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1.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 59, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is optimistic with a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate of 70-85%. However, the major causes of mortality are chemotherapy toxicity, infection and relapse. The Guangdong (GD)-2008-ALL collaborative protocol was carried out to study the effect of reduced intensity on treatment related mortality (TRM) based on Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 2002 backbone treatment. The study was designed to elucidate whether the reduced intensity is effective and safe for children with ALL. METHODS: The clinical data were obtained from February 28, 2008 to June 30, 2016. A total of 1765 childhood ALL cases from 9 medical centers were collected and data were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified into 3 groups according to bone marrow morphology, prednisone response, age, genotype, and karyotype information: standard risk (SR), intermediate risk (IR) and high risk (HR). For SR group, daunorubicin was decreased in induction IA while duration was reduced in Induction Ib (2 weeks in place of 4 weeks). Doses for CAM were same in all risk groups - SR patients received one CAM, others got two CAMs. RESULTS: The 5-year and 8-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) were 83.5±0.9% and 83.1±1.0%, 71.9±1.1% and 70.9±1.2%, and 19.5±1.0% and 20.5±1.1%, respectively. The 2-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 5.2±0.5%. The 5-year and 8-year OS were 90.7±1.4% and 89.6±1.6% in the SR group, while the 5-year and 8-year EFS were 81.5±1.8% and 80.0±2.0%. In the SR group, 74 (15.2%) patients measured minimal residual disease (MRD) on Day 15 and Day 33 of induction therapy. Among them, 7 patients (9.46%) were MRD positive (≥ 0.01%) on Day 33. The incidence of relapse in the MRD Day 33 positive group (n=7) was 28.6%, while in the MRD Day 33 negative group (n=67) was 7.5% (p=0.129). CONCLUSIONS: The results of GD-2008-ALL protocol are outstanding for reducing TRM in childhood ALL in China with excellent long term EFS. This protocol provided the evidence for further reducing intensity of induction therapy in the SR group according to the risk stratification. MRD levels on Day 15 and Day 33 are appropriate indexes for stratification.

2.
Phys Med Biol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412539

RESUMO

Accurate deformable 4-dimensional (4D) (3-dimensional in space and time) medical images registration is essential in a variety of medical applications. Deep learning-based methods have recently gained popularity in this area for the significantly lower inference time. However, they suffer from drawbacks of non-optimal accuracy and the requirement of a large amount of training data. A new method named GroupRegNet is proposed to address both limitations. The deformation fields to warp all images in the group into a common template is obtained through one-shot learning. The use of the implicit template reduces bias and accumulated error associated with the specified reference image. The one-shot learning strategy is similar to the conventional iterative optimization method but the motion model and parameters are replaced with a convolutional neural network (CNN) and the weights of the network. GroupRegNet also features a simpler network design and a more straightforward registration process, which eliminates the need to break up the input image into patches. The proposed method was quantitatively evaluated on two public respiratory-binned 4D-CT datasets. The results suggest that GroupRegNet outperforms the latest published deep learning-based methods and is comparable to the top conventional method pTVreg. To facilitate future research, the source code is available at https://github.com/vincentme/GroupRegNet.

