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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101358, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358955

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) or Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and the cecal microflora in broiler chickens. In total, 360 male, 1-day-old Cobb 500 birds were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group was fed a basal diet; the B. subtilis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. subtilis; the B. licheniformis group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 1.5 × 109 CFU/kg B. licheniformis. Results showed that chickens supplemented with either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had comparatively higher (P < 0.05) body weight and average daily gain, whereas no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in feed efficiency. Concentrations of serum IgA, IgY, and IgM, as well as anti-inflammatory IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05), and proinflammatory IL-1ß and IL-6 were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation. Moreover, chickens fed with diets supplemented by either B. subtilis or B. licheniformis had greater antioxidant capacity, indicated by the notable increases (P < 0.05) in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, along with decrease (P < 0.05) in malondialdehyde. Compared to the control group, levels of SCFA, excluding acetic and propionic acid, in cecal content had improved (P < 0.05) by adding B. licheniformis, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in acetic and butyric acid was observed with B. subtilis supplementation. Microbial analysis showed that both B. subtilis or B. licheniformis supplementation could increase butyrate-producing bacteria such as Alistipes and Butyricicoccus, and decrease pathogenic bacteria such as the Synergistetes and Gammaproteobacteria. In summary, dietary supplemented with B. subtilis or B. licheniformis improved growth performance, immune status, and antioxidant capacity, increased SCFA production, and modulated cecal microbiota in chickens. Moreover, B. licheniformis was more effective than B. subtilis with the same supplemental amount.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bacillus subtilis , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Masculino
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101315, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280650

RESUMO

Antibiotic overuse in poultry husbandry poses a potential threat to meat safety and human health. Lauric acid (LA) is a primary medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) with a strong antibacterial capacity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of LA on the growth performance, immune responses, serum metabolism, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. One-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups: CON, fed a basal diet; ANT, a basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg antibiotic; LA500, a basal diet supplemented with 500 mg/kg LA; LA1000, a basal diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg LA. The feeding period was 42 d. The results showed that LA significantly improved broiler growth and immune functions, as evidenced by increased body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG), enhanced intestinal mucosal barrier, upregulated immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgY), and downregulated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-10) (P < 0.05). HPLC/MS-based metabolome analysis revealed that the serum metabolites in the LA group differed from those of CON and ANT groups. LA markedly decreased the abundance of phosphatidylcholines (PCs), increased lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs), and inhibited the sphingolipid metabolism pathway, indicating its capacity to modulate lipid metabolism. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that LA significantly altered cecal microbiota composition by reducing Phascolarctobacterium, Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, and Bacteroides, and increasing Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Spearman correlation analysis revealed that changes in metabolism and microbiota were highly correlated with the growth and immune indices; strong links were also found between lipid metabolism and microbial composition. Taken together, LA promotes broiler growth and immune functions by regulating lipid metabolism and gut microbiota. The above findings highlight the substantial potential of LA as a supplement in poultry diets and provide a new strategy to reduce antibiotic usage and improve food safety.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Láuricos , Masculino , Metaboloma , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhamnolipids (RLS), well known as glycolipid biosurfactants, display low toxicity, high biodegradability, and strong antibacterial properties. This study was carried out to evaluate the use of RLS supplementation as a substitute for antibiotics, and particularly to evaluate its effects on growth performance, immunity, intestinal barrier function, and metabolome composition in broilers. RESULTS: The RLS treatment improved the growth performance, immunity, and intestinal barrier function in broilers. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the genus Alistipes was the dominant genus in broilers treated by RLS. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS)-based metabolomic analysis indicated that the sphingolipid metabolism, glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism, the gycerophospholipid metabolism, and the tryptophan metabolism were changed in broilers that were treated with RLS. CONCLUSION: l-Tryptophan may be the medium for RLS to regulate the growth and physiological metabolism. Rhamnolipids can be used as a potential alternative to antibiotics, with similar functions to antibiotics in the diet of broilers. The optimal level of supplemented RLS in the diet was 1000 mg kg-1 . © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

