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1.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the potential factors associated with adherence to colonoscopy among participants who were preliminarily screened positive in a community-based colorectal cancer screening program in China. METHODS: This study analyzed data from 1219 out of 6971 community residents who were identified as positive cases by the well-validated high-risk factor questionnaire (HRFQ) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in the preliminary screening stage for colorectal neoplasms. Patients showing adherence to colonoscopy were defined as those who received positive results in a preliminary screening for colorectal neoplasms and later received a colonoscopy examination as required. The associations of social-demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and risk factors in the HRFQ with adherence to colonoscopy were evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 1219 participants who preliminarily screened positive, the top five risk factors reported by the participants were chronic constipation (25.9%), hematochezia (23.5%), family history of CRC in first-degree relatives (22.1%), chronic diarrhea (21.8%), and history of polyps (16.6%). Around 14.2% of participants who preliminarily screened positive reported three or more risk factors, and the proportion was 26.2% among participants who were positive according to both HRFQ and FIT. Among all participants who were preliminarily screened positive, the multivariable results showed that those who were married (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.25, p = 0.01), had chronic diarrhea (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.78, p = 0.047), and had a positive FIT (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.10, p < 0.001 for patients who were negative according to HRFQ but positive according to FIT; OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.78, p = 0.002 for patients who were positive for both HRFQ and FIT) were more likely to adhere to colonoscopy, while participants with a history of cancer (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.79, p = 0.003) were less likely to adhere to colonoscopy. The results among participants who were tested positive according to only HRFQ were similar to those among all participants who were tested positive according to HRFQ or FIT. However, among participants who were tested positive according to only FIT, we only found that those who were married (OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.90, p = 0.033) had a higher odds of adhering to colonoscopy, while those with a history of diabetes (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.96, p = 0.042) were less likely to adhere to colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence supporting the development of tailored interventional strategies that aim to improve adherence to colonoscopy for individuals with a high risk of colorectal neoplasms. Both barriers and facilitators associated with adherence to colonoscopy should be considered in supportive systems and health policies. However, further well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

2.
Discov Oncol ; 13(1): 4, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The positive predictive value (PPV) of high risk factor questionnaire (HRFQ) plus fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as preliminary screening strategy for colorectal-related neoplasia is relatively low. We aim to explore independent factors associated with PPVs of HRFQ combined FIT for selecting high risk individuals for colonoscopy. METHODS: A total of 6971 residents were enrolled in a community-based screening program. Participants who had positive results of HRFQ and/or FIT and subsequently received colonoscopy were involved. The associations of socio-demographic factors, lifestyle behaviors, and high risk factors of colorectal cancer with PPVs of HRFQ, FIT, and their combination were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 572 involved cases, 249 (43.5%) colorectal neoplasms were detected by colonoscopy, including 71 advanced adenoma (12.4%) and 9 colorectal cancer (CRC) (1.6%). The PPVs of preliminary screening were 43.5% for total colorectal neoplasms, 14.0% for advanced neoplasm, and 1.6% for CRC. Adding positive HRFQ to FIT could improve the PPV from 3.5 to 8.0% for detecting CRC. Preliminarily screened positive individuals who were males [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.95, 95% CI 1.31, 2.90; p < 0.001], elders (> 60 years) (AOR: 1.70, 95% CI 1.17, 2.46; p = 0.005), or ex-/current smokers (AOR: 3.04, 95% CI 1.31, 7.09; p = 0.10) had higher odds of PPVs of detecting colorectal neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Combining HRFQ and FIT could largely improve PPVs for screening advanced neoplasm and CRC. Gender and age-specific FIT cut-off values as well as initiating ages for CRC screening might be recommended to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of current screening algorithm.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 227: 112886, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673406

