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1.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399443

RESUMO

As a kind of bioactive sulfur species, biothiols (Cys, Hcy, and GSH) play an irreplaceable role in regulating the redox balance of life processes. Because of their similar chemical structures and properties, a sulfydryl group, and an amino group, it is an important challenge to distinguish two or more of them at the same time. Herein, a fluorescent sensor (NTPC) based on the coumarin structure was developed to discriminate Cys/Hcy and GSH simultaneously. The sensor has no fluorescence due to the d-PET effect but displays strong fluorescence after its reaction with biothiols. There are two potential reaction sites (nitrophenyl sulfide group and aldehyde group) in the structure of NTPC, resulting in different fluorescent signal changes after reacting with biothiols (green for Cys and Hcy and red for GSH). Under double-wavelength excitation, the sensor shows low background fluorescence, high selectivity, and low detection limits toward biothiols. Moreover, the sensor can be used to discriminate different biothiols (Cys/Hcy and GSH) in cells and zebra fish by different fluorescence signals with low toxicity and might provide a promising tool for studying the roles of different biothiols in various physiological and pathological processes.

2.
Anesth Analg ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of general anesthetics (propofol and volatile anesthetics) on pulmonary outcome after lung resection surgery with one-lung ventilation (OLV) is yet undetermined. We evaluated the effect of intravenous anesthesia (propofol) and volatile anesthesia (sevoflurane or desflurane) regimens on postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in patients undergoing lung resection surgery. METHODS: This prospective, randomized controlled trial enrolled 555 adult patients scheduled for lung resection surgery with OLV. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 general anesthetic regimens (propofol, sevoflurane, or desflurane). Standard anesthesia and ventilation protocols were followed in all groups. The primary outcome was a composite of PPCs in the first 7 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes included the severity of PPCs and major postoperative complications classification. Intergroup difference in the primary outcome was assessed for significance using the Pearson χ2 test. RESULTS: Of 837 patients who were assessed for eligibility, 555 were randomized and 545 were analyzed. One hundred and seventy-nine patients were assigned to the propofol group, 182 in the sevoflurane group, and 184 in the desflurane group. The incidence of PPCs did not differ between the combined volatile anesthetics (sevoflurane and desflurane) group and the propofol group (21.9% vs 24.0%; odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.35; P = .570). The PPCs grade and Clavien-Dindo scores did not differ significantly across groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing lung resection surgery with OLV, general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics (sevoflurane or desflurane) did not reduce PPCs compared with propofol. No difference in secondary outcomes was observed.

4.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432112

RESUMO

During cancer therapy, phagocytic clearance of dead cells plays a vital role in immune homeostasis. The nonapoptotic form of cell death, ferroptosis, exhibits extraordinary potential in tumor treatment. However, the phagocytosis mechanism that regulates the engulfment of ferroptotic cells remains unclear. Here, we establish a novel pathway for phagocytic clearance of ferroptotic cells that is different from canonical mechanisms by using diverse ferroptosis models evoked by GPX4 dysfunction/deficiency. We identified the oxidized phospholipid, 1-steaoryl-2-15-HpETE-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (SAPE-OOH), as a key eat-me signal on the ferroptotic cell surface. Enriching the plasma membrane with SAPE-OOH increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of ferroptotic cells by macrophage, a process that was suppressed by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Ligand fishing, lipid blotting, and cellular thermal shift assay screened and identified TLR2 as a membrane receptor that directly recognized SAPE-OOH, which was further confirmed by TLR2 inhibitors and gene silencing studies. A mouse mammary tumor model of ferroptosis verified SAPE-OOH and TLR2 as critical players in the clearance of ferroptotic cells in vivo. Taken together, this work demonstrates that SAPE-OOH on ferroptotic cell surface acts as an eat-me signal and navigates phagocytosis by targeting TLR2 on macrophages.