3.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400370

RESUMO

We collected 26 cases of bronchiolar adenoma (BA) and its variants, and performed a comprehensive characterization using a combination of morphological, immunohistochemical, and genetic assessments. Of these 26, 13 were classic bilayered cases, including 10 proximal and 3 distal-type BAs. Of note, we also identified 13 cases that lacked a continuous basal cell layer. In five cases, the adenomas were partially classic bilayered, leaving a single layer of columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells in some areas of the lesion (BA with monolayered cell lesions). In the other eight cases, the glandular or papillary structures were entirely composed of monolayered columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells, which were morphologically identical to the luminal epithelial cells of classic BA (monolayered BA-like lesions). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed thyroid transcription factor 1 expression by ciliated columnar epithelial cells, basal cells, and nonciliated columnar and cuboidal epithelial cells. Basal cells also expressed p40 and p63. Twenty-five cases underwent next-generation sequencing using a 422-cancer-gene panel (GeneseeqPrime). Oncogenic driver mutations were detected in 23 cases, including 13 (52%) with EGFR mutations, 4 (16%) with KRAS G12D/V mutations, 3 (12%) with BRAF V600E mutations, 2 (8%) with ERBB2 exon 20 insertions, and 1 (4%) with a RET fusion. EGFR exon 20 insertions were present in 100% of BAs with monolayered cell lesions, 37.5% of monolayered BA-like lesions, and 8% of classic BA (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.002, false discovery rate = 0.014). Collectively, our study revealed a gradual morphological transition between BA and its variants. The genetic composition of BAs with monolayered structures differed significantly from those of classic BAs or lung adenocarcinoma.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111104, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341045

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been a leading cause of chronic metabolic disease, seriously posing healthy burdens to the public, whereas interventions available for it are limited to date. Patchouli oil had been reported to attenuate hepatic steatosis in our previous study. ß-patchoulene (ß-PAE) is a representative component separated from patchouli oil with multiple activities, but its effect against NAFLD is still unknown. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of ß-PAE on NAFLD, we used high fat diet (HFD) in vivo and free fatty acid (FFA) in vitro to induce hepatic steatosis in rats and L02 cells, respectively. Histological examination was evaluated via Hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining. The parameters for hepatic steatosis were estimated via biochemical kits, western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Compound C, the inhibitor of AMPK, was applied further to examine the precise mechanism of ß-PAE on NAFLD. Our results indicated that ß-PAE significantly attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, hepatic injury, lipid deposition in serum and hepatic tissue as well as FFA induced-lipid accumulation. Besides, ß-PAE markedly improved the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream factors which correlate with hepatic lipid synthesis and oxidation in vivo and in vitro. Nevertheless, Compound C abrogated the benefits derived from ß-PAE in L02 cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that ß-PAE exerts AMPK agonist-like effect to regulate hepatic lipid synthesis and oxidation, eventually prevent NAFLD progression.

6.
Am J Cancer Res ; 10(11): 4005-4015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294282

RESUMO

A growing number of progression on Osimertinib among EGFR-mutated lung cancers represents a great challenge clinically. Our study aims to gain insights into novel mechanisms of acquired resistance to Osimertinib. We performed genomic studies on 2 large independent cohorts of lung cancer patients with progressed diseases on different tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In silico modeling was used to study the structural mechanism of selected EGFR mutations. Compared with the 1st-TKIs-resistant group, EGFR mutations C797S/G, L718Q/V, L792F/H were significantly more enriched in the Osimertinib-resistant cohort, whose sensitivities to Osimertinib were successfully predicted. Importantly, a total of 14 low-frequency EGFR mutations were exclusively or significantly observed in the Osimertinib-resistant group, 7 were predicted to dramatically reduce the binding affinity of EGFR to Osimertinib (G796S, V802F, T725M, Q791L/H, P794S/R). Analysis of pre-Osimertinib treatment samples of two patients supported that EGFR V802F and G796S were acquired during the treatment. In addition, EGFR G796S was predicted to be susceptible to gefitinib. This study represented the largest real-world data so far investigating Osimertinib resistance in EGFR-mutated lung cancer. We identified a collection of coexistent EGFR rare mutations and provided possible guidance for those patients who progressed on the first-line treatment of Osimertinib.

