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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030795

RESUMO

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is a high-risk yet less understood status before developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This work included 76 SCD individuals with two (baseline and 7 years later) neuropsychological evaluations and a baseline T1-weighted structural MRI. A machine learning-based model was trained based on 198 baseline neuroimaging (morphometric) features and a battery of 25 clinical measurements to discriminate 24 progressive SCDs who converted to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at follow-up from 52 stable SCDs. The SCD progression was satisfactorily predicted with the combined features. A history of stroke, a low education level, a low baseline MoCA score, a shrunk left amygdala, and enlarged white matter at the banks of the right superior temporal sulcus were found to favor the progression. This is to date the largest retrospective study of SCD-to-MCI conversion with the longest follow-up, suggesting predictable far-future cognitive decline for the risky populations with baseline measures only. These findings provide valuable knowledge to the future neuropathological studies of AD in its prodromal phase.

2.
Genetica ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052504

RESUMO

Amphibians are experiencing worldwide declines due to increasing anthropogenetic disturbances. However, the genetic variability and hence adaptability are still unknown for most frogs. We integrated the mitochondrial (ND2 gene), nuclear (TYR gene) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci, to clarify the demographic patterns and immune-gene diversity of the Lolokou Sucker Frog (Amolops loloensis). Demographic analysis of the ND2 and TYR genes suggested that the Lolokou Sucker Frog experienced a population expansion within the last 10,000 years. High MHC diversity was detected, which has likely resulted from positive selection, indicating the current diversity bodes well for the species' adaptive potential to pathogenic challenges. These findings broaden our knowledge on the population history and evolution adaptation of the reclusive torrent frog, and conservation implications are provided.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1558, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066755

RESUMO

The individual infectiousness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), quantified by the number of secondary cases of a typical index case, is conventionally modelled by a negative-binomial (NB) distribution. Based on patient data of 9120 confirmed cases in China, we calculated the variation of the individual infectiousness, i.e., the dispersion parameter k of the NB distribution, at 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 0.98). This suggests that the dispersion in the individual infectiousness is probably low, thus COVID-19 infection is relatively easy to sustain in the population and more challenging to control. Instead of focusing on the much fewer super spreading events, we also need to focus on almost every case to effectively reduce transmission.

4.
J Med Chem ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910656

RESUMO

Herein we report the optimization of a series of tricyclic indazoles as selective estrogen receptor degraders (SERD) and antagonists for the treatment of ER+ breast cancer. Structure based design together with systematic investigation of each region of the molecular architecture led to the identification of N-[1-(3-fluoropropyl)azetidin-3-yl]-6-[(6S,8R)-8-methyl-7-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrazolo[4,3-f]isoquinolin-6-yl]pyridin-3-amine (28). This compound was demonstrated to be a highly potent SERD that showed a pharmacological profile comparable to fulvestrant in its ability to degrade ERα in both MCF-7 and CAMA-1 cell lines. A stringent control of lipophilicity ensured that 28 had favorable physicochemical and preclinical pharmacokinetic properties for oral administration. This, combined with demonstration of potent in vivo activity in mouse xenograft models, resulted in progression of this compound, also known as AZD9833, into clinical trials.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105126, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been reported to play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of many diseases, including cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of LncRNA-Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel Subfamily Q Member 1 opposite strand/antisense transcript 1 (KCNQ1OT1) in cerebral I/R induced neuronal injury, and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Primary mouse cerebral cortical neurons treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro and mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion were used to mimic cerebral I/R injury. Small inference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown KCNQ1OT1 or microRNA-153-3p (miR-153-3p). Dual-luciferase assay was performed to detect the interaction between KCNQ1OT1 and miR-153-3p and interaction between miR-153-3p and Fork head box O3a (Foxo3). Flow cytometry analysis was performed to detect neuronal apoptosis. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect RNA and protein expressions. RESULTS: KCNQ1OT1 and Foxo3 expressions were significantly increased in neurons subjected to I/R injury in vitro and in vivo, and miR-153-3p expression were significantly decreased. Knockdown of KCNQ1OT1 or overexpression of miR-153-3p weakened OGD/R-induced neuronal injury and regulated Foxo3 expressions. Dual-luciferase analysis showed that KCNQ1OT1 directly interacted with miR-153-3p and Foxo3 is a direct target of miR-153-3p. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 promotes OGD/R-induced neuronal injury at least partially through acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-153-3p to regulate Foxo3a expression, suggesting LncRNA-KCNQ1OT1 as a potential therapeutic target for cerebral I/R injury.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 400: 123158, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947736

