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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 601: 727-733, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091319

RESUMO

Supercapacitors are high power energy storage devices, however, their application are remain limited by the low energy density. Developing high capacity electrode materials and constructing devices with high operating voltage are effective ways to solve this problem. Herein, performance of polyaniline (PANI) electrode materials is dramatically enhanced by engineering robust PANI/carbon interfaces, through assembling PANI nanorod array on rose petals derived carbon network (RPDCN). The structure of the PANI is optimized by adjusting the concentration of the aniline precursor. The unique structure enables the prepared PANI/RPDCN composite show a high capacitance of 636 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, based on the total weight of PANI and RPDCN substrate. The robust interface effectively prolonged the composite electrode stably cycled for over 2000 cycles at 2 A g-1 with a capacity retention of 89%. When coupled with a hexagonal tungsten oxide (h-WO3) anode, a high-power asymmetric proton supercapacitor with high energy densities (29.0 Wh kg-1/0.61 kW kg-1 and 21.4 Wh kg-1/19.51 kW kg-1) was assembled. This work provides an effective and eco-friendly route toward superior PANI electrodes and proposes a promising high-power energy storage system using proton as working ion.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 4447-4452, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955771

RESUMO

The contact, and thus the hole collection between Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and Mo, is a crucial issue to improve the performance of CZTSe solar cells. In this work, a method to improve the back contact is explored by spraying Na3PO4 on the surface of the Mo back contact. With the O provided from Na3PO4, extra MoO2 and MoO3 are formed at the surface of the back contact, and partial MoO2 is transformed into MoSe2 under high Se2 partial pressure during the selenization process. The formation of MoSe2 progresses from dispersed spots to a continuous layer but not from the reaction between CZTSe and Mo. Although a thick MoSe2 layer is formed, the CZTSe device performance increases from 7.2% to 8.3% on average. This study affords new insight into the formation of MoSe2, thus deeply strengthening the understanding of the back contact of kesterite solar cells and of two-dimensional chalcogenide devices.

3.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 230: 106762, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022609

RESUMO

There are recent reports of the important functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in female reproductive and ovarian development. Studies in which there was characterization of lncRNAs in the ovaries of laying compared with nesting poultry, however, are limited. In this study, RNA libraries were constructed by obtaining sequencing data of ovarian tissues from laying and nesting Muscovy ducks. In the ovarian tissues of Muscovy ducks, a total of 334 differentially abundant mRNA transcripts (DEGs) and 36 differentially abundant lncRNA transcripts were identified in the nesting period, when compared with during the laying period. These results were subsequently validated by qRT-PCR using nine randomly-selected lncRNAs and six randomly-selected DAMTs. Furthermore, the cis- and trans-regulatory target genes of differentially abundant lncRNA transcripts were identified, and lncRNA-gene interaction networks of 34 differentially abundant lncRNAs and 263 DEGs were constructed. A total of 7601 lncRNAs neighboring 10,542 protein-coding genes were identified and found to be enriched in the Wnt signaling pathway and oocyte meiosis pathways associated with follicular development. Overall, only 11 cis-targets and 57 mRNA-mRNA except trans-targets were involved in the lncRNA-gene interaction networks. Based on the interaction networks, nine DEGs were trans-regulated by differentially abundant lncRNAs and 20 differentially abundant lncRNAs were hypothesized to have important functions in the regulation of broodiness in Muscovy ducks. In this study, a predicted interaction network of differentially abundant lncRNAs and DEGs in Muscovy ducks was constructed for the first time leading to an enhanced understanding of lncRNA and gene interactions regulating broodiness.