7.
Chemosphere ; : 129136, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276998

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a biologically non-essential and toxic heavy metal leaking to the environment via natural emission or anthropogenic activities, thereby contaminating crops and threatening human health. Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of metal-binding proteins playing critical roles in metal allocation and homeostasis. In this study, we identified a novel function of OsMT1e from rice plants. OsMT1e was dominantly expressed in roots at all developmental stages and, to less extent, expressed in leaves at vegetative and seed filling stages. OsMT1e was mainly targeted to the nucleus and substantially induced by Cd exposure. Expression of OsMT1e in a yeast Cd-sensitive strain ycf1 conferred cellular tolerance to Cd, even though the ycf1 + OsMT1e cells accumulated more Cd than the control cells (ycf1 + pYES2). Both transgenic rice overexpressing (OX) and repressing OsMT1e by RNA interference (RNAi) were developed. Phenotypic analysis revealed that OsMT1e overexpression enhanced the rice growth concerning the increased shoot or root elongation, dry weight and chlorophyll contents, whereas the RNAi lines displayed a sensitive growth phenotype compared to wild-type. Assessment with 0.5, 2 and 10 µM Cd for two weeks revealed that the RNAi lines accumulated less Cd, while the OX lines had an increased Cd accumulation in root and shoot tissues. The contrasting Cd accumulation phenotypes between the OX and RNAi lines were further confirmed by a long-term study with 0.5 µM Cd for one month. Overall, the study unveiled a new function of OsMT1e in rice, which can be potentially used for engineering genotypes for phytoremediation or minimizing Cd in rice crops.

8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(6): 1912-1918, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of rituximab combined with CHOP/EPOCH regimen for treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma(DLBCL) patients, and to explore the high risk factors of refractory and relapsed patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 72 patients with de novo DLBCL from December 2012 to December 2018 in the Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital Affiliated to Southeast University were retrospectively analyzed. The remission rate of DLBCL patients treated by rituximab combined with CHOP/EPOCH was analyzed, and survival analysis was conducted to explore the risk factors influencing refractory recurrence. RESULTS: 45 cases among 72 patients achieved complete remission (CR), 11 cases achieved partial remission (PR), the total remission rate was 77.78%. 25 cases (34.2%) refractory and relapsed. Single factor analysis showed that the B symptoms, low Hb, high NLR, low MLR, high ß2-MG, high ESR, high hs-CRP, high LDH, low ALB, low HDL were high risk factors of refractory and relapsed DLBCL. Multivariate Logistic analysis showed B symptoms, low Hb, high ß2-MG, high ESR, and high hs-CRP were significantly related with refractory relapse. Survival analysis showed that OS of refractory and relapsed group was significantly worse than that in remission group. In addition, OS of patients with B symptoms, anemia, low LMR, high ß2-MG, high hs-CRP, high LDH, low ALB and low HDL was significantly worse than that of control group. CONCLUSION: The remission rate of DLBCL patients treated by rituximab combined with CHOP/EPOCH regimen is high, but about one third of the patients still show refractory and relapsed. B Symptoms, anemia, high ß2-MG, ESR and hs-CRP are the independent prognostic factors.

9.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The understanding of viral positivity and seroconversion during the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns of viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity and evaluate their correlations with seroconversion and disease severity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 3 designated specialty care centers for COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: 3192 adult patients with COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. RESULTS: Among 12 780 reverse transcriptase PCR tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that were done, 24.0% had positive results. In 2142 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, the viral positivity rate peaked within the first 3 days. The median duration of viral positivity was 24.0 days (95% CI, 18.9 to 29.1 days) in critically ill patients and 18.0 days (CI, 16.8 to 19.1 days) in noncritically ill patients. Being critically ill was an independent risk factor for longer viral positivity (hazard ratio, 0.700 [CI, 0.595 to 0.824]; P < 0.001). In patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, the IgM-positive rate was 19.3% in the first week, peaked in the fifth week (81.5%), and then decreased steadily to around 55% within 9 to 10 weeks. The IgG-positive rate was 44.6% in the first week, reached 93.3% in the fourth week, and then remained high. Similar antibody responses were seen in clinically diagnosed cases. Serum inflammatory markers remained higher in critically ill patients. Among noncritically ill patients, a higher proportion of those with persistent viral positivity had low IgM titers (<100 AU/mL) during the entire course compared with those with short viral positivity. LIMITATION: Retrospective study and irregular viral and serology testing. CONCLUSION: The rate of viral PCR positivity peaked within the initial few days. Seroconversion rates peaked within 4 to 5 weeks. Dynamic laboratory index changes corresponded well to clinical signs, the recovery process, and disease severity. Low IgM titers (<100 AU/mL) are an independent risk factor for persistent viral positivity. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.