4.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065904

RESUMO

(1) Background: Chronic inflammation has been regarded as a risk factor for the onset and progression of human cancer, but the critical molecular mechanisms underlying this pathological process have yet to be elucidated. (2) Methods: In this study, we investigated whether interleukin (IL)-17-mediated inflammation was involved in cigarette smoke-induced genomic instability. (3) Results: Higher levels of both IL-17 and the DNA damage response (DDR) were found in the lung tissues of smokers than in those of non-smokers. Similarly, elevated levels of IL-17 and the DDR were observed in mice after cigarette smoke exposure, and a positive correlation was observed between IL-17 expression and the DDR. In line with these observations, the DDR in the mouse lung was diminished in IL-17 KO when exposed to cigarette smoke. Besides this, the treatment of human bronchial epithelium cells with IL-17 led to increased levels of the DDR and chromosome breakage. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest that cigarette smoke induces genomic instability at least partially through IL-17-mediated inflammation, implying that IL-17 could play an important role in the development of lung cancer.

5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133828

RESUMO

AIM: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum in isolation or in combination with 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in early-stage broilers. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 360 half male and half female Cobb broilers (1 day old) were randomly divided into four groups: Con (basal diet), Anti (basal diet+75 mg/kg chlortetracycline), Cb (basal diet+109  CFU per kg C. butyricum) and CD (basal diet+109  CFU per kg C. butyricum+25 µg/kg 1,25(OH)2 D3 ). The results were as follows: (1) Compared with Con, CD significantly increased ADG (p < 0.05). (2) Contrast with Con and Anti, Cb and CD significantly increased glutathione peroxidase and SOD in the serum and liver, and decreased malondialdehyde content in serum (p < 0.05). (3) In addition, the content of immunoglobulin (IgA, IgY and IgM) in Cb and CD birds was higher than that in Con birds (p < 0.05); the Cb supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) the contents of IL-8, IL-1ß and TNF-α than those in Con. (4) Cb and CD had lower caecal acetic and propionic content than the Anti group (p < 0.05). (5) The community richness of Con was significantly higher than that of Anti (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Alistipes and Ruminococcaceae-UCG-014 in Cb and CD supplemented birds were lower than those in Con (p < 0.05). The relative abundant of Escherichia-Shigella in CD was higher than Con and Anti (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that dietary C. butyricum and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can improve the growth performance, immunity responses, antioxidation, bone development and intestinal microflora in early-stage broilers. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Oral administration of C. butyricum or C. butyricum combined with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhanced immunity and antioxidant activity in early-stage birds.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(25): 7016-7027, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060828

RESUMO

Daily intake of tea has been known to relate to a low risk of depression. In this study, we report that a special variety of tea in China, Camellia assamica var. kucha (kucha), possesses antidepressant effects but with less adverse effects as compared to traditional tea Camellia sinensis. This action of kucha is related to its high amount of theacrine, a purine alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects and mechanisms of theacrine in chronic water immersion restraint stress and chronic unpredictable mild stress mice models. PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neural stem cells were treated with stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) to reveal the potential antidepression mechanism of theacrine from the perspective of adult hippocampus neurogenesis. Results of behavioral and neurotransmitter analysis showed that intragastric administration of theacrine significantly counteracted chronic stress-induced depression-like disorders and abnormal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism with less central excitability. Further investigation from both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that the antidepressant mechanism of theacrine was associated with promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis, via the modulation of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/cAMP response-element binding (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway. Collectively, our findings could promote the prevalence of kucha as a common beverage with uses for health care and contribute to the development of theacrine as a potential novel antidepressant medicine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Camellia sinensis , Animais , Antidepressivos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , China , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Neurogênese , Purinas , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico , Chá , Ácido Úrico/análogos & derivados
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186014

RESUMO

Airway epithelium is a central modulator of innate and adaptive immunity in the lung. Interleukin (IL)17A expression was found to be increased in airway epithelium; however, the role of epithelial-derived IL17A in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. In this study, we aim to determine whether epithelial-derived IL17A regulates inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in COPD using a cultured human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line in vitro and airway epithelium IL17A-specific knockout mouse in vivo. Increased IL17A expression was observed in mouse airway epithelium upon cigarette smoke (CS) exposure or in a COPD mouse model that was induced by CS and elastin. CS extract (CSE) also triggered IL17A expression in HBE cells. Blocking IL17A or IL17RA effectively attenuated CSE-induced MUC5AC and the inflammatory cytokines IL6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL1ß in HBE cells, suggesting that IL17A mediates CSE-induced inflammation and mucin production in an autocrine manner. CSE activated p-JUN and p-JNK, which were also reduced by IL17RA-siRNA, and JUN-siRNA attenuated CSE-induced IL6 and MUC5AC. In vivo, selective knockout of IL17A in airway epithelium markedly reduced the neutrophilic infiltration in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF), peribronchial inflammation, pro-inflammatory mediators (CXCL1 and CXCL2), and mucus production in a COPD mouse model. We showed a novel function of airway epithelium-derived IL17A, which can act locally in an autocrine manner to amplify inflammation and increase mucus production in COPD pathogenesis.