RESUMO

Ambient particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced metabolic syndromes is a critical contributor to the pathological processes of neurological diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The rhomboid 5 homolog 2 (Rhbdf2), an essential regulator in the production of TNF-α, has recently been confirmed to exhibit a key role in regulating inflammation-associated diseases. Thus, we examined whether Rhbdf2 contributes to hypothalamic inflammation via NF-κB associated inflammation activation in long-term PM2.5-exposed mice. Specifically, proopiomelanocortin-specific Rhbdf2 deficiency (Rhbdf2Pomc) and corresponding littermates control mice were used for the current study. After 24 weeks of PM2.5 inhalation, systemic-metabolism disorder was confirmed in WT mice in terms of impaired glucose tolerance, increased insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. Markedly, PM2.5-treated Rhbdf2Pomc mice displayed a significantly opposite trend in these parameters compared with those of the controls group. We next confirmed hypothalamic injury accompanied by abnormal POMC neurons loss, as indicated by increased inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and oxidative-stress levels and decreased antioxidant activity. These results were further supported by blood routine examination. In summary, our findings suggest that Rhbdf2 plays an important role in exacerbating PM2.5-stimulated POMC neurons loss associated hypothalamic injury, thus providing a possible target for blocking pathological development of air pollution-associated diseases.

7.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(10): 1919-1929, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine how gray matter volume (GMV), regional blood flow (rCBF), and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) are altered in 40 patients with AD, relative to 30 healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: We defined the BNM on the basis of a mask histochemically reconstructed from postmortem human brains. We examined GMV with voxel-based morphometry of high-resolution structural images, rCBF with arterial spin labeling imaging, and whole-brain FC with published routines. We performed partial correlations to explore how the imaging metrics related to cognitive and living status in patients with AD. Further, we employed receiver operating characteristic analysis to compute the "diagnostic" accuracy of these imaging markers. RESULTS: AD relative to HC showed lower GMV and higher rCBF of the BNM as well as lower BNM connectivity with the right insula and cerebellum. In addition, the GMVs of BNM were correlated with cognitive and daily living status in AD. Finally, these imaging markers predicted AD (vs. HC) with an accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.70 to 0.86. Combination of BNM metrics provided the best prediction accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: By combining multimode MR imaging, we demonstrated volumetric atrophy, hyperperfusion, and disconnection of the BNM in AD. These findings support cholinergic dysfunction as an etiological marker of AD and related dementia.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25370-25377, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968019

RESUMO

China started to implement comprehensive measures to mitigate traffic pollution at the end of 1990s, but the comprehensive effects, especially on ambient air quality and public health, have not yet been systematically evaluated. In this study, we analyze the effects of vehicle emission control measures on ambient air pollution and associated deaths attributable to long-term exposures of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 based on an integrated research framework that combines scenario analysis, air quality modeling, and population health risk assessment. We find that the total impact of these control measures was substantial. Vehicular emissions during 1998-2015 would have been 2-3 times as large as they actually were, had those measures not been implemented. The national population-weighted annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 in 2015 would have been higher by 11.7 µg/m3 and 8.3 parts per billion, respectively, and the number of deaths attributable to 2015 air pollution would have been higher by 510 thousand (95% confidence interval: 360 thousand to 730 thousand) without these controls. Our analysis shows a concentration of mortality impacts in densely populated urban areas, motivating local policymakers to design stringent vehicle emission control policies. The results imply that vehicle emission control will require policy designs that are more multifaceted than traditional controls, primarily represented by the strict emission standards, with careful consideration of the challenges in coordinated mitigation of both PM2.5 and O3 in different regions, to sustain improvement in air quality and public health given continuing swift growth in China's vehicle population.

9.
Theranostics ; 10(22): 10141-10153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929339

RESUMO

Despite dramatic advances in drug discovery over the decades, effective therapeutic strategies for cancers treatment are still in urgent demands. PROteolysis TArgeting Chimera (PROTAC), a novel therapeutic modality, has been vigorously promoted in preclinical and clinical applications. Unlike small molecule PROTAC, peptide PROTAC (p-PROTAC) with advantages of high specificity and low toxicity, while avoiding the limitations of shallow binding pockets through large interacting surfaces, provides promising substitutions for E3 ubiquitin ligase complex-mediated ubiquitination of "undruggable proteins". It is worth noting that successful applications of p-PROTAC still have some obstacles, including low stability and poor membrane permeability. Hence, we highlight that p-PROTAC combined with cell-penetrating peptides, constrained conformation technique, and targeted delivery systems could be the future efforts for potential translational research.

