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Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(11): 4810-4823, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854546


Northeastern China experiences severe atmospheric pollution, with an increasing occurrence of heavy haze episodes. Based on ground monitoring data, satellite products and meteorological products of atmospheric pollutants in northeast China from 2013 to 2017, the characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution of air quality and the causes of heavy haze events in northeast China were discussed. It was found that the "Shenyang-Changchun-Harbin" city belt was the most polluted area in the region on an annual scale. The spatial distribution of air quality index (AQI) values had a clear seasonality, with the worst pollution occurring in winter, an approximately oval-shaped polluted area around western Jilin Province in spring, and the best air quality occurring in summer and most of autumn. The three periods that typically experienced intense haze events were Period I from late-October to early-November (i. e., late autumn and early winter), Period Ⅱ from late-December to January (i. e., the coldest time in winter), and Period Ⅲ from April to mid-May (i. e., spring). During Period I, strong PM2.5 emissions from seasonal crop residue burning and coal burning for winter heating were the dominant reasons for the occurrence of extreme haze events (AQI>300). Period Ⅱ had frequent heavy haze events (200 < AQI < 300) in the coldest months of January and February(200 < AQI < 300), which were due to high PM2.5 emissions from coal burning and vehicle fuel consumption, a lower atmospheric boundary layer, and stagnant atmospheric conditions. Haze events in Period Ⅲ, with high PM10 concentrations, were primarily caused by the regional transportation of windblown dust from degraded grassland in central Inner Mongolia and bare soil in western Jilin Province. Local agricultural tilling could also release PM10 and enhance the levels of windblown dust from tilled soil.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int ; 1(3): 416-9, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14607718


OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, active bleeding at endoscopy, and the severity of liver disease as prognostic factors in hepatic cirrhotic patients during the first 5 days after the episode of esophageal or gastric variceal hemorrhage. METHODS: Seventy-six hepatic cirrhosis patients with esophageal or gastric variceal bleeding were enrolled. Bleeding was managed in a standardized protocol using octreotide and vasopressin in sclerotherapy or band ligation for active bleeding at endoscopy. The screening protocol for bacterial infection consisted of chest radiograph; blood, urine and ascitic fluid cultures; the severity of liver disease shown by Child-Pugh score. RESULTS: Active bleeding was observed at endoscopy in 40 patients (53%). Failure to control bleeding within 5 days occurred in 36 patients (45%). Empirical antibiotic treatment was used in 53 patients (67%), whereas bacterial infections were documented in 43 patients (57%). Multivariate analysis showed that proven bacterial infection (P<0.01) or antibiotic use (P<0.05) as well as active bleeding at endoscopy (P<0.01) and Child-Pugh score (P<0.01) were independent prognostic factors of failure to control bleeding. CONCLUSION: Bacterial infection is associated with failure to control esophageal or gastric variceal bleeding in hepatic cirrhotic patients.

Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Falha de Tratamento