8.
Int J Nurs Pract ; : e12966, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036682

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effects of computerized cognitive training on the cognitive functions of stroke patients. BACKGROUND: With increased publications on computerized cognitive training, a meta-analysis is essential to determine the effects of computerized cognitive training among stroke patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EBSCO, Scopus, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biology Medicine disc and Wanfang Database were explored to search for research studies from inception to January 2020. REVIEW METHODS: Six outcomes indicators were considered to determine the effects of computerized cognitive training. Two reviewers were selected to search and independently appraise the available articles from various databases. Meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 622 patients with 17 studies were included. Computerized cognitive training significantly improves global cognition, working memory, attention and executive function of stroke patients. However, there was inadequate evidence to demonstrate any effects of computerized cognitive training on activities of daily living and depression. CONCLUSION: Computerized cognitive training improves the cognitive functions of stroke patients. However, further research studies are needed to confirm its efficacy in activities of daily living as well as on alleviating depression.

9.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101168, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975039

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, immunity function and gut health in broilers. A total of 480 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 3 treatments with 8 replicates comprising 20 broilers each. The experiment lasted 42 d. Treatments included: basal diet without antibiotics (NCO); basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline (ANT); basal diet supplemented with 5 × 109 CFU/kg B. coagulans(BC). The B. coagulans enhanced body weight (BW) and average daily gain compared with the NCO group (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in average daily feed intake and feed: gain ratio (F: G) among three groups (P > 0.05). The B. coagulans significantly increased catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and reduced malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05). The serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgY) were significantly higher in the BC group when compared to the NCO and ANT groups (P < 0.05). The B. coagulans also markedly reduced serum levels of proinflammatory factors (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) and enhanced anti-inflammatory factor (IL-10) concentrations compared with control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the control group, BC significantly inhibited serum xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.05). The levels of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyrate, isobutyric acid and valerate in BC group were significantly increased on d 42 compared with the NCO and ANT groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BC significantly altered cecal microbiota by reducing Desulfovibrio and Parasutterella, and by increasing Alistipes and Odoribacter (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, dietary B. coagulans, when used as an alternative to antibiotics, improved body weight, average daily gain, antioxidant capacity, immunity function and gut health in broilers.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bacillus coagulans , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais
10.
Food Chem ; 358: 129848, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933981

RESUMO

Autumn green tea (AT) has poor taste quality for its strong astringency. This study aims to improve the taste quality as well as the aroma of AT by Eurotium cristatum (MF800948) fermentation and to produce a fermented autumn green tea (FT). Results showed that the aroma quality of AT was improved, and the content of terpene alcohols that impart characteristic flowery aroma to FT significantly increased. The umami intensity of FT was comparable to that of AT while the astringency tasted much weaker mainly due to the oxidation of the catechins. The results also confirmed that theabrownins exhibited strong umami taste, not astringent taste. Finally, a metabolic map was analyzed to show the effect of E. cristatum (MF800948) on the quality of AT, and to visualize the changes of differential compounds in AT and FT. The work provides insights into the quality improvement of autumn green tea.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Fermentação , Paladar , Chá/química , Catequina/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Odorantes , Estações do Ano , Terpenos/análise
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(595)2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039741