10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 248, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of pantethine in children with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN). METHODS: A single-arm, open-label study was conducted. All subjects received pantethine during the 24-week period of treatment. The primary endpoints were change of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) I-III and Fahn-Marsden (FM) score from baseline to week 24 after treatment. RESULTS: Fifteen children with PKAN were enrolled, and all patients completed the study. After 24 weeks of treatment with pantethine at 60 mg/kg per day, there was no difference in either UPDRS I-III (t = 0.516, P = 0.614) or FM score (t = 0.353, P = 0.729) between the baseline and W24. Whereas the rates of increase in UPDRS I-III (Z = 2.614, p = 0.009) and FM scores (Z = 2.643, p = 0.008) were slowed. Four patients (26.7%) were evaluated as "slightly improved" by doctors through blinded video assessment. Patients with lower baseline UPDRS I-III or FM scores were more likely to be improved. The quality of life of family members improved after pantethine treatment, evaluated by PedsQL TM 2.0 FIM scores, whereas the quality of life of the patients was unchanged at W24, evaluated by PedsQL TM 4.0 and PedsQL TM 3.0 NMM. Serum level of CoA was comparable between baseline and W24. There was no drug related adverse event during the study. CONCLUSIONS: Pantethine could not significantly improve motor function in children with PKAN after 24 weeks treatment, but it may delay the progression of motor dysfunction in our study. Pantethine was well-tolerated at 60 mg/kg per day. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number at www.chictr.org.cn :ChiCTR1900021076, Registered 27 January2019, the first participant was enrolled 30 September 2018, and other 14 participants were enrolled after the trial was registered.

11.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 518: 111022, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871226

RESUMO

Blood glucose is of great importance to development and metabolic homeostasis in fetuses. Stimulation of harmful factors during gestation induces pathoglycemia. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA), a newly discovered gestational harmful factor, has been shown to induce intrauterine growth restriction in fetuses and glucose disorders in adults. However, whether and how AT1-AA influences the blood glucose level of fetuses during gestation is not yet clear. The purpose of the current study was to observe the fetal blood glucose level of AT1-AA-positive pregnant rats during late pregnancy and to determine the roles that hepatic glucose transporters play in this process. We established AT1-AA-positive pregnant rats by injecting AT1-AA into the caudal veins of rats in the 2nd trimester of gestation. Although the fetal blood glucose level in the 3rd trimester of gestation decreased, hepatic glucose uptake increased detected. Through separating membrane and cytosolic proteins, we demonstrated that both the expression and membrane transport ratio of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is responsible for glucose transport in fetal hepatocytes, were upregulated, accompanied by increased expression of N-glycosyltransferase STT3A, which contributes to the N-glycosylation of GLUT1. In vitro, we identified that AT1-AA increased glucose uptake, the expression and membrane transport ratio of GLUT1 and the expression of STT3A in HepG2 cell lines via separating membrane and cytosolic proteins and immunofluorescence, resulting in the decreased glucose content in the medium. The GLUT1 inhibitor WZB117 reversed the decreases in glucose content in the medium, the increases in glucose uptake, the increases in the expression and membrane transport ratio of GLUT1 caused by AT1-AA. The N-glycosyltransferase inhibitor NGI as well as si-STT3A reversed the AT1-AA-induced upregulation of the STT3A-GLUT1-glucose uptake effect. This study demonstrates that AT1-AA lowers the blood glucose level of fetuses via the STT3A-GLUT1-glucose uptake axis in liver.

12.
Acta Biomater ; 116: 1-15, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911102

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have received increasing interest due to their tunable particle size, large surface area, stable framework, and easy surface modification. They are increasingly being used in varying applications as delivery vehicles including bio-imaging, drug delivery, biosensors and tissue engineering etc. Precise structure control and the ability to modify surface properties of MSNs are important for their applications. This review summarises the different synthetic methods for the preparation of well-ordered MSNs with tunable pore volume as well as the approaches of drugs loading, especially highlighting the facile surface functionalization for various purposes and versatile biomedical applications in oncology. Finally, the challenges of clinical transformation of MSNs-based nanomedicines are further discussed.