4.
Analyst ; 146(12): 3888-3898, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042921

RESUMO

Chiral drugs are drugs with chiral or asymmetric centres in their molecular structure. Different enantiomers of the same chiral drug have noticeably different pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic properties. However, its distinction has been perplexing scholars for many years in the qualitative and quantitative detection of antagonistic drugs. Conventional detection methods, such as polarimetry, circular dichroism, and high-performance liquid chromatography, are time consuming, cause sample loss and have cumbersome operations, and they can be applied only to the sampling method. In this paper, we propose a fast, accurate, qualitative and quantitative method for the study of chiral drugs based on linearly polarized terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging technology. Taking ibuprofen as an example, based on the THz absorption spectra of the enantiomers RS-ibuprofen, (R)-(-)-ibuprofen, and (S)-(+)-ibuprofen, their characteristic peak frequencies, peak amplitude differences and peak area differences were extracted to qualitatively and quantitatively distinguish and identify the three substances. THz spectral imaging provides more intuitive results than those obtained from previous methods. In quantitative identification, the stability and detection accuracy of THz spectroscopy are much greater than those of Raman spectroscopy (88.8-99.8% vs. 21.42-94.62%, respectively). The qualitative recognition accuracy was 100%, and the quantitative recognition standard deviation was less than 0.01, and it is also a non-destructive testing method. Furthermore, the above method combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and the support vector machine (SVM) neural network classification algorithm was applied to the analysis of other chiral drugs. These results are significant for the rapid, accurate and non-destructive identification of chiral drugs.

5.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130566, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932904

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of rice husk dose and pyrolysis temperature on the phosphorus (P) fractions and environmental risk of heavy metals in biochar co-pyrolyzed from sewage sludge and rice husk. Biochar properties were analyzed, and the transformation of P and heavy metals speciation during co-pyrolysis were also discussed. Co-pyrolysis of raw sludge and rice husk (10-50 wt%) could increase the carbonization degree and stability of biochar at 500 °C. The organic P (OP) in raw sludge (68 wt%) was transformed to inorganic P (IP) during co-pyrolysis, indicating that the addition of rice husk could improve biochar-P bioavailability by promoting the transformation of IP. The IP content increased from 71.5 wt% of sludge biochar to 92 wt% of blended biochar (50 wt% sludge and 50 wt% rice husk) at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C. With the mass ratio of sludge to rice husk of 5:5, the OP content decreased from 3 mg g-1 to 0.75 mg g-1 as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 °C to 700 °C. The 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that P species in biochar mainly existed as orthophosphate, which can be directly taken up by plants. After co-pyrolysis, the toxicity and mobility of heavy metals gradually decreased with increasing rice husk dose and pyrolysis temperature. The study indicates that co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and rice husk could be a promising P reuse strategy.

6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 3763-3782, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) so far is unclear. The present systematic review aimed to determine the influence of Tai Chi among people with COPD. METHODS: We searched six electronic databases for relevant studies in September, 2019. The methods of standard meta-analysis were used for identifying relevant studies, quality appraisal, and synthesis. The primary outcomes were six-minute walking distance (6MWD), percentage predicted forced expiratory flow volume in the first second (%PredFEV1), and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies including 1663 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that the Tai Chi group was associated with a significant improvement in 6MWD [mean difference (MD) 40.83 m, 95% CI: 32.47 to 49.19], %PredFEV1 (MD 1.67%, 95% CI: 0.41 to 2.93), SGRQ score (MD -6.57, 95% CI: -10.17 to -2.98), and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 0.89 to 2.30) relative to the blank control population. When compared with breathing exercises, the 6MWD was significantly enhanced with Tai Chi (MD 14.15 m, 95% CI: 3.76 to 24.53). Finally, when compared with breathing and walking exercises, Tai Chi was associated with a significant improvement in 6MWD (MD 7.68 m, 95% CI: 2.28 to 13.09 m) and SGRQ score (MD -6.31, 95% CI: -9.13 to -1.48). CONCLUSIONS: Tai Chi may have the potential to reduce dyspnoea, enhance exercise capacity, and improve the quality of life in COPD patients. People with COPD may obtain benefit from practicing Tai Chi.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Tai Ji , Dispneia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 264: 117978, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910754

RESUMO

Hydrogels have been widely used for various applications, and thus addressing the challenges associated with the design of sustainable hydrogels has become an important issue. However, little attention has been devoted toward the design of crosslinkers which are often toxic, lack self-healing capabilities, and derived from petrochemicals. Herein, novel cyclodextrin topological nanoparticles (TNPs) have been constructed. These TNPs were found to possess crosslinking capabilities and the corresponding TNPs-crosslinked hydrogels showed excellent mechanical performances with a high stretchability of 1860 % and stress of 180 kPa and good anti-fatigue abilities. These hydrogels could be readily recycled and used for modular assembly and disassembly in various shapes and could serve as flexible strain sensors to monitor human activities with a sensing range of 0-1800 %, controllable sensitivity, and good fatigue resistance. These topological nanoparticles can inspire the design of novel physical crosslinkers for novel flexible strain sensors, tough and self-healing hydrogels, and soft robotics.