10.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520980201, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349079

RESUMO

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) can develop in patients following exposure to multiple triggers, including blood pressure fluctuations, kidney diseases, immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapy, or autoimmune disorders. However, to the best of our knowledge, the development of PRES secondary to food poisoning has not been previously reported, especially in a pediatric patient. Here, we report a 13-year-old boy who presented with PRES following the consumption of palmatum (a chicken feet dish). The patient presented with headache, vomiting, and altered consciousness. Neuroimaging findings revealed white matter hyperintensities in a bilateral, symmetrical, and parieto-occipital pattern. The patient was diagnosed with PRES and was managed with fluid expansion and a short-term mannitol regimen (1 g/kg every 12 hours for 3 days). Neuroimaging findings returned to normal at 8 days after admission. Food poisoning may therefore be a new possible trigger for PRES. A timely PRES diagnosis is recommended to prevent possible central nervous system complications.

11.
Zootaxa ; 4890(1): zootaxa.4890.1.7, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311248

RESUMO

The phylogenetic tree of Chinese Trigonidiinae species was reconstructed based on one mitochondrial fragment (COI) and two nuclear ribosomal loci (18S and 28S). According to the concatenated trees, we define four genus groups with high nodal supports. The subgenus Paratrigonidium should be upgraded to genus status. A new genus Abstrigonidium He gen. nov. is established and Paratrigonidium chloropodum is selected as type species (A. chloropodum comb. nov.). Amusurgus (Paranaxipha) fujianensis is moved to genus Sectus as S. fujianensis comb. nov. A new species named as Emerasoma curvicerca He gen. et sp. nov. is reported. It differs from other genera by asymmetric genitalia, and lacking stridulatory files and mirror. The type specimens are deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Cauda
12.
Zootaxa ; 4869(1): zootaxa.4869.1.5, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311373

RESUMO

A new genus (Mirigryllus He gen. nov.) with a new species (M. nigrus He sp. nov.) is reported from Zhejiang, China. The morphology and calling songs of the new species are provided. The features that different from tribe Modicogryllini spp. include long and thin posterior epiphallic lobes, ectoparameron transparent. Two genes, COI and 18S, of 11 Modicogryllini species were sequenced, and phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. The results support the validation of the new species. The type specimens are deposited in Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
13.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124599, 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360184

RESUMO

The results of Cd (cadmium) concentration, Cd2+ fluorescent staining, NMT (non-invasive micro-test technology) analysis of Cd absorption revealed the remarkably positive role of HRW in reducing Cd uptake by root of pak choi seedlings. BcIRT1 (iron-regulated transporter 1) and BcZIP2 (zinc-regulated transporter protein 2) are the main Cd transporters in pak choi, but their roles in the process of HRW-reduced Cd uptake is still far from being answered. In this study, we specifically verified the function of IRT1 and ZIP2 in HRW-reduced Cd absorption in pak choi and Arabidopsis thaliana. Heterologous and homologous expression in Arabidopsis thaliana displayed that Cd concentrations in wild-type (Col-0) and transgenic A. thaliana of IRT1 and ZIP2 were significantly reduced by HRW, except for irt1- and zip2-mutant. NMT detection showed that HRW not only decreased Cd2+ influx in root of WT and transgenic lines, but also enhanced the competition between Zn and Cd. Taken together, the HRW-induced reduction of Cd accumulation in plants may be result from depressing the expression of BcIRT1 and BcZIP2 and affecting the preference of BcIRT1 and BcZIP2 in ion uptake.