RESUMO

Atrazine (ATR) is a widely used herbicide that can induce the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in a Parkinson's disease-like syndrome. Despite the high risk of environmental exposure, few studies have investigated strategies for the prevention of ATR neurotoxicity. Our previous studies demonstrated that ATR can impair mitochondrial function, leading to metabolic failure. Cells maintain mitochondrial quality through selective autophagic elimination, termed mitophagy. Soybean isoflavones (SI) possess multiple beneficial bioactivities, including preservation of mitochondria function, so it was hypothesized that SI can protect neurons against ATR toxicity by promoting mitophagy. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y neurons with SI prevented ATR-induced metabolic failure and cytotoxicity as assessed by intracellular ATP, Na+-K+-ATPase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability assays. The neuroprotective efficacy of SI was superior to the major individual components genistein, daidzein, and glycitein. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that ATR induced mitochondrial damage, while SI promoted the sequestration of damaged mitochondria into autophagic vesicles. Soybean isoflavones also induced mitophagy as evidenced by upregulated expression of BNIP3/NIX, BEX2, and LC3-II, while co-treatment with the mitophagy inhibitor Mdivi-1 blocked SI-mediated neuroprotection and prevented SI from reversing ATR-induced BEX2 downregulation. Furthermore, BEX2 knockdown inhibited SI-induced activation of the BNIP3/NIX pathway, mitophagy, and neuroprotection. These findings suggest that SI protects against ATR-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity by activating the BEX2/BNIP3/NIX pathway.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Isoflavonas , Atrazina/toxicidade , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Membrana , Mitofagia , Soja
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(25): 7016-7027, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060828

RESUMO

Daily intake of tea has been known to relate to a low risk of depression. In this study, we report that a special variety of tea in China, Camellia assamica var. kucha (kucha), possesses antidepressant effects but with less adverse effects as compared to traditional tea Camellia sinensis. This action of kucha is related to its high amount of theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects and mechanisms of theacrine in chronic water immersion restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress mice models. PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neural stem cells were treated with stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) to reveal the potential antidepression mechanism of theacrine from the perspective of adult hippocampus neurogenesis. Results of behavioral and neurotransmitter analysis showed that intragastric administration of theacrine significantly counteracted chronic stress-induced depression-like disorders and abnormal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism with less central excitability. Further investigation from both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that the antidepressant mechanism of theacrine was associated with promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis, via the modulation of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/cAMP response-element binding (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway. Collectively, our findings could promote the prevalence of kucha as a common beverage with uses for health care and contribute to the development of theacrine as a potential novel antidepressant medicine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Camellia sinensis , Animais , Antidepressivos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , China , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Neurogênese , Purinas , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico , Chá , Ácido Úrico/análogos & derivados
5.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(3): 447-463, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458764

RESUMO

Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Serpina3c is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that plays a key role in metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the role of serpina3c in atherosclerosis and regulation of VSMC proliferation and possible mechanisms. Serpina3c is down-regulated during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis. An Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/--double-knockout mouse model was used to determine the role of serpina3c in atherosclerosis after HFD for 12 weeks. Compared with Apoe-/- mice, the Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/- mice developed more severe atherosclerosis, and the number of VSMCs and macrophages in aortic plaques was significantly increased. The present study revealed serpina3c as a novel thrombin inhibitor that suppressed thrombin activity. In circulating plasma, thrombin activity was high in the Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/- mice, compared with Apoe-/- mice. Immunofluorescence staining showed thrombin and serpina3c colocalization in the liver and aortic cusp. In addition, inhibition of thrombin by dabigatran in serpina3c-/- mice reduced neointima lesion formation due to partial carotid artery ligation. Moreover, an in vitro study confirmed that thrombin activity was also decreased by serpina3c protein, supernatant and cell lysate that overexpressed serpina3c. The results of experiments showed that serpina3c negatively regulated VSMC proliferation in culture. The possible mechanism may involve serpina3c inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK signaling in thrombin/PAR-1 system-mediated VSMC proliferation. Our results highlight a protective role for serpina3c as a novel thrombin inhibitor in the development of atherosclerosis, with serpina3c conferring protection through the thrombin/PAR-1 system to negatively regulate VSMC proliferation through ERK1/2 and JNK signaling.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Serpinas/farmacologia , Trombina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Aorta , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neointima , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Serpinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(6): 1971-1989, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432112