8.
Autophagy ; : 1-14, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904341

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Owing to their distinct circular structure, circRNAs are stable in cells. Autophagy is a catabolic process that helps in the degradation and recycling of harmful or inessential biological macromolecules in cells and enables cells to adapt to stress and changes in the internal and external environments. Evidence has shown that circRNAs influence the course of a disease by regulating autophagy, which indicates that autophagy is involved in the onset and development of various diseases and can affect drug resistance (for example, it affects cisplatin resistance in tumors). In this review, we summarized the role of circRNAs in autophagy and their influence on disease onset and progression as well as drug resistance. The review will expand our understanding of tumors as well as cardiovascular and neurological diseases and also suggest novel therapeutic strategies.Abbreviations: ACR: autophagy-related circRNA; ADSCs: adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy related; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; BECN1: beclin 1; ceRNA: competing endogenous RNA; circRNA: circular RNA; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; EPCs: endothelial progenitor cells; LE/MVBs: late endosomes/multivesicular bodies; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NSCLC: non-small cell lung cancer; PDLSCs: periodontal ligament stem cells; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PtdIns: phosphatidylinositol; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 1,2-dipalmitoyl; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; RBPs: RNA-binding proteins; SiO2: silicon dioxide; TFEB: transcription factor EB; ULK: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897701

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The efficacy of immunotherapy usually depends on the interaction of immunomodulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This study aimed to explore the potential stromal-immune score-based prognostic genes related to immunotherapy in HCC through bioinformatics analysis. Methods: ESTIMATE algorithm was applied to calculate the immune/stromal/Estimate scores and tumor purity of HCC using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptome data. Functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was analyzed by the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery database (DAVID). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis were performed for prognostic gene screening. The expression and prognostic value of these genes were further verified by KM-plotter database and the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database. The correlation of the selected genes and the immune cell infiltration were analyzed by single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) algorithm and Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER). Results: Data analysis revealed that higher immune/stromal/Estimate scores were significantly associated with better survival benefits in HCC within 7 years, while the tumor purity showed a reverse trend. DEGs based on both immune and stromal scores primarily affected the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway. Among the DEGs, three genes (CASKIN1, EMR3, and GBP5) were found most significantly associated with survival. Moreover, the expression levels of CASKIN1, EMR3, and GBP5 genes were significantly correlated with immune/stromal/Estimate scores or tumor purity and multiple immune cell infiltration. Among them, GBP5 genes were highly related to immune infiltration. Conclusion: This study identified three key genes which were related to the TME and had prognostic significance in HCC, which may be promising markers for predicting immunotherapy outcomes.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 595: 43-50, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813223

RESUMO

Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2, have been considered to be a promising anode material for sodium storage. However, their performance have been limited by the sluggish sodium diffusion kinetics. In this work, high performance anode material was obtained through constructing hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets assembled hollow spheres. The used self-templating method show more feasibility than the commonly reported template removal-involved routes. The prepared hollow structure can also provide rapid and stable electron/sodium ion transport without the assistance of conducting substrates, which enables the MoS2 anodes exhibit a high specific capacity of 527 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1. Even at a high current density of 1 A g-1, capacity of 357 mAh g-1 can still be obtained after 500 cycles (capacity retention ~94.5%). This work provides a facile way towards high performance MoS2 anode materials for sodium-ion battery.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658753, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859650