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) not only are specialized in their capacity to secrete large amounts of type I interferon (IFN) but also serve to enable both innate and adaptive immune responses through expression of additional proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and costimulatory molecules. Persistent activation of pDCs has been demonstrated in a number of autoimmune diseases. To evaluate the potential benefit of depleting pDCs in autoimmunity, a monoclonal antibody targeting the pDC-specific marker immunoglobulin-like transcript 7 was generated. This antibody, known as VIB7734, which was engineered for enhanced effector function, mediated rapid and potent depletion of pDCs through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In cynomolgus monkeys, treatment with VIB7734 reduced pDCs in blood below the lower limit of normal by day 1 after the first dose. In two phase 1 studies in patients with autoimmune diseases, VIB7734 demonstrated an acceptable safety profile, comparable to that of placebo. In individuals with cutaneous lupus, VIB7734 profoundly reduced both circulating and tissue-resident pDCs, with a 97.6% median reduction in skin pDCs at study day 85 in VIB7734-treated participants. Reductions in pDCs in the skin correlated with a decrease in local type I IFN activity as well as improvements in clinical disease activity. Biomarker analysis suggests that responsiveness to pDC depletion therapy may be greater among individuals with high baseline type I IFN activity, supporting a central role for pDCs in type I IFN production in autoimmunity and further development of VIB7734 in IFN-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Interferon Tipo I , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo , Autoimunidade , Quimiocinas , Células Dendríticas , Humanos
12.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109994, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648228

RESUMO

Bacillus sp. was found in the Sichuan paocai, but their possible effects on Sichuan paocai fermentation are still elusive. In this study, the effect of Bacillus megaterium L222 isolated from high-quality homemade Sichuan paocai on the flavor characteristics and bacterial diversity was investigated. Overall, 7 organic acids, 16 free amino acids, and 48 volatile substances were detected in the B. megaterium L222-inoculated paocai (BMP) and spontaneously fermented paocai (SP) within 7 days. The metabolites produced in BMP were significantly different from that in SP, and 13 main flavor-related metabolites were the discriminant markers. The contents of free amino acids in BMP were much higher than that in SP. Compared to the SP group, the BMP group could better maintain the high level of alcohols, which improved the synthesis of esters, and controlled the increase of the content of sulfides. The representative bacteria in BMP were Weissella, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Leuconostoc, and the inoculation of B. megaterium L222 could significantly increase the amount of Weissella and inhibit the growth of opportunistic pathogen and other bacteria during the fermentation process of paocai. This study presents an important basis for the development of B. megaterium L222 as a starter for paocai fermentation.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Weissella , Fermentação , Lactococcus , Leuconostoc
13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(3): 447-463, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458764

RESUMO

Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Serpina3c is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that plays a key role in metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the role of serpina3c in atherosclerosis and regulation of VSMC proliferation and possible mechanisms. Serpina3c is down-regulated during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis. An Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/--double-knockout mouse model was used to determine the role of serpina3c in atherosclerosis after HFD for 12 weeks. Compared with Apoe-/- mice, the Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/- mice developed more severe atherosclerosis, and the number of VSMCs and macrophages in aortic plaques was significantly increased. The present study revealed serpina3c as a novel thrombin inhibitor that suppressed thrombin activity. In circulating plasma, thrombin activity was high in the Apoe-/-/serpina3c-/- mice, compared with Apoe-/- mice. Immunofluorescence staining showed thrombin and serpina3c colocalization in the liver and aortic cusp. In addition, inhibition of thrombin by dabigatran in serpina3c-/- mice reduced neointima lesion formation due to partial carotid artery ligation. Moreover, an in vitro study confirmed that thrombin activity was also decreased by serpina3c protein, supernatant and cell lysate that overexpressed serpina3c. The results of experiments showed that serpina3c negatively regulated VSMC proliferation in culture. The possible mechanism may involve serpina3c inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK signaling in thrombin/PAR-1 system-mediated VSMC proliferation. Our results highlight a protective role for serpina3c as a novel thrombin inhibitor in the development of atherosclerosis, with serpina3c conferring protection through the thrombin/PAR-1 system to negatively regulate VSMC proliferation through ERK1/2 and JNK signaling.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Serpinas/farmacologia , Trombina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antitrombinas/farmacologia , Aorta , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neointima , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Serpinas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(6): 1971-1989, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432112

RESUMO

During cancer therapy, phagocytic clearance of dead cells plays a vital role in immune homeostasis. The nonapoptotic form of cell death, ferroptosis, exhibits extraordinary potential in tumor treatment. However, the phagocytosis mechanism that regulates the engulfment of ferroptotic cells remains unclear. Here, we establish a novel pathway for phagocytic clearance of ferroptotic cells that is different from canonical mechanisms by using diverse ferroptosis models evoked by GPX4 dysfunction/deficiency. We identified the oxidized phospholipid, 1-steaoryl-2-15-HpETE-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (SAPE-OOH), as a key eat-me signal on the ferroptotic cell surface. Enriching the plasma membrane with SAPE-OOH increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of ferroptotic cells by macrophage, a process that was suppressed by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. Ligand fishing, lipid blotting, and cellular thermal shift assay screened and identified TLR2 as a membrane receptor that directly recognized SAPE-OOH, which was further confirmed by TLR2 inhibitors and gene silencing studies. A mouse mammary tumor model of ferroptosis verified SAPE-OOH and TLR2 as critical players in the clearance of ferroptotic cells in vivo. Taken together, this work demonstrates that SAPE-OOH on ferroptotic cell surface acts as an eat-me signal and navigates phagocytosis by targeting TLR2 on macrophages.