RESUMO

During cancer therapy, phagocytic clearance of dead cells plays a vital role in immune homeostasis. The nonapoptotic form of cell death, ferroptosis, exhibits extraordinary potential in tumor treatment. However, the phagocytosis mechanism that regulates the engulfment of ferroptotic cells remains unclear. Here, we establish a novel pathway for phagocytic clearance of ferroptotic cells that is different from canonical mechanisms by using diverse ferroptosis models evoked by GPX4 dysfunction/deficiency. We identified the oxidized phospholipid, 1-steaoryl-2-15-HpETE-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (SAPE-OOH), as a key eat-me signal on the ferroptotic cell surface. Enriching the plasma membrane with SAPE-OOH increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of ferroptotic cells by macrophage, a process that was suppressed by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Ligand fishing, lipid blotting, and cellular thermal shift assay screened and identified TLR2 as a membrane receptor that directly recognized SAPE-OOH, which was further confirmed by TLR2 inhibitors and gene silencing studies. A mouse mammary tumor model of ferroptosis verified SAPE-OOH and TLR2 as critical players in the clearance of ferroptotic cells in vivo. Taken together, this work demonstrates that SAPE-OOH on ferroptotic cell surface acts as an eat-me signal and navigates phagocytosis by targeting TLR2 on macrophages.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/genética , Fagocitose/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153398, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid quinonemethide isolated from several spp. of Celastraceae family, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities in a variety of diseases including arthritis. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate whether the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome is engaged in the anti-inflammatory activities of celastrol and delineate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The influence of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was firstly studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-primed THP-1 cells treated with nigericin. Reconstituted inflammasome was also established by co-transfecting NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß in HEK293T cells. The changes of inflammasome components including NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1/caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß/IL-1ß were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)/LPS-induced liver injury and monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in mice were employed in vivo to validate the inhibitory effect of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome. RESULTS: Celastrol significantly suppressed the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß, while not affecting the protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß in THP-1 cells, BMDMs and HEK293T cells. Celastrol suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and alleviated P. acnes/LPS-induced liver damage and MSU-induced gouty arthritis. Mechanism study revealed that celastrol could interdict K63 deubiquitination of NLRP3, which may concern interaction of celastrol and BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3), and thereby prohibited the formation of NLRP3, ASC and pro-caspase-1 complex to block the generation of mature IL-1ß. CONCLUSION: Celastrol suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation in P. acnes/LPS-induced liver damage and MSU-induced gouty arthritis via inhibiting K63 deubiquitination of NLRP3, which presents a novel insight into inhibition of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome and provides more evidences for its application in the therapy of inflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Gotosa/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Gotosa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos , Propionibacterium acnes/patogenicidade , Células THP-1 , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/toxicidade
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9137-9146, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337143

RESUMO

The digestion and absorption of different structural lipids in human milk may be different. Hence, by simulating in vitro infant digestion and Caco-2 cells to explore the effects of 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-linoleoylglycerol (OPL)/1,3-dilinoleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (LPL)/1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) and their mixtures (M) (OPL/LPL/OPO in M1, M2, and M3 were 1.5/0.5/1, 1.2/1.2/1, and 0.5/0.2/1, respectively) on digestion and absorption. The digestibility of the OPO group was higher than those of the OPL and LPL groups, and the M3 group was higher than the M1 and M2 groups. The synthesis and transport of triglycerides in Caco-2 cells in OPL and LPL groups were higher than the OPO group, and the M1 group was significantly higher than that of M3. The expression of FABP1, PPARα, and MTT protein in OPL and M1 groups was significantly higher than OPO and M3, respectively. There are differences in the digestion and absorption of differently structured lipids from this study.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico , Ácido Oleico , Células CACO-2 , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Leite Humano , Palmitatos , Triglicerídeos
9.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 810251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187075