RESUMO

This review provides insight into the role of engineered T-cell receptors (TCRs) in immunotherapy. Novel approaches have been developed to boost anticancer immune system, including targeting new antigens, manufacturing new engineered or modified TCRs, and creating a safety switch for endo-suicide genes. In order to re-activate T cells against tumors, immune-mobilizing monoclonal TCRs against cancer (ImmTAC) have been developed as a novel class of manufactured molecules which are bispecific and recognize both cancer and T cells. The TCRs target special antigens such as NY-ESO-1, AHNAKS2580F or ERBB2H473Y to boost the efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy. The safety of genetically modified T cells is very important. Therefore, this review discusses pros and cons of different approaches, such as ImmTAC, Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), and inducible caspase-9 in cancer immunotherapy. Clinical trials related to TCR-T cell therapy and monoclonal antibodies designed for overcoming immunosuppression, and recent advances made in understanding how TCRs are additionally examined. New approaches that can better detect antigens and drive an effective T cell response are discussed as well.

12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(4): 1079-1087, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867830

RESUMO

Fibrinogen-associated protein (FREP) family is a family of proteins with a fibrin domain at the carboxyl terminus. Recent investigations illustrated that two members of FREP family, fibrinogen-like protein-1 (FGL1) and fibrinogen-like protein-2 (FGL2), play crucial roles in cancer by regulating the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells, or regulating the functions of immune cells in tumor microenvironment. Meanwhile, they are potential targets for medical intervention of tumor development. In this review, we discussed the structure, and the roles of FGL1 and FGL2 in tumors, especially the roles in regulating immune cell functions.

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 599734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738265

RESUMO

Objectives: Several reports suggesting that the intestinal microbiome plays a key role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or colorectal cancer (CRC), but the changes of intestinal bacteria in healthy people, patients with IBD and CRC are not fully explained. The study aimed to investigate changes of intestinal bacteria in healthy subjects, patients with IBD, and patients with CRC. Materials: We collected data from the European Nucleotide Archive on healthy people and patients with colorectal cancer with the study accession number PRJEB6070, PRJEB7774, PRJEB27928, PRJEB12449, and PRJEB10878, collected IBD patient data from the Integrated Human Microbiome Project from the Human Microbiome Project Data Portal. We performed metagenome-wide association studies on the fecal samples from 290 healthy subjects, 512 IBD patients, and 285 CRC patients. We used the metagenomics dataset to study bacterial community structure, relative abundance, functional prediction, differentially abundant bacteria, and co-occurrence networks. Results: The bacterial community structure in both IBD and CRC was significantly different from healthy subjects. Our results showed that IBD patients had low intestinal bacterial diversity and CRC patients had high intestinal bacterial diversity compared to healthy subjects. At the phylum level, the relative abundance of Firmicutes in IBD decreased significantly, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased significantly. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Bacteroides in IBD was higher than in healthy people and CRC. Compared with healthy people and CRC, the main difference of intestinal bacteria in IBD patients was Bacteroidetes, and compared with healthy people and IBD, the main difference of intestinal bacteria in CRC patients was in Fusobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria. The main differences in the functional composition of intestinal bacteria in healthy people, IBD and CRC patients were L-homoserine and L-methionine biosynthesis, 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II, L-methionine biosynthesis I, and superpathway of L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-methionine biosynthesis I. The results of stratified showed that the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria involved in metabolic pathways has significantly changed. Besides, the association network of intestinal bacteria in healthy people, IBD, and CRC patients has also changed. Conclusions: In conclusion, compared with healthy people, the taxonomic and functional composition of intestinal bacteria in IBD and CRC patients was significantly changed.

14.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 3142-3158, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729231