15.
Food Chem ; 343: 128425, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127221

RESUMO

Lead pollution are critical concerns for food safety and human health. Herein, a ratiometric metal-induced G-quadruplex polymorphism was introduced to construct aptamer probes, enabling label-free and ratiometric detection of lead in tea, thus is promising for on-site detection of lead pollution. The key feature of the aptamer probe is the synergistic utilization of the dual-wavelength fluorescent signal outputs from a G-quadruplex specific dye and a DNA intercalation dye under a single-wavelength excitation, leading to a more stable and reliable recognition of Pb2+ than that of analyses based on single fluorescent reporter. The aptamer probe allowed to a mix-and-read, rapid, cost-effective detection of Pb2+ with high specificity and accuracy. Pb2+ analysis in tap water and tea exhibited good performance with recovery rates of 92.3%-109.0%. The adoption of ratiometric metal-induced G-quadruplex polymorphism would be a compelling design strategy for constructing robust aptasensor, facilitating the translation of aptamer for food safety control.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Quadruplex G , Chumbo/análise , Chá/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Água Doce/análise , Indóis/química , Limite de Detecção , Mesoporfirinas/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9137-9146, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337143

RESUMO

The digestion and absorption of different structural lipids in human milk may be different. Hence, by simulating in vitro infant digestion and Caco-2 cells to explore the effects of 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-linoleoylglycerol (OPL)/1,3-dilinoleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (LPL)/1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) and their mixtures (M) (OPL/LPL/OPO in M1, M2, and M3 were 1.5/0.5/1, 1.2/1.2/1, and 0.5/0.2/1, respectively) on digestion and absorption. The digestibility of the OPO group was higher than those of the OPL and LPL groups, and the M3 group was higher than the M1 and M2 groups. The synthesis and transport of triglycerides in Caco-2 cells in OPL and LPL groups were higher than the OPO group, and the M1 group was significantly higher than that of M3. The expression of FABP1, PPARα, and MTT protein in OPL and M1 groups was significantly higher than OPO and M3, respectively. There are differences in the digestion and absorption of differently structured lipids from this study.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico , Ácido Oleico , Células CACO-2 , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Leite Humano , Palmitatos , Triglicerídeos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9147-9156, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369388

RESUMO

The effect of structured triacylglycerols [1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-linoleoylglycerol (OPL), 3-dilinoleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (LPL), and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO)] in human milk on the lipid metabolism was unclear. Hence, this study investigated the effects of different structured triacylglycerols and their mixtures (M) (OPL/LPL/OPO in M1, M2, and M3 were 1.5:0.5:1, 1.2:1.2:1, and 0.5:0.2:1, respectively) on lipid and expression levels of some critical proteins involved in lipid metabolism in LO2 cells. Results showed that there was more lipid accumulation in the LO2 cells exposed to 2,3-dioleoyl-1-palmitoylglycerol (POO) than OPL, LPL, and OPO (p < 0.05), and more lipid accumulation was observed in the OPL group compared to LPL and OPO groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was more lipid accumulation in the M3 group compared to M1 and M2 groups. The expression level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase was highest in the POO group compared to LPL, OPO, and OPL groups and was higher in the M3 group than M1 and M2 groups. The expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 were highest in the OPL group compared to OPO and LPL groups. In comparison to OPO and LPL, OPL seemed to be more likely to increase the content of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in LO2 cells; therefore, whether this was beneficial to the growth and development of infants needs further verification.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Leite Humano , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Triglicerídeos
18.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153398, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid quinonemethide isolated from several spp. of Celastraceae family, exhibits anti-inflammatory activities in a variety of diseases including arthritis. PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate whether the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome is engaged in the anti-inflammatory activities of celastrol and delineate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The influence of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome activation was firstly studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-primed THP-1 cells treated with nigericin. Reconstituted inflammasome was also established by co-transfecting NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß in HEK293T cells. The changes of inflammasome components including NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1/caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß/IL-1ß were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)/LPS-induced liver injury and monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in mice were employed in vivo to validate the inhibitory effect of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome. RESULTS: Celastrol significantly suppressed the cleavage of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß, while not affecting the protein expressions of NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1ß in THP-1 cells, BMDMs and HEK293T cells. Celastrol suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and alleviated P. acnes/LPS-induced liver damage and MSU-induced gouty arthritis. Mechanism study revealed that celastrol could interdict K63 deubiquitination of NLRP3, which may concern interaction of celastrol and BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3), and thereby prohibited the formation of NLRP3, ASC and pro-caspase-1 complex to block the generation of mature IL-1ß. CONCLUSION: Celastrol suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation in P. acnes/LPS-induced liver damage and MSU-induced gouty arthritis via inhibiting K63 deubiquitination of NLRP3, which presents a novel insight into inhibition of celastrol on NLRP3 inflammasome and provides more evidences for its application in the therapy of inflammation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Artrite Gotosa/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Artrite Gotosa/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Gotosa/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Mutantes , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Propionibacterium acnes/patogenicidade , Células THP-1 , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Úrico/toxicidade
19.
Protein J ; 39(6): 703-710, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130958

