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1.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the association of pre-pregnancy BMI with fetal macrosomia is mediated through maternal circulating lipids concentration during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective cohort, 3011 eligible pregnant women were enrolled. Information on demographic characteristics were collected using questionnaires, and anthropometrics and laboratory tests were undertaken at 24 weeks of gestation and before delivery. Macrosomia was defined as birthweight ≥4000 grams. Logistic regression and multivariable linear regression adjusted for age, fetal sex, education, gestational weight gain, fasting blood glucose, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, gestational age at delivery, delivery mode and parity, were used to assess the mediation path between pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal serum lipids and fetal macrosomia. RESULTS: 2454 participants with completed records were included in the final analyses. Among the maternal circulating lipid biomarkers, only triglyceride was significantly associated with both pre-pregnancy BMI and fetal macrosomia risk, adjusting for potential confounders. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the direct effect of pre-pregnancy BMI on fetal macrosomia was 0.0085 (95% CI, 0.0003-0.018; P < .05), and the indirect effect mediated through maternal serum triglycerides was 0.0016 (95% CI, 0.0007-0.0029; p<0.001), and the estimated proportion of mediated effect was 15.7% (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal circulating triglycerides mediate the association of pre-pregnancy BMI with the risk of fetal macrosomia.

2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(3): 1001-1005, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether collagen peptides can improve the immune functions of mice under the condition of simulated weightlessness. METHODS: Mouse tail-suspension model was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Tail-suspended mice were intraperitoneally injected with 600 mg collagen peptides per kilogram body weight once a day for 10 days. Then, the mice were killed, and white blood cells were counted and classified. Lymphocyte subsets and T lymphocyte proliferations in spleens were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with normal control group, total and differential count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T cells,CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells and NK cells, and splenic T lymphocyte proliferation all decreased in the weightlessness simulated mice (P<0.05). Except for NK cells, the above-mentioned parameters were increased after administration of collagen peptides, and some of the parameters were recovered to the levels of normal control mice (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Collagen peptides can effectively improve peripheral blood lymphocyte distributions and T lymphocyte proliferations of mice under the condition of simulated weightlessness. This study nay provid the experimental basis for improvement of immune functions of astronauts.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 143, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptomycetes from the rhizospheric soils are a rich resource of novel secondary metabolites with various biological activities. However, there is still little information related to the isolation, antimicrobial activity and biosynthetic potential for polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide discovery associated with the rhizospheric streptomycetes of Panax notoginseng. Thus, the aims of the present study are to (i) identify culturable streptomycetes from the rhizospheric soil of P. notoginseng by 16S rRNA gene, (ii) evaluate the antimicrobial activities of isolates and analyze the biosynthetic gene encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) of isolates, (iii) detect the bioactive secondary metabolites from selected streptomycetes, (iv) study the influence of the selected isolate on the growth of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field. This study would provide a preliminary basis for the further discovery of the secondary metabolites from streptomycetes isolated from the rhizospheric soil of P. notoginseng and their further utilization for biocontrol of plants. RESULTS: A total of 42 strains representing 42 species of the genus Streptomyces were isolated from 12 rhizospheric soil samples in the cultivation field of P. notoginseng and were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, 40 crude cell extracts out of 42 under two culture conditions showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Also, the presence of biosynthesis genes encoding type I and II polyketide synthase (PKS I and PKS II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) in 42 strains were established. Based on characteristic chemical profiles screening by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD), the secondary metabolite profiles of strain SYP-A7257 were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS). Finally, four compounds actinomycin X2 (F1), fungichromin (F2), thailandin B (F7) and antifungalmycin (F8) were isolated from strain SYP-A7257 by using chromatography techniques, UV, HR-ESI-MS and NMR, and their antimicrobial activities against the test bacteria and fungus were also evaluated. In the farm experiments, Streptomyces sp. SYP-A7257 showed healthy growth promotion and survival rate improvement of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the P. notoginseng rhizospheric soil-derived Streptomyces spp. distribution and diversity with respect to their metabolic potential for polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides, as well as the presence of biosynthesis genes PKS I, PKS II and NRPSs. Our results showed that cultivatable Streptomyces isolates from the rhizospheric soils of P. notoginseng have the ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. The farm experiments suggested that the rhizospheric soil Streptomyces sp. SYP-A7257 may be a potential biological control agent for healthy growth promotion and survival rate improvement of P. notoginseng in the continuous cropping field.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have a higher prevalence of known risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aims to determine if SCZ patients are at increased risk of incident OSA. METHODS: A total of 5092 newly diagnosed SCZ patients and 5092 non-SCZ controls matched by gender, age, and index year were included between 2000 and 2012 and followed to 2013. Participants newly diagnosed with OSA were defined as incidents. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the OSA incidence rate between the two groups studied. RESULTS: SCZ patients were at increased risk of OSA compared to non-SCZ controls after adjusting for gender, age, comorbidities, and duration of antipsychotic use (2.12 versus 1.01 per 1000 person-years, HR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.36-2.85). Also, this study confirmed the existence of some known risk factors for OSA, including male gender (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.14-2.37), obesity (HR 2.62, 95% CI 1.19-5.80), hypertension (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06-2.47), hyperlipidemia (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.38), diabetes (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.01-2.38), and antipsychotic use (duration < 1 year (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.37), 1-3 years (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06-2.82), and 3-5 years (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.06-2.44)). CONCLUSION: This study shows SCZ patients are at increased risk of OSA, and there is still an association with higher risk of OSA after controlling for known risk factors, indicating that it is necessary to develop targeted interventions in SCZ patients to reduce the negative impact of OSA on health.