RESUMO

Rhodiola species are edible medicinal plants, which have been traditionally used in both Asia and Europe as an adaptogen, a tonic, an anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory supplement. However, whether it presents a therapeutic effect on colitis or not remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of a Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE) on mice with DSS-induced colitis. RCE significantly alleviated the pathological abnormalities in colitic mice, including the correspondingly increased colon length, ameliorated colonic injury and reduced pro-inflammatory factors. The protective effect was similar to that of the positive control, 5-aminosalicylic acid. The DSS-induced epithelial apoptosis and maintained intestinal barrier function were attenuated by RCE through the upregulation of the level of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1 and occludin. Notably, RCE prevented gut dysbiosis in colitic mice by restoring the microbial richness and diversity, and decreasing the abundance of Proteobacteria phylum and opportunistic pathogenic Parasutterella and Staphylococcus, as well as increasing the abundance of beneficial microbes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which were closely correlated with its protective effect against colitis. Meanwhile, chemical characterization of RCE was performed by UPLC-HR-MS to explain its material basis. A total of 63 compounds were identified, while the content of two bioactive ingredients (salidroside, 1.81%; rosavin, 0.034%) was determined.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rhodiola , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Sulfato de Dextrana , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 628168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717152

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated neurocognitive impairment is mainly caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-triggered neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Previous study has demonstrated that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) was pivotal for hypoxia-related tissue injury. As a cytosolic multiprotein complex that participates in various inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, NLRP3 inflammasome could be activated by mtROS and thereby affected by the mitochondria-selective autophagy. However, the role of NLRP3 and possible mitophagy mechanism in CIH-elicited neuroinflammation remain to be elucidated. Compared with wild-type mice, NLRP3 deficiency protected them from CIH-induced neuronal damage, as indicated by the restoration of fear-conditioning test results and amelioration of neuron apoptosis. In addition, NLRP3 knockout mice displayed the mitigated microglia activation that elicited by CIH, concomitantly with elimination of damaged mitochondria and reduction of oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase). Elevated LC3 and beclin1 expressions were remarkably observed in CIH group. In vitro experiments, intermittent hypoxia (IH) significantly facilitated mitophagy induction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in microglial (BV2) cells. Moreover, IH enhanced the accumulation of damaged mitochondria, increased mitochondrial depolarization and augmented mtROS release. Consistently, NLRP3 deletion elicited a protective phenotype against IH through enhancement of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Furthermore, Parkin deletion or pretreated with 3MA (autophagy inhibitor) exacerbated these detrimental actions of IH, which was accompanied with NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These results revealed NLRP3 deficiency acted as a protective promotor through enhancing Parkin-depended mitophagy in CIH-induced neuroinflammation. Thus, NLRP3 gene knockout or pharmacological blockage could be as a potential therapeutic strategy for OSA-associated neurocognitive impairment.

16.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 40(1): 81, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648534

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), a technology that analyzes transcriptomes of complex tissues at single-cell levels, can identify differential gene expression and epigenetic factors caused by mutations in unicellular genomes, as well as new cell-specific markers and cell types. scRNA-seq plays an important role in various aspects of tumor research. It reveals the heterogeneity of tumor cells and monitors the progress of tumor development, thereby preventing further cellular deterioration. Furthermore, the transcriptome analysis of immune cells in tumor tissue can be used to classify immune cells, their immune escape mechanisms and drug resistance mechanisms, and to develop effective clinical targeted therapies combined with immunotherapy. Moreover, this method enables the study of intercellular communication and the interaction of tumor cells and non-malignant cells to reveal their role in carcinogenesis. scRNA-seq provides new technical means for further development of tumor research and is expected to make significant breakthroughs in this field. This review focuses on the principles of scRNA-seq, with an emphasis on the application of scRNA-seq in tumor heterogeneity, pathogenesis, and treatment.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1978, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785747

RESUMO

Understanding Mott insulators and charge density waves (CDW) is critical for both fundamental physics and future device applications. However, the relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear, particularly in systems close to two-dimensional (2D) limit. In this study, we utilize scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy to investigate monolayer 1T-NbSe2 to elucidate the energy of the Mott upper Hubbard band (UHB), and reveal that the spin-polarized UHB is spatially distributed away from the dz2 orbital at the center of the CDW unit. Moreover, the UHB shows a √3 × âˆš3 R30° periodicity in addition to the typically observed CDW pattern. Furthermore, a pattern similar to the CDW order is visible deep in the Mott gap, exhibiting CDW without contribution of the Mott Hubbard band. Based on these findings in monolayer 1T-NbSe2, we provide novel insights into the relation between the correlated and collective electronic structures in monolayer 2D systems.