RESUMO

Bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) is the most documented member of BMP family and plays a crucial role in bone formation and growth. In this study, we systematically analyze and compare the complex crystal structures and interaction properties of BMP-2 with its cognate receptors BMPR-I/BMPR-II and with its natural antagonist crossveinless-2 (CV-2) using an integrated in silico-in vitro strategy. It is found that the antagonist-binding site is not fully overlapped with the two receptor-binding sites on BMP-2 surface; the antagonist can competitively disrupt BMP-2-BMPR-II interaction using a blocking-out-of-site manner, but has no substantial influence on BMP-2-BMPR-I interaction. Here, the antagonist-binding site is assigned as a new functional epitope armpit to differ from the traditional conformational epitope wrist and linear epitope knuckle at receptor-binding sites. Structural analysis reveals that the armpit comprises three sequentially discontinuous, structurally vicinal peptide segments, separately corresponding to a loop region and two ß-strands crawling on the protein surface. The three segments cannot work independently when splitting from the protein context, but can restore binding capability to CV-2 if they are connected to a single peptide. A systematic combination of different-length polyglycine linkers between these segments obtains a series of designed single peptides, from which several peptides that can potently interact with the armpit-recognition site of CV-2 with high affinity and specificity are identified using energetic analysis and fluorescence assay; they are expected to target BMP-2-CV-2 interaction in a self-inhibitory manner.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/química , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Simulação por Computador , Epitopos/química , Sítios de Ligação , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/química , Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/química , Humanos
20.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 4765-4774, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192052

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of snake-derived phospholipase A2 inhibitor (PLA2) from Sinonatrix percarinata and Bungarus multicinctus on acute pancreatitis in vivo and in vitro and assess the mechanisms. Methods: The levels of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected by ELISA, and the characteristics of autophagy were detected by transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting (LC3, p62, and ATG5). Results: In vitro experiments showed that PLA2 treatment caused obvious formation of autophagic bodies. By contrast, Sinonatrix and Bungarus peptides reduced the number of autophagic bodies. The concentrations of PAF and TNF-α, and the expressions of p62, autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)II/LC3I in the PLA2-treated group were significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.05). The concentrations of PAF and TNF-α, and the expressions of p62, ATG5, and LC3II/LC3I in the Sinonatrix or Bungarus peptide treatment groups were significantly lower than in the PLA2-treated cells (P<0.05). In the pancreatic tissue, autophagic bodies were observed in the model group; autophagic bodies were remarkably reduced in Sinonatrix or Bungarus peptide-treated groups compared with the model group. In vivo experiments also showed that the levels of PAF and TNF-α, and the expressions of p62, ATG5, and LC3II/LC3I were significantly higher in the model group than in the control group (P<0.05). The levels of PAF and TNF-α in the model group, and the expressions of p62, ATG5, and LC3II/LC3I in Sinonatrix or Bungarus peptide-treated groups were significantly lower than in the model group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Sinonatrix or Bungarus peptide could ameliorate the features of acute pancreatitis, likely through regulating autophagy.

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