5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130294

RESUMO

Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.


Assuntos
Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hiperlipidemias/prevenção & controle , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Ophiopogon/química , Animais , Benzodioxóis/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3267-3276, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101430

RESUMO

Cross-talk between various hormones is important in regulating many aspects of plant growth, development, and senescence, including fruit ripening. Here, exogenous ethylene (ETH, 100 µL/L, 12 h) rapidly accelerated 'Hayward' kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) softening and ethylene production and was enhanced by supplementing with continuous treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 100 µM/L, 12 h) (ETH+MeJA). ETH+MeJA enhanced ACC synthase (ACS) activities and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) accumulation but not ACC oxidase (ACO) activity. Increased transcripts of ACS genes AdACS1 and AdACS2, ACS activity, and ethylene production were positively correlated. The abundance of AdACS1 was about 6-fold higher than AdACS2. RNA-seq identified 6 transcription factors among the 87 differentially expressed unigenes induced by ETH+MeJA. Dual-luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) indicated that AdNAC2/3 physically interacted with and trans-activated the AdACS1 promoter 2.2- and 3.5-fold, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that MeJA accelerates ethylene production in kiwifruit induced by exogenous ethylene, via a preferential activation of AdACS1 and AdACS2.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Actinidia/efeitos dos fármacos , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Actinidia/enzimologia , Actinidia/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
New Phytol ; 225(4): 1618-1634, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574168

RESUMO

Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is a climacteric fruit with high sensitivity to ethylene, influenced by multiple ethylene-responsive structural genes and transcription factors. However, the roles of other post-transcriptional regulators (e.g. miRNAs) necessary for ripening remain elusive. High-throughput sequencing sRNAome, degradome and transcriptome methods were used to identify further contributors to ripening control in the kiwifruit (A. deliciosa cv 'Hayward'). Two NAM/ATAF/CUC domain transcription factors (AdNAC6 and AdNAC7), both predicted targets for miR164, showed significant upregulation by exogenous ethylene. Gene expression analysis and luciferase reporter assays indicated that Ade-miR164 and one of its precursor miRNAs (Ade-MIR164b) were repressed by ethylene treatment and negatively correlated with AdNAC6/7 expression. Subsequent analysis indicated that both AdNAC6 and AdNAC7 proteins are transcriptional activators and physically bind the promoters of AdACS1 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase), AdACO1 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase), AdMAN1 (endo-ß-mannanase) and AaTPS1 (terpene synthase). Moreover, subcellular analysis indicated that the location of the AdNAC6/7 proteins was influenced by Ade-miR164. Multiple omics-based approaches revealed a novel regulatory link for fruit ripening that involved ethylene-miR164-NAC. The regulatory pathway for miR164-NAC is present in various fruit (e.g. Rosaceae fruit, citrus, grape), with implications for fruit ripening regulation.

8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(3): e9201, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1089347

RESUMO

Methylophiopogonanone A (MO-A), a homoisoflavonoid extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to attenuate myocardial apoptosis and improve cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the hypolipidemic effects remain unknown. This study was performed to investigate a potential hypolipidemic effect of MO-A in hyperlipidemia rats, as well as its underlying mechanism of action. A rat model of hyperlipidemia was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8/group): normal control group (NC), HFD group, and HFD+MO-A (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) treatment group. The effects of MO-A on serum lipids, body weight, activity of lipoprotein metabolism enzyme, and gene expression of lipid metabolism were evaluated in HFD-induced rats. In HFD-induced rats, pretreatment with MO-A decreased the body weight gain and reduced serum and hepatic lipid levels. In addition, pretreatment with MO-A improved the activities of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase in serum and liver, down-regulated mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and up-regulated mRNA expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in the liver. Our results indicated that MO-A showed strong ability to ameliorate the hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced rats. MO-A might be a potential candidate for prevention of overweight and dyslipidemia induced by HFD.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8319, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165765

RESUMO

A total amount of 116 fungal strains, belonging to 30 genera, were acquired from the rhizosphere soil and plant of Galinsoga parviflora. A strain SYPF 7336, isolated from the rhizospheric soil, was identified as Seltsamia galinsogisoli sp. nov., by morphological and molecular analyses, which displayed high antibacterial activity. In order to study the secondary metabolites of Seltsamia galinsogisoli sp. nov., nine compounds were successfully seperated from the strain fermentation broth, including two new compounds and seven known compounds. Their structures were elucidated based on spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR. All the seperated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Compounds 2, 5 and 1 displayed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 25, 32 and 75 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, morphological observation showed the coccoid cells of S. aureus to be swollen to a volume of 1.4 to 1.7-fold after treatment with compounds 1, 2 and 5, respectively. Molecular docking was carried out to investigate interactions of filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) with compounds 1, 2 and 5.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5818, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967569

RESUMO

Fungal immunoregulatory proteins (FIP) are effective small molecule proteins with broad-spectrum immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities and can be potential agents for the development of clinical drugs and health food additives. In this study, a new member of FIP named FIP-bbo was obtained through Botryobasidium botryosum genome mining. FIP-bbo has the typical characteristics of FIP but is genetically distant from other FIPs. Recombinant FIP-