13.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 126, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare, chronic and severe disease. Drug therapy including somatostatin analogues (SAs), dopamine receptor agonists and growth hormone receptor antagonists (pegvisomant, PEG) are commonly used to treat patients who do not respond to surgery. The use of combination therapy with PEG and SAs has become more common over the last decade. We performed this study to accurately evaluate the effect of combination therapy of SAs with PEG on acromegalic patients. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, Scopus, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and Trip database were searched for relevant studies. Prospective clinical trials treating acromegaly with the co-administration of SAs and PEG were included. We performed a meta-analysis by using Stata 12.1. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore heterogeneity. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall rate of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) normalization was 66% (95% CI: 52-78%; I2 = 62.59%). The combination therapy did not significantly change patients' fasting plasma glucose (ES: 0.011 mmol*L- 1; 95% CI: - 0.374 to 0.397 mmol*L- 1; P = 0.954) or glycosylated haemoglobin (ES: - 0.074%; 95% CI: - 0.166 to 0.315%; P = 0.544) while decreasing the fasting plasma insulin (ES: - 21.487 pmol*L-1; 95% CI: - 35.713 to - 7.260 pmol*L-1; P = 0.003). Elevation of liver enzyme levels was found in 14% (95% CI: 8 to 21%) of the patients. There was no significant difference for serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse event between SAs monotherapy group and combination therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: Combined therapy of SAs and PEG effectively normalized IGF-1 levels in most of the patients whose IGF-1 level was greater than the upper limit of normal after high dose SAs monotherapy. The therapy also decreased significantly FPI levels with a neutral effect on glucose parameters in acromegaly patients. Moreover, elevated liver enzyme levels were observed in a small number of patients, which suggests a need for liver function monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: We have our protocol registered in PROSPERO. (Registration number: CRD42019115549 ).

14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 361, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between an increase in the pre- and post-operative mean platelet volume (MPV) and superficial femoral artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) rate. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited patients that underwent superficial femoral artery stenting for lower extremity arteriosclerosis obliterans at our hospital from March 2015 to March 2018. All patients gave venous blood three days before and following implantation. Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography or digital subtraction angiography were used for regular follow-up examination. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of ISR after superficial femoral artery stenting. We enrolled 173 patients, of which 34 (19.6%) were determined as having ISR for a mean of 8.9 ± 2.7 months (3-12 months). Neutrophil count, neutrophil ratio, lymphocyte ratio and platelet count pre-implantation, and platelet count and MPV after stent implantation, and the pre- and post-operative mean platelet volume difference (MPVD) and mean platelet volume difference ratio (MPVDR) were all statistically different when comparing the ISR and non-restenosis groups (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was found for post-operative MPV and presence of ISR (r = 0.58; P < 0.001). A MPVD not less than 1.5 fL was associated with an odds ratio of 9.17 (95% CI [3.76 to 22.35]; P < 0.001) for presence of ISR. A MPVDR of not less than 17.9% was associated with an odds ratio of 7.68 (95% CI [3.19 to 18.49]; P < 0.001) for occurrence of ISR. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in pre- and post-operative MPV was correlated with the occurrence of superficial femoral artery ISR.

15.
Theranostics ; 10(19): 8494-8512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754259

RESUMO

Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), a key epigenetic regulator, is involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. LOXL4 is increasingly recognized as an important player in cancer progression. To date, how EZH2 regulates LOXL4 in the progression of breast cancer remains unclear. Methods: We evaluated the association between LOX family proteins and EZH2 in invasive breast carcinoma through the starBase v2.0 analysis, and its correlation with breast tumorigenesis using the Oncomine dataset. We then applied miRcode data combined with gene expression omnibus (GEO) data to screen candidate miRNAs mediating the regulation of LOXL4 by EZH2. We explored the regulatory mechanism of EZH2, miR-29b/miR-30d, and LOXL4 in breast cancer cells by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, cell proliferation, colony formation, and wound healing assays, xenograft experiments, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Inhibition of EZH2 or LOXL4, or miR-29b/miR-30d overexpression, decreased breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. LOXL4 was identified as a direct target of miR-29b and miR-30d. EZH2 inhibition enhanced miR-30d and miR-29b transcription via promoter binding activity, leading to the reduced expression of LOXL4. Immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancer specimens and flow cytometry analysis of tumor-infiltrating macrophages in mice showed a positive association of EZH2 with LOXL4 expression and macrophage infiltration. Conclusions: Our findings identified EZH2-miR-29b/miR-30d-LOXL4 signaling pathway was involved in breast tumorigenesis, and suggested that the epigenetic modulation represents a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer by controlling macrophage activation.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(13): 2405-2413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760208