5.
Lab Invest ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446892

RESUMO

Pericytes apposed to the capillary endothelium are known to stabilize and promote endothelial integrity. Recent studies indicate that lung pericytes play a prominent role in lung physiology, and they are involved in the development of various lung diseases including lung injury in sepsis, pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, and pulmonary hypertension. Accordingly, human lung pericyte studies are important for understanding the mechanistic basis of lung physiology and pathophysiology; however, human lung pericytes can only be cultured for a few passages and no immortalized human lung pericyte cell line has been established so far. Thus, our study aims to establish an immortalized human lung pericyte cell line. Developed using SV40 large T antigen lentivirus, immortalized pericytes exhibit stable SV40T expression, sustained proliferation, and have significantly higher telomerase activity compared to normal human lung pericytes. In addition, these cells retained pericyte characteristics, marked by similar morphology, and expression of pericyte cell surface markers such as PDGFRß, NG2, CD44, CD146, CD90, and CD73. Furthermore, similar to that of primary pericytes, immortalized pericytes promoted endothelial cell tube formation and responded to different stimuli. Our previous data showed that friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1), a member of the ETS transcription factor family, is a key regulator that modulates inflammatory responses in mouse lung pericytes. We further demonstrated that Fli-1 regulates inflammatory responses in immortalized human lung pericytes. To summarize, we successfully established an immortalized human lung pericyte cell line, which serves as a promising tool for in vitro pericyte studies to understand human lung pericyte physiology and pathophysiology.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 316, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431976

RESUMO

Maternal metabolism dysregulation during pregnancy predisposes offspring to major diseases, including hypertension, in later life, but the mechanism involved remains to be fully elucidated. A high-fat-diet (HFD) pregnant rat model was used to investigate whether excessive intrauterine lipid exposure was associated with elevated blood pressure in offspring and increased levels of leptin, an important biomarker and mediator of vascular dysfunction and hypertension. We found that gestational hyperlipidemia predisposed offspring to blood pressure elevation and sustained increases in leptin levels with no difference in body weight in the rat model. Increased leptin expression and leptin promoter hypomethylation were found in adipose tissues of HFD-exposed offspring. The treatment of mesenchymal stem cells with free fatty acids during adipogenic differentiation resulted in increased leptin expression, accompanied by leptin promoter hypomethylation. In addition, we also followed up 121 children to evaluate the association between maternal triglyceride levels and offspring blood pressure. Consistent with the animal study results, we observed elevated serum leptin levels and blood pressure in the offspring born to women with gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Our findings provide new insights that maternal hyperlipidemia is associated with elevated blood pressure in offspring and is associated with increases in leptin levels through epigenetic memory.

7.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448656

RESUMO

For marine invertebrates with no adaptive immune system, ferritin is a major intracellular iron-storage protein with a critical role in innate immunity. Here, we present the crystal structures of two novel ferritins (Fer147 and PeFer) from the marine invertebrate Phascolosoma esculenta, which resides in muddy-bottom coastal regions. Fer147 and PeFer exhibit the 4-3-2 symmetry of cage-like hollow shells containing 24 subunits, similar to other known ferritins. Fer147 and PeFer contain both the conserved ferroxidase center and 3-fold channels. Subtle structural differences in the putative nucleation sites suggest possible routes of metal ion movement in the protein shells. However, the marked variation in the electrostatic potential of the 3-fold channels in Fer147 and the 4-fold channels in PeFer suggest significant diversity between Fer147 and PeFer in terms of metal ion aggregation and cation exclusion. In summary, the presented crystal structures may serve as references for studies of the iron storage mechanism of additional ferritins from marine invertebrates.

8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1572, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male-specifically inherited Y-STRs have been widely used in population genetics and forensic investigations. METHODS: We genotyped and analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes of 408 unrelated Tibeto-Burman-speaking Yi male individuals from Guizhou using Goldeneye® Y-PLUS kit. Population comparisons between the Guizhou Yi and 67 reference groups were performed via the AMOVA, MDS, and phylogenetic relationship reconstruction. RESULTS: A total of 389 alleles and 396 haplotypes could be detected, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0025 to 0.9875. The haplotype diversity, random match probability, and discrimination capacity values were 0.9999, 0.0026, and 0.9900, respectively. The gene diversity (GD) of 36 Y-STR loci in the studied group ranged from 0.0248 (DYS645) to 0.9601 (DYS385a/b). Our newly genotyped Yi samples show a close affinity with other Tibeto-Burman speaking groups in China and Southeast Asia. CONCLUSIONS: The population stratification was almost consistent with the geographic distribution and language-family, both among Chinese and worldwide ethnic groups. Our data may provide useful information for paternal lineage in the forensic application and population genetics, as well as evidence for archaeological and historical research.

9.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(4): 929-935, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456350

RESUMO

Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) are prone to circulation disorders, which portend poor outcome. The central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pcv-aCO2) is a biomarker for circulation disorders, but the prognostic value of Pcv-aCO2 in BSI patients remains unclear. This study was to investigate the association of Pcv-aCO2 with adverse events in BSI patients. Methods: The patients with BSI between August 2014 and August 2017 were prospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristic and laboratory results were collected. We analyzed the association of the level of Pcv-aCO2 with clinical variables and 28-day mortality. Results: A total of 152 patients were enrolled. The Pcv-aCO2 was positively correlated with white blood cell count (r=0.241, p=0.003), procalcitonin (r=0.471, p<0.001), C-reactive protein (r=0.192, p=0.018), lactate (r=0.179, p=0.027), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (r=0.318, p<0.001) and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II score (r=0.377, p<0.001), while that was negatively correlated with central venous oxygen saturation (r=-0.242, p<0.001) and platelet (r=-0.205, p=0.011). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with Pcv-aCO2 >6mmHg had a worse prognosis than those without (log rank=32.10, p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed Level of Pcv-aCO2 was an independent risk factor for 28-day mortality (HR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.43-6.74, p=0.004). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of Pcv-aCO2 for prediction of 28-day mortality in patients with BSI was 0.794. Pcv-aCO2>6 mmHg had 81.1% sensitivity and 78.8% specificity for predicting 28-day mortality. Conclusion: Pcv-aCO2 may be a simple and valuable biomarker to assessment of 28-day mortality in patients with BSI.

10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462377

RESUMO

DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (DL-NBP), a small molecular compound extracted from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn (Chinese celery), has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities. DL-NBP not only protects against ischemic cerebral injury, but also ameliorates vascular cognitive impairment in dementia patients including AD and PD. In the current study, we investigated whether and how DL-NBP exerted a neuroprotective effect against diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) in db/db mice, a model of type-2 diabetes. db/db mice were orally administered DL-NBP (20, 60, 120 mg· kg-1· d-1) for 8 weeks. Then the mice were subjected to behavioral test, their brain tissue was collected for morphological and biochemical analyses. We showed that oral administration of DL-NBP significantly ameliorated the cognitive decline with improved learning and memory function in Morris water maze testing. Furthermore, DL-NBP administration attenuated diabetes-induced morphological alterations and increased neuronal survival and restored the levels of synaptic protein PSD95, synaptophysin and synapsin-1 as well as dendritic density in the hippocampus, especially at a dose of 60 mg/kg. Moreover, we revealed that DL-NBP administration suppressed oxidative stress by upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression by activating PI3K/Akt/CREB signaling in the hippocampus. These beneficial effects of DL-NBP were observed in high glucose-treated PC12 cells. Our results suggest that DL-NBP may be a potential pharmacologic agent for the treatment of DACD.

11.
Environ Int ; 147: 106360, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a trend in the use of systems epidemiology to fill the knowledge gap between risk-factor exposure and adverse outcomes in the OMICS data, such as the metabolome, seriously hindrances need to be overcome for identifying molecular connections. OBJECTIVES: Using male infertility phenotypes and arsenic exposure, we aimed to identify intermediate biomarkers that reflect both arsenic exposure and male infertility with a meet-in-metabolite analysis (MIMA). METHODS: Urinary arsenic levels and metabolome were measured by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and HPLC-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS), respectively. To identify arsenic-related metabolic markers (A-MIMA), the intermediate markers were profiled by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS-DA). To detect infertility-related metabolic markers (I-MIMA), the intermediate markers were investigated by weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The key node markers, related to both A-MIMA and I-MIMA, were determined by O2PLS and defined as MIMA markers. Finally, network analysis was used to construct the MIMA-related metabolic network. RESULTS: Twelve markers each were defined through the significant associations with arsenic exposure (A-MIMA) and/or infertility (I-MIMA), respectively. Seven of them, including acetyl-N-formyl-5-methoxykynurenamine, carnitine, estrone, 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid, malonic acid, valine, and LysoPC (10:0), were defined through the associations with both arsenic exposure and male infertility (MIMA markers). These intermediate markers were involved majorly in oxidative stress, one-carbon metabolism, steroid hormone homeostasis, and lipid metabolism pathways. The core correlation network analysis further highlighted that testosterone is a vital link between the effect of arsenic and male infertility. CONCLUSIONS: From arsenic exposure to male infertility, the arsenic methylation that coupled one-carbon metabolism disruption with oxidation stress may have extended its effect to fatty acid oxidation and steroidogenesis dysfunction. Testosterone is at the hub between arsenic exposure and male infertility modules and, along with the related metabolic pathways, may service as a potential surrogate marker in risk assessment for male dysfunction due to arsenic exposure.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 823, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436913

RESUMO

The challenge of decoding information about complex diseases hidden in huge number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes is undertaken based on five dbGaP studies. Current genome-wide association studies have successfully identified many high-risk SNPs associated with diseases, but precise diagnostic models for complex diseases by these or more other SNP genotypes are still unavailable in the literature. We report that lung cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer as the first three top cancers worldwide can be predicted precisely via 240-370 SNPs with accuracy up to 99% according to leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation. Our findings (1) confirm an early guess of Dr. Mitchell H. Gail that about 300 SNPs are needed to improve risk forecasts for breast cancer, (2) reveal an incredible fact that SNP genotypes may contain almost all information that one wants to know, and (3) show a hopeful possibility that complex diseases can be precisely diagnosed by means of SNP genotypes without using phenotypical features. In short words, information hidden in SNP genotypes can be extracted in efficient ways to make precise diagnoses for complex diseases.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 65, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431801

RESUMO

Legumain is required for maintenance of normal kidney homeostasis. However, its role in acute kidney injury (AKI) is still unclear. Here, we induced AKI by bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of renal arteries or folic acid in lgmnWT and lgmnKO mice. We assessed serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, histological indexes of tubular injury, and expression of KIM-1 and NGAL. Inflammatory infiltration was evaluated by immunohistological staining of CD3 and F4/80, and expression of TNF-α, CCL-2, IL-33, and IL-1α. Ferroptosis was evaluated by Acsl4, Cox-2, reactive oxygen species (ROS) indexes H2DCFDA and DHE, MDA and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). We induced ferroptosis by hypoxia or erastin in primary mouse renal tubular epithelial cells (mRTECs). Cellular survival, Acsl4, Cox-2, LDH release, ROS, and MDA levels were measured. We analyzed the degradation of GPX4 through inhibition of proteasomes or autophagy. Lysosomal GPX4 was assessed to determine GPX4 degradation pathway. Immunoprecipitation (IP) was used to determine the interactions between legumain, GPX4, HSC70, and HSP90. For tentative treatment, RR-11a was administrated intraperitoneally to a mouse model of IRI-induced AKI. Our results showed that legumain deficiency attenuated acute tubular injury, inflammation, and ferroptosis in either IRI or folic acid-induced AKI model. Ferroptosis induced by hypoxia or erastin was dampened in lgmnKO mRTECs compared with lgmnWT control. Deficiency of legumain prevented chaperone-mediated autophagy of GPX4. Results of IP suggested interactions between legumain, HSC70, HSP90, and GPX4. Administration of RR-11a ameliorated ferroptosis and renal injury in the AKI model. Together, our data indicate that legumain promotes chaperone-mediated autophagy of GPX4 therefore facilitates tubular ferroptosis in AKI.

14.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 37-46, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445059

RESUMO

Only a few studies investigated the impact of quarantine on anxiety of general population during a second wave of COVID-19 breakout. We aimed to compare anxiety levels of quarantined and non-quarantined people and investigate factors affecting anxiety during the second COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 1837 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Participants were divided into the quarantined group (QG) and non-quarantined group (Non-QG). The mean STAI-S score in the QG was significantly higher than Non-QG (41.8 ± 11.2 vs 40.01 ± 9.9), so was the proportion of severe state anxiety (11.6% vs 5.5%). Males in the QG were significantly more anxious than females evaluated by both STAI-S and STAI-T. High income was independent protective factors while moderate or bad health status and high trait anxiety level were independent risk factors for severe state anxiety. In conclusion, the COVID-19 confinement could significantly increase anxiety of quarantined people. Males were more vulnerable to the quarantine of COVID-19 with significantly increased anxiety level than females. The results suggest that attention should be paid to anxiety during a second round of quarantine due to COVID-19 and are of help in planning psychological interventions.

15.
Bioorg Chem ; 107: 104619, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450541

RESUMO

Severe emerging and re-emerging viral infections such as Lassa fever, Avian influenza (AI), and COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 urgently call for new strategies for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals targeting conserved components in the virus life cycle. Viral lipids are essential components, and viral-cell membrane fusion is the required entry step for most unrelated enveloped viruses. In this paper, we identified a porphyrin derivative of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) that showed broad antiviral activities in vitro against a panel of enveloped pathogenic viruses including Lassa virus (LASV), Machupo virus (MACV), and SARS-CoV-2 as well as various subtypes of influenza A viral strains with IC50 values ranging from 0.91 ± 0.25 µM to 1.88 ± 0.34 µM. A mechanistic study using influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) as a testing strain showed that PPIX inhibits the infection in the early stage of virus entry through biophysically interacting with the hydrophobic lipids of enveloped virions, thereby inhibiting the entry of enveloped viruses into host cells. In addition, the preliminary antiviral activities of PPIX were further assessed by testing mice infected with the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) virus. The results showed that compared with the control group without drug treatment, the survival rate and mean survival time of the mice treated with PPIX were apparently prolonged. These data encourage us to conduct further investigations using PPIX as a lead compound for the rational design of lipid-targeting antivirals for the treatment of infection with enveloped viruses.

16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 46, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early visual qualities of patients with moderate myopia were evaluated after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) using different optical zones. METHODS: In this retrospective case study, 27 cases (51 eyes) were selected, including 10 cases in Group A (19 eyes), 6.6-6.8 mm in the optical zone, 10 cases in Group B (19 eyes), 6.4-6.5 mm in the optical zone, and 7 cases in Group C (13 eyes),6.1-6.3 mm in the optical zone. The following items were examined preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively: uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical, cylinder, central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal mean curvature (CMC), total ocular aberrations (TA), total low order aberrations (tLOAs), defocus, astigmatism and total high order aberrations (tHOAs), spherical, coma, trefoil, modulation transfer function (MTF), MTFcutoff, SR, objective scatter index (OSI), point scatter function at 50 and 10% (PSF50%, PSF10%), and contrast visual acuity of 100, 20, and 9% (VA100%, VA20%, and VA9%). We compared the three groups by Kruskal-Wallis test. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for each group before and 1 month after surgeries. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in UCVA, BCVA, CCT, cylinder, and CMC in three groups preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively (P> 0.05). Comparison of the aberrations of the three groups showed statistically significant difference only in TA, tLOA, defocus, astigmatism and SA preoperatively, and trefoil 1 month postoperatively(P< 0.05). The postoperative TA, tLOAs, defocus, astigmatism and trefoil of the three groups were lower than those before surgeries (P< 0.05). The postoperative tHOAs of Group B and C was lower than those before surgeries (P< 0.05). The MTF results showed that before surgeries, there were significant differences in three groups (P< 0.05) in spatial frequencies 5~15 cycles per degree (cpd), and no differences in 20~30 cpd(P> 0.05), while no difference were observed in all spatial frequencies postoperatively (P> 0.05). Comparing the preoperative and postoperative MTF values for each group, the results showed that there was a significant difference in Group C at 5~20 cpd after surgeries(P< 0.05). There was no significant difference in MTFcutoff, SR, OSI, PSF50%, PSF10%, VA100%, VA20%, and VA9% in the three groups preoperatively (P> 0.05). One month after surgeries, higher VA9% values were measured for Group C compared to Group A and B (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in each group before and after surgeries (P> 0.05). CONCLUSION: SMILE could improve the visual qualities of patients with moderate myopia. Reducing the surgical optical zone will only affect night vision slightly.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2115, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483522