14.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920970049, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224276

RESUMO

Background: Targeting immune checkpoints represents an immense breakthrough in cancer therapeutics. The prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) has been investigated in many malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognostic impact of pretreatment Hb count for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in advanced NSCLC patients remains unclear. Methods: A total of 310 late-stage NSCLC patients who received ICI therapies between January 2015 and March 2019 were prospectively enrolled. We used a propensity score-matched cohort analysis for this study. Patients' clinicopathological characteristics and pretreatment Hb concentration were assessed against the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: A propensity score (PS)-matched cohort analysis was applied to adjust for potential bias and to create two comparable groups according to patients' clinicopathological characteristics. The patients with normal baseline Hb levels (⩾110 g/L) had significantly longer PFS [median: 10.0 versus 4.0 months, hazard ratio (HR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.86; p = 0.001] and OS [median: 17.6 versus 10.5 months, HR (95% CI): 0.56 (0.40-0.79); p < 0.001] than those with decreased Hb count (<110 g/L) in a PS-matched cohort (n = 255). For patients with normal pretreatment Hb levels, ICI combination therapy was significantly associated with better PFS [median: 11.1 versus 8.0 months, HR (95% CI): 0.74 (0.50-1.06); p = 0.09] and OS [median: 26.0 versus 12.9 months, HR (95% CI): 0.56 (0.37-0.86); p = 0.008] than monotherapy, but there was no such trend for patients with decreased baseline Hb levels. Conclusion: Our findings showed that normal pretreatment Hb count served as a favorable prognostic marker in advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, representing an economical biomarker with readily measuring performance among all reported ones.

15.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10): 6689-6693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition, mostly caused by germline TP53 mutations. Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) has been identified as the most frequent LFS-related cancer outside the common LFS core spectrum. EGFR-kinase domain duplication (KDD) is rare in lung cancer and the effective therapy for LFS patients with EGFR-KDD mutated ADC is unclear. This study reports the first case of a TP53-mutated LFS patient with confirmed family history, developing advanced lung ADC harboring EGFR-KDD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient's lung tumor, lymph nodes, liquid biopsies and germline control sample at various disease stages were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS). The TP53 germline mutation was confirmed using the peripheral blood of the patient's relatives by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A rare EGFR-KDD somatic mutation that was missed in the routine EGFR hotspots test, and a TP53-E285K temperature-sensitive germline mutation were identified by NGS. The patient was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2006 and her family cancer history review revealed that seven out of 13 relatives were diagnosed or died from LFS-spectrum cancers before the age of 45 years. Three of the six relatives were positive for the TP53-E285K germline mutation. This patient received multi-line chemotherapy followed by anlotinib, a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor, upon the identification of EGFR-KDD, and achieved an overall survival of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of NGS in discovering rare genetic alterations to guide treatment decision-making, and provides meaningful insight into the potential treatment options for LFS patients with EGFR-KDD mutations.

16.
PeerJ ; 8: e10318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194449

RESUMO

When people are confronted with health proposals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been suggested that fear of COVID-19 can serve protective functions and ensure public health compliance. However, health proposal repetition and its perceived efficacy also influence the behavior intention toward the proposal, which has not yet been confirmed in the COVID-19 context. The present study aims to examine whether the extended parallel process model (EPPM) can be generalized to a naturalistic context like the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we will explore how repetition of a health proposal is involved with the EPPM. In this study, two groups of participants are exposed to the same health proposal related to COVID-19, where one group is exposed once and another group twice. They then fill out a questionnaire consisting of items concerning behavior intention and adapted from the Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale. Structural equation modeling will be used to determine the multivariate associations between the variables. We predict that repetition of the health proposal will associate with response efficacy (i.e., a belief about the effectiveness of the health proposal in deterring the threat) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., a belief about the risk of experiencing the threat). It is also predicted that following the EPPM, behavior intention will associate with both perceived efficacy of the health proposal, which will underlie response efficacy, and perceived threat of COVID-19, which will underlie perceived susceptibility. We will discuss the process, based on the model, where health message repetition affects behavior intention during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Fitoterapia ; 147: 104774, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152461