RESUMO

Interleukin 22(IL-22), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family and is an emerging CD4+Th cytokine that plays an important role in anti-microbial defense, homeostasis and tissue repair. We are interested in IL-22 as it has the double function of suppressing or encouraging inflammation in various disease models including hepatic inflammation. As a survival factor for hepatocytes, IL-22 plays a protective role in many kinds of liver diseases, such as hepatitis, liver fibrosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by binding to the receptors IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. Overexpression of IL-22 reduces liver fibrosis by attenuating the activation of hepatic stellate cell (the main cell types involved in hepatic fibrosis), and down-regulating the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Administration of exogenous IL-22 increases the replication of hepatocytes by inhibiting cell apoptosis and promoting mitosis, ultimately plays a contributing role in liver regeneration. Furthermore, treatment with IL-22 activates hepatic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), ameliorates hepatic oxidative stress and alcoholic fatty liver, effectively alleviate the liver damage caused by alcohol and toxicant. In conclusion, the hepatoprotective functions and liver regeneration promoting effect of IL-22 suggests the therapeutic potential of IL-22 in the treatment of human hepatic diseases.

17.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762359

RESUMO

In this work, we isolated and characterized fusapyrone A (1), a new γ-pyrone derivative, along with six previously described compounds from the rice fermentation of Fusarium sp. CPCC 401218, a fungus collected from the desert. The structure of 1 was characterized using various spectroscopic analyses, such as MS, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined through the use of 13C NMR chemical shifts, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotation (OR) calculations. Compound 1 was found to have weak antiproliferative activity for Hela cells, with an IC50 of 50.6 µM.

18.
Nat Prod Rep ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776055

RESUMO

Covering: up to 2020Treatment resistance and drug-induced refractory malignancies pose significant challenges for current chemotherapy drugs. There have been increasing research efforts aimed at developing novel chemotherapeutics, especially from natural products and related derivatives. Natural cytotoxic peptides, an emerging source of chemotherapeutics, have exhibited the advantage of overcoming drug resistance and displayed broad-spectrum antitumor activities in the clinic. This highlight examines the increasingly popular cytotoxic peptides from isolated natural products. In-depth review of several peptides provides examples for how this novel strategy can lead to the improved anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms and current application of representative natural cytotoxic peptides (NCPs) have also been discussed, with a particular focus on future directions for interdisciplinary research.

19.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746109

RESUMO

During the first years of life, the human brain undergoes dynamic spatially-heterogeneous changes, involving differentiation of neuronal types, dendritic arborization, axonal ingrowth, outgrowth and retraction, synaptogenesis, and myelination. To better quantify these changes, this article presents a method for probing tissue microarchitecture by characterizing water diffusion in a spectrum of length scales, factoring out the effects of intra-voxel orientation heterogeneity. Our method is based on the spherical means of the diffusion signal, computed over gradient directions for a set of diffusion weightings (i.e., b-values). We decompose the spherical mean profile at each voxel into a spherical mean spectrum (SMS), which essentially encodes the fractions of spin packets undergoing fine-to coarse-scale diffusion processes, characterizing restricted and hindered diffusion stemming respectively from intra-and extra-cellular water compartments. From the SMS, multiple orientation distribution invariant indices can be computed, allowing for example the quantification of neurite density, microscopic fractional anisotropy (µFA), per-axon axial/radial diffusivity, and free/restricted isotropic diffusivity. We show that these indices can be computed for the developing brain for greater sensitivity and specificity to development related changes in tissue microstructure. Also, we demonstrate that our method, called spherical mean spectrum imaging (SMSI), is fast, accurate, and can overcome the biases associated with other state-of-the-art microstructure models.

20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 227, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767025

RESUMO

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the principal etiologic agent in the occurrence of human dental caries and the formation of biofilms on the surface of teeth. Tea tree oil (TTO) has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological actions that can effectively inhibit the activity of bacteria. In this context, we evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial effects of TTO on S. mutans both during planktonic growth and in biofilms compared with 0.2% CHX. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the microdilution method, the bacteriostatic rate using an MTT assay, and the antimicrobial time using a time-kill assay. Then, we explored the effects of TTO on acid production and cell integrity. Furthermore, the effects of TTO on the biomass and bacterial activity of S. mutans biofilms were studied. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to investigate the structure and activity of biofilms. The MIC and MBC values were 0.125% and 0.25%, and the bacterial inhibition rate was concentration dependent. TTO can effectively inhibit bacterial acid production and destroy the integrity of the cell membrane. Electron micrographs revealed a reduction in bacterial aggregation, inhibited biofilm formation, and reduced biofilm thickness. The effect of TTO was the same as that of 0.2% CHX at a specific concentration. In summary, we suggest that TTO is a potential anticariogenic agent that can be used against S. mutans.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Melaleuca/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
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