, which is partly due to the lack of effective treatment strategies. In this study, genes with potential associations with immunophenotyping of pancreatic cancer were screened through bioinformatics analysis and the correlation between immune-related genes and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients was assessed. Firstly, differentially expressed immune genes were extracted from the pancreatic cancer-related datasets obtained for purposes of this study. The samples were processed by the "Consensus Cluster Plus" R package to determine the number of immune subtypes. Then, the pancreatic cancer immunophenotyping-related gene modules were determined. Differential analysis of immune gene modules was performed, and the function of genes related to pancreatic cancer immune subtypes was identified. The number of immune cells in the samples was calculated, followed by the differential expression analysis of immune cell numbers in each immune subtype of pancreatic cancer. The immune infiltration score was also estimated, and the correlation between the immune infiltration score and the patient prognosis with different immune subtypes was determined. Gene differences between each immune subtype were identified by differential expression analysis, and key immune genes affecting immunophenotyping were obtained. Following the analysis, 426 immune-related genes were identified to have potential involvement in the occurrence and development of pancreatic cancer, of which CD19 may be the most critical gene affecting the immunophenotyping of pancreatic cancer. CD19 played a significant role in the occurrence and development of IS2 and IS3 immune subtypes of pancreatic cancer through its action on B cells and T cells. Moreover, the expression of CD19 was increased in the collected pancreatic cancer tissues. Overall, our findings uncovered the critical role of CD19 in the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 747646, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745012

RESUMO

Obesity, especially central obesity, is a strong risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism underlying the progression from central obesity to T2D remains unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the gut microbial profiles of central obese individuals with or without T2D from a Chinese population. Here we reported both the microbial compositional and gene functional alterations during the progression from central obesity to T2D. Several opportunistic pathogens were enriched in obese T2D patients. We also characterized thousands of genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism whose abundance were significantly depleted in obese T2D group. Moreover, the abundance of those genes was negatively associated with plasma glycemia level and percentage of individuals with impaired plasma glucose status. Therefore, our study indicates that the abundance of those depleted genes can be used as a potential biomarker to identify central obese individuals with high risks of developing T2D.

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