RESUMO

Nine new diterpenoids, Rubellacrns A - I (1-9), including five isopimaranes (1-4, 9), four pimaranes (5-8), together with five known isopimarane analogues (10-14), were isolated from Callicarpa rubella. The structures of these compounds were unambiguously established by HR-ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data, the absolute configurations of compounds 5 and 9 were determined by ECD. All the isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects and compounds 2 and 11-14 showed NLRP3-inflammasome inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 7.02 to 14.38 µM.

18.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(12): e2000798, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135326

RESUMO

Four new diterpenoids, rubellawus A-D (1-4), along with three known compounds, were isolated and identified from the flowers of Callicarpa rubella. Their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity and 14α-hydroxyisopimaric acid and isopimaric acid showed significant NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 7.02 and 3.99 µM.

19.
Cancer Lett ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249197

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is closely associated with colorectal neoplasia. While most metagenomics studies utilized fecal samples, circulating bacterial DNA in colorectal neoplasia patients remained unexplored. This proof-of-concept study aims to characterize alterations of circulating bacterial DNA in colorectal neoplasia patients. We performed WGS of plasma samples from 25 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, 10 colorectal adenoma (CRA) patients and 22 healthy controls (HC). Bacterial relative abundance was measured by removing the host genome and mapping reads into bacterial genomes. By diversity analysis, we found plasma samples required less sample size to approach saturation than fecal samples, and species diversity in HC was slightly higher compared with CRC/CRA patients. The majority of circulating bacterial DNA came from bacterial genera which commonly associated with gastrointestine and oral tract. By differential analysis, a total of 127 significant species between CRC patients and HC were identified, on which basis 28 species with top predictive ability were selected and showed promise in preliminary discrimination between CRC/CRA and HC. In CRA patients, relative abundance of the selected 28 species more closely resembled those in CRC patients than HC. By comparing with fecal metagenomics studies, we found there was moderate positive correlation between fold changes of the overlapped fecal and circulating bacterial DNA. Finally, species correlation analysis revealed that CRC and HC displayed distinct patterns of species association. In conclusion, this study demonstrated alterations of circulating bacterial DNA in colorectal neoplasia patients, which had the potential to become non-invasive biomarkers for colorectal neoplasia screening and early diagnosis.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166473

RESUMO

Rationale Cross-sectional human data suggest that enrichment of oral anaerobic bacteria in the lung is associated with increased Th17 inflammatory phenotype. In this study we evaluated the microbial and host immune response dynamics after aspiration with a oral commensals using a preclinical mouse model. Methods Aspiration with a mixture of human oral commensals (MOC; Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella parvula, and Streptococcus mitis) was modeled in mice followed by variable time of sacrifice. Genetic background of mice included WT, MyD88 knock out and STAT3C. Measurements 16S rRNA gene sequencing characterized changes in microbiota. Flow cytometry, cytokine measurement via Luminex and RNA host transcriptome sequencing was used to characterize host immune phenotype. Main Results While MOC aspiration correlated with lower airway dysbiosis that resolved within five days, it induced an extended inflammatory response associated with IL17-producing T-cells lasting at least 14 days. MyD88 expression was required for the IL-17 response to MOC aspiration, but not for T-cell activation or IFN-γ expression. MOC aspiration prior to a respiratory challenge with S. pneumoniae led to a decreased in host's susceptibility to this pathogen. Conclusions Thus, in otherwise healthy mice, a single aspiration event with oral commensals are rapidly cleared from the lower airways, but induce a prolonged Th17 response that secondarily decreased susceptibility to respiratory pathogens. Translationally, these data implicate an immuno-protective role of episodic microaspiration of oral microbes in the regulation of the lung immune phenotype and mitigation of host susceptibility to infection with lower airway pathogens.

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