18.
Int J Biol Markers ; : 17246008211005473, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cluster of differentiation molecules are markers of immune cells that have been identified as a potential immunotherapeutic target for cancer treatment. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes whose importance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of gastric and colorectal cancers has been widely reported. However, their association with cluster of differentiation molecules in gastrointestinal cancers has not been well studied. Therefore, our study aimed to analyze the relationship between microRNAs and cluster of differentiation molecules in gastrointestinal cancers, and to identify cluster of differentiation molecule-associated microRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS: Targetscan, Starbase, DIANA microT, and miRDB were used to investigate microRNA profiles that might be correlated with cluster of differentiation molecules in gastrointestinal cancers. Moreover, The Cancer Genome Atlas data analysis was used to investigate the association between cluster of differentiation molecules and microRNA expression in patients with gastric, colon, rectal, pancreatic, and esophageal cancers. The Kaplan-Meier plotter was used to identify the association between overall survival and cluster of differentiation molecule-associated microRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer patients. RESULTS: miR-200a, miR-559, and miR-1236 were negatively associated with CD86, CD81, and CD160, respectively, in almost all types of gastrointestinal cancers, which were further verified in the in vitro studies by transfecting microRNA mimics in gastric cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic, and esophageal cell lines. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that miR-200a, miR-1236, and miR-559 are identified as cluster of differentiation-associated microRNAs in gastrointestinal cancers, providing a novel perspective to identify new therapeutic targets for cancer immunotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

19.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723431

RESUMO

The transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) orchestrates a proproliferative transcriptional program that controls the fate of somatic stem cells and the regenerative responses of certain tissues. As such, agents that activate YAP may hold therapeutic potential in disease states exacerbated by insufficient proliferative repair. Here we report the discovery of a small molecule, termed PY-60, which robustly activates YAP transcriptional activity in vitro and promotes YAP-dependent expansion of epidermal keratinocytes in mouse following topical drug administration. Chemical proteomics revealed the relevant target of PY-60 to be annexin A2 (ANXA2), a protein that directly associates with YAP at the cell membrane in response to increased cell density. PY-60 treatment liberates ANXA2 from the membrane, ultimately promoting a phosphatase-bound, nonphosphorylated and transcriptionally active form of YAP. This work reveals ANXA2 as a previously undescribed, druggable component of the Hippo pathway and suggests a mechanistic rationale to promote regenerative repair in disease.

20.
Physiol Behav ; 234: 113387, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713693

RESUMO

Chronic ethanol exposure can increase the risk of depression. The α-amino-3­hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor is a key factor in depression and its treatment. The study was conducted to investigate the depressive-like behavior induced by chronic ethanol exposure in mice and to explore the mechanism in cells. To establish the chronic ethanol exposure mouse model, male C57BL/6 N mice were administered 10% (m/V) and 20% (m/V) ethanol as the only choice for drinking for 60 days, 90 days and 180 days. Depressive-like behavior in mice was confirmed by the forced swimming test (FST). Ethanol-induced changes in the mouse hippocampus were indicated by Western blotting, qPCR and Fluoro-Jade C (FJC) staining. We confirmed that 90- and 180-day ethanol exposure can lead to depressive-like mouse behavior, cell apoptosis, neuronal degeneration, a reduction in GluA1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and an increase in IL-6 and IL-1ß in the mouse hippocampus. GluA1 silencing and overexpression models of SH-SY5Y cells were established for further investigation. The cells were treated with 100 mM and 200 mM ethanol for 24 h. Ethanol exposure decreased cell viability and the expression of BDNF and increased the cell apoptosis rate and the expression of BAX, cleaved caspase-3, IL-1ß and IL-6. GluA1 silencing aggravated ethanol-induced changes in cell viability and apoptosis and the expression of BDNF, BAX and cleaved caspase-3, and GluA1 overexpression attenuated these changes. Neither the silencing nor overexpression of GluA1 had an effect on ethanol-induced increases in IL-1ß and IL-6. Our results indicated that chronic ethanol exposure induced depressive-like behavior in male C57BL/6 N mice by downregulating GluA1 expression.

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