RESUMO

Glyphosate, the active ingredient of the most widely used commercial herbicide formulation, is extensively used and produced in China. Previous studies have reported sublethal effects of glyphosate on honeybees. However, the effects of commercially formulated glyphosate (CFG) at the recommended concentration (RC) on the chronic toxicity of honeybees, especially on their behaviours, remain unknown. In this study, a series of behavioural experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CFG on honeybees. The results showed that there was a significant decline in water responsiveness at 1/2 × , 1 × and 2 × the RC after 3 h of exposure to CFG for 11 days. The CFG significantly reduced sucrose responsiveness at 1/2 × and 1 × the RC. In addition, CFG significantly affected olfactory learning ability at 1/2 × , 1 × , and 2 × the RC and negatively affected memory ability at 1/2 × and 1 × the RC. The climbing ability of honeybees also significantly decreased at 1/2 × , 1 × and 2 × the RC. Our findings indicated that, after they were chronically exposed to CFG at the RC, honeybees exhibited behavioural changes. These results provide a theoretical basis for regulating field applications of CFG, which is necessary for establishing an early warning and notification system and for protecting honeybees.

18.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478156

RESUMO

Long-term dependence of illicit drugs impairs the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the secretion of endogenous steroids, cortisol, and cortisone. Thus, the present study aimed to develop a sensitive method for simultaneous determination of the multiple illicit drugs and two steroids in hair to monitor the status of illicit drug exposure and the physiological and psychological health of drug addicts. The target analytes were extracted from hair by incubation with 1 mL methanol for 24 h at 40 °C and then determined with LC-APCI+-MS/MS. The validated method showed acceptable linearity (R2 > 0.99) in the range of 1.25-250 pg/mg for cortisol and cortisone, 2.5-125 pg/mg for heroin, 2.5-1250 pg/mg for ketamine, 2.5-5000 pg/mg for methamphetamine (MAM), 2.5-250 pg/mg for 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-AM). Limits of quantification were 1.6, 1.2, 1.6, 1.0, 1.4, 0.3, 2.1, and 1.2 pg/mg for cortisol, cortisone, heroin, ketamine, MAM, MDMA, morphine, and 6-AM, respectively. Method recoveries were from 90-115% for all analytes. Inter-day and intra-day coefficients of variation were within 10%. Finally, this method was successfully applied to detect the aforementioned analytes in hair among female drug addicts who self-reported to be MAM abuser, heroin abuser, ketamine abuser, and abuser of mixture drugs of MAM and heroin. MAM abusers with current MAM use showed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, MAM, and MDMA than controls with drug withdrawal.

19.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458764

RESUMO

Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Serpina3c is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that plays a key role in metabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the role of serpina3c in atherosclerosis and regulation of VSMC proliferation and possible mechanisms. Serpina3c is downregulated during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis. An Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/--double-knockout mouse model was used to determine the role of serpina3c in atherosclerosis after HFD for 12 weeks. Compared with Apoe-/- mice, the Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/- mice developed more severe atherosclerosis, and the number of VSMCs and macrophages in aortic plaques was significantly increased. This study revealed serpina3c as a novel thrombin inhibitor that surppressed thrombin activity. In circulating plasma, thrombin activity was high in the Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/- mice, compared with Apoe-/- mice. Immunofluorescence staining showed thrombin and serpina3c colocalization in the liver and aortic cusp. In addition, inhibition of thrombin by dabigatran in serpina3c-/- mice reduced neointima lesion formation due to partial carotid artery ligation. Moreover, an in vitro study confirmed that thrombin activity was also decreased by serpina3c protein, supernatant and cell lysate that overexpressed serpina3c. The results of experiments showed that serpina3c negatively regulated VSMC proliferation in culture. The possible mechanism may involve serpina3c inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK signaling in thrombin/PAR-1 system-mediated VSMC proliferation. Our results highlight a protective role for serpina3c as a novel thrombin inhibitor in the development of atherosclerosis, with serpina3c conferring protection through the thrombin/PAR-1 system to negatively regulate VSMC proliferation through ERK1/2 and JNK signaling.

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