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A 58-year-old man visited his local hospital due to abdominal discomfort and was diagnosed with lung metastasis. After admission to our hospital in April 2020, he received two cycles of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC-Folfox), sorafenib, and camrelizumab every 3 weeks. Due to the end of HAIC treatment, he underwent drug-eluting transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (dTACE) once, sorafenib, and camrelizumab. However, because of worsening liver function, we interrupted TACE and only gave sorafenib and camrelizumab in August 2020. Although he received systemic therapy, the tumors still rapidly progressed and we considered the possibility of tumor resistance. Subsequently, regorafenib was given. In September, the patient underwent conventional TACE (cTACE) once, regorafenib, and camrelizumab. After half a year of comprehensive treatment, the treatment effect was not satisfactory, and he returned to the local hospital to received regorafenib every day and camrelizumab once every 3 weeks. The patient found that the tumor and lung metastasis had shrunk significantly after 1 year of the initial diagnosis, then he was admitted to our hospital and received surgery treatment, and now he has survived disease-free for 6 months.

10.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(5): 575-585, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106828

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death which is dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxides. It is obviously different from other cell death types in terms of morphology, biochemistry, genetics, etc. Also, it is related to the production of iron catalyzed lipid peroxides which is triggered by non-enzymatic or enzymatic reactions. Ferroptosis has been proved to be involved in hematological diseases, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, liver and kidney diseases. This paper will review the definition, mechanism, inducers of ferroptosis, as well as the function of ferroptosis in respiratory system. We expect to present a new concept for respiratory research and suggest potential targets for clinical prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Transtornos Respiratórios , Morte Celular , Humanos , Ferro , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 202, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943610

RESUMO

Although stress has been known to increase the susceptibility of pathogen infection, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we reported that restraint stress dramatically enhanced the morbidity and mortality of mice infected with the influenza virus (H1N1) and obviously aggravated lung inflammation. Corticosterone (CORT), a main type of glucocorticoids in rodents, was secreted in the plasma of stressed mice. We further found that this stress hormone significantly boosted virus replication by restricting mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein-transduced IFN-ß production without affecting its mRNA level, while the deficiency of MAVS abrogated stress/CORT-induced viral susceptibility in mice. Mechanistically, the effect of CORT was mediated by proteasome-dependent degradation of MAVS, thereby resulting in the impediment of MAVS-transduced IFN-ß generation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, RNA-seq assay results indicated the involvement of Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) in this process. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments indicated that Mfn2 interacted with MAVS and recruited E3 ligase SYVN1 to promote the polyubiquitination of MAVS. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments clarified an interaction between any two regions of Mfn2 (HR1), MAVS (C-terminal/TM) and SYVN1 (TM). Collectively, our findings define the Mfn2-SYVN1 axis as a new signaling cascade for proteasome-dependent degradation of MAVS and a 'fine tuning' of antiviral innate immunity in response to influenza infection under stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Corticosterona/farmacologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 781, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951003

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury is the major cause of acute liver failure. However, the underlying mechanisms seem to be multifaceted and remain poorly understood, resulting in few effective therapies. Here, we report a novel mechanism that contributes to acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through the induction of ferroptosis, a distinctive form of programmed cell death. We subsequently identified therapies protective against acetaminophen-induced liver damage and found that (+)-clausenamide ((+)-CLA), an active alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels, inhibited acetaminophen-induced hepatocyte ferroptosis both in vivo and in vitro. Consistently, (+)-CLA significantly alleviated acetaminophen-induced or erastin-induced hepatic pathological damages, hepatic dysfunctions and excessive production of lipid peroxidation both in cultured hepatic cell lines and mouse liver. Furthermore, treatment with (+)-CLA reduced the mRNA level of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 while it increased the protein level of glutathione peroxidase 4 in hepatocytes and mouse liver, confirming that the inhibition of ferroptosis contributes to the protective effect of (+)-CLA on drug-induced liver damage. We further revealed that (+)-CLA specifically reacted with the Cys-151 residue of Keap1, which blocked Nrf2 ubiquitylation and resulted in an increased Nrf2 stability, thereby leading to the activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway to prevent drug-induced hepatocyte ferroptosis. Our studies illustrate the innovative mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and present a novel intervention strategy to treat drug overdose by using (+)-CLA.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactamas/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Fígado/lesões , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Cell Signal ; 75: 109745, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serpina3 is a member of the serine protease inhibitor family and is involved in the inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of Serpina3c on pancreatic function in hypercholesterolemic mice. METHODS: To investigate the role of Serpina3c in hyperlipidaemia, Serpina3c knockout mice were bred with Apoe-knockout mice (on a C57BL/6 background) to generate heterozygous Serpina3c-Apoe double knockout (Serpina3c+/-/Apoe+/-) mice and were then bred to obtain homozygotes. C57BL/6, Serpina3c-/-, Apoe-/-, and Apoe-/-Serpina3c-/- mice were fed normal chow, and Apoe-/- and Apoe-/-Serpina3c-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). After feeding for 3 months, the mice were monitored for body weight, blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance test (ITT). ELISA and immunohistochemistry were used to detect insulin levels and glucagon expression. Immunohistochemical staining for macrophages in the pancreas was also performed. Western blot analysis was performed on pancreatic tissues to detect the protein levels of insulin-associated molecules, the metalloproteinase MMP2, the tissue inhibitor TIMP2 and components of the JNK-related pathway. RESULTS: Blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and ITT were not significantly different among the groups. Serpina3c knockout resulted in blood lipid abnormalities in mice under HFD conditions. Insulin secretion was decreased in Apoe-/-Serpina3c-/- mice compared with Apoe-/- mice under normal chow conditions. In addition, Apoe-/-Serpina3c-/- mice exhibited increased insulin and glucagon secretion and expression after three months of HFD feeding, but insulin secretion was decreased in Apoe-/-Serpina3c-/- mice compared with Apoe-/- mice after the fifth month of HFD feeding. Serpina3c knockout increased MMP2 protein levels, whereas TIMP2 levels in the pancreas were decreased. Furthermore, Serpina3c knockout significantly upregulated the number of macrophages in the pancreas under HFD conditions. The JNK/AKT/FOXO1/PDX-1 axis was found to be involved in Serpina3c-regulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: These novel findings show that Serpina3c could play a protective role in insulin secretion partly through the JNK-related pathway under HFD conditions.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Pancreatopatias/metabolismo , Serpinas/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE
14.
FASEB J ; 34(8): 10998-11014, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619083

RESUMO

Chronic stress-evoked depression has been implied to associate with the decline of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Caffeine has been known to combat stress-evoked depression. Herein, we aim to investigate whether the protective effect of caffeine on depression is related with improving adult hippocampus neurogenesis and explore the mechanisms. Mouse chronic water immersion restraint stress (CWIRS) model, corticosterone (CORT)-established cell stress model, a coculture system containing CORT-treated BV-2 cells and hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) were utilized. Results showed that CWIRS caused obvious depressive-like disorders, abnormal 5-HT signaling, and elevated-plasma CORT levels. Notably, microglia activation-evoked brain inflammation and inhibited neurogenesis were also observed in the hippocampus of stressed mice. In comparison, intragastric administration of caffeine (10 and 20 mg/kg, 28 days) significantly reverted CWIRS-induced depressive behaviors, neurogenesis recession and microglia activation in the hippocampus. Further evidences from both in vivo and in vitro mechanistic experiments demonstrated that caffeine treatment significantly suppressed microglia activation via the A2AR/MEK/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. The results suggested that CORT-induced microglia activation contributes to stress-mediated neurogenesis recession. The antidepression effect of caffeine was associated with unlocking microglia activation-induced neurogenesis inhibition.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Eur Respir J ; 56(5)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a fatal but undertreated condition with severe neutrophilic inflammation, although little is known about the functions of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of ALI. Our objectives were to investigate the roles and molecular mechanisms of eosinophils in ALI. METHODS: Pulmonary eosinophils were identified by flow cytometry. Mice with abundant or deficient eosinophils were used. Cellularity of eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, inflammatory assessment, and survival rate were determined. Human samples were also used for validating experimental results. RESULTS: Blood eosinophils were increased in surviving patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) independent of corticosteroid usage. There existed homeostatic eosinophils in lung parenchyma in mice and these homeostatic eosinophils, originating from the bone marrow, were predominantly CD101-. More CD101- eosinophils could be recruited earlier than lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-initiated neutrophilic inflammation. Loss of eosinophils augmented LPS-induced pulmonary injury. Homeostatic CD101- eosinophils ameliorated, while allergic CD101+ eosinophils exacerbated, the neutrophilic inflammation induced by LPS. Likewise, CD101 expression in eosinophils from ARDS patients did not differ from healthy subjects. Mechanistically, CD101- eosinophils exhibited higher levels of Alox15 and Protectin D1. Administration of Protectin D1 isomer attenuated the neutrophilic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings identify an uncovered function of native CD101- eosinophils in suppressing neutrophilic lung inflammation and suggest a potential therapeutic target for ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Endotoxinas , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Eosinófilos , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão , Camundongos
16.
Eur Respir J ; 56(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366484

RESUMO

It is currently not understood whether cigarette smoke exposure facilitates sensitisation to self-antigens and whether ensuing auto-reactive T cells drive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-associated pathologies.To address this question, mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks. Following a 2-week period of rest, mice were challenged intratracheally with elastin for 3 days or 1 month. Rag1-/- , Mmp12-/- , and Il17a-/- mice and neutralising antibodies against active elastin fragments were used for mechanistic investigations. Human GVAPGVGVAPGV/HLA-A*02:01 tetramer was synthesised to assess the presence of elastin-specific T cells in patients with COPD.We observed that 2 weeks of cigarette smoke exposure induced an elastin-specific T cell response that led to neutrophilic airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction following elastin recall challenge. Repeated elastin challenge for 1 month resulted in airway remodelling, lung function decline and airspace enlargement. Elastin-specific T cell recall responses were dose dependent and memory lasted for over 6 months. Adoptive T cell transfer and studies in T cells deficient Rag1-/- mice conclusively implicated T cells in these processes. Mechanistically, cigarette smoke exposure-induced elastin-specific T cell responses were matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)12-dependent, while the ensuing immune inflammatory processes were interleukin 17A-driven. Anti-elastin antibodies and T cells specific for elastin peptides were increased in patients with COPD.These data demonstrate that MMP12-generated elastin fragments serve as a self-antigen and drive the cigarette smoke-induced autoimmune processes in mice that result in a bronchitis-like phenotype and airspace enlargement. The study provides proof of concept of cigarette smoke-induced autoimmune processes and may serve as a novel mouse model of COPD.


Assuntos
Elastina , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Animais , Autoimunidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(9): 3598-3607, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pingwu Fuzhuan brick tea is a type of post-fermented tea manufactured from leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, the quality of which is influenced by numerous factors, especially microorganisms. Currently, there is little research on the effect of microorganisms on the fermentation and quality characteristics of Pingwu Fuzhuan brick tea. Investigation of the main fungus in this tea and its effect on the fermentation process and tea quality can provide insights into the manufacturing of 'western road' border-selling tea and could lay the foundation for the popularization of Pingwu Fuzhuan brick tea. RESULTS: The main 'golden flower fungus' in Pingwu Fuzhuan brick tea was isolated and identified as Eurotium cristatum (GenBank accession number: MF800948.1; strain PW-1). Compared with natural fermentation, PW-1 inoculated fermentation accelerated biotransformation of phenolic compounds, which provided tea samples with better taste and tea infusion color. The proportions of velvety and sweet-tasting amino acids increased after 16-day fermentation with PW-1. Alcohols were the most abundant volatiles, with 40.13% and 39.43% content in NF16d and IF16d tea samples, respectively. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) further revealed that naturally fermented and PW-1 fermented teas were significantly different. CONCLUSION: Strain PW-1 plays an important role in the fermentation process of Fuzhuan brick tea. Considering fermentation efficiency and tea quality, fermentation inoculated with E. cristatum PW-1 can be applied in the manufacturing of 'western road' border-selling tea. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Eurotium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Eurotium/classificação , Eurotium/genética , Eurotium/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação , Folhas de Planta/química , Chá/química
18.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(6): 3361-3374, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463181

RESUMO

Multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging and treatment in cancer are getting more and more attention recently. Herein, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), natural clay nanotubes, are designed as multifunctional nanoplatform for targeted delivering photothermal therapy agents and chemotherapeutic drugs. Fe3O4 was anchored on the outer surfaces of HNTs and then doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded on the nanotubes. Afterward, a layer of polypyrrole (PPy), as photothermal agent, was wrapped on the tubes. The nanoplatform of HNT@Fe3O4@PPy@DOX can be guided to tumor tissue by an external magnetic field, and then performs chemo-photothermal combined therapy by 808 nm laser irradiation. HNT@Fe3O4@PPy@DOX shows the ability of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which could be considered as a promising application in magnetic targeting tumor therapy. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that HNTs nanoplatform has good biocompatibility and produces a strong antitumor effect trigged by near-infrared laser irradiation. The novel chemo-photothermal therapy nanoplatform based on HNTs may be developed as a multifunctional nanoparticle for imaging and therapy in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hipertermia Induzida , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Doxorrubicina , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Polímeros , Pirróis
19.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(2): 221-228, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alternative splicing can generate various structural and functional protein isoforms. Recently, accumulating evidence shows a relationship between alternative splicing and cancer. Cancer is a complex and chronic disease that involves malignant transformation. In this review, we consider alternative splicing events in relation to the hallmarks of cancer cells, and discuss current therapies to treat cancer-related to alternative splicing. DATA SOURCES: Data cited in this article are from the PubMed and Embase database, primarily focusing on research published from 2000 to 2018. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were selected with the search terms "alternative splicing," "cancer cell," "tumor microenvironment," and "therapy." RESULTS: Alternative splicing plays an important role in tumorigenesis, development, and escape from cell death. Taking this trait of cancer cells into consideration will allow more definite diagnoses of cancer, and allow the development of more effective medicines to intervene in cancer that could focus on controlling alternative splicing or competitively binding to the final products. CONCLUSIONS: Alternative splicing is common in cancer cells. Consideration of alternative splicing may allow different strategies for cancer therapy or the identification of novel biomarkers for cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/fisiologia , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900436, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705573

RESUMO

A facile method was developed for synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized silica nanocomposites (SiO2 -BA) by 'thiol-ene' click reaction, where silica nanoparticles were synthesized by using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and γ-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) as precursors. The morphology and structure properties of the resultant SiO2 -BA were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements (BET). The adsorption behavior of the SiO2 -BA for glycoproteins was evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the SiO2 -BA exhibited higher adsorption capacity towards glycoproteins (ovalbumin, OVA, 7.64 µmol/g) than non-glycoproteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA, 0.83 µmol/g). In addition, the practicality of the SiO2 -BA was further assessed by selective enrichment of glycoproteins from egg white samples.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Nanocompostos/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Adsorção , Clara de Ovo/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Dióxido de Silício/síntese química , Propriedades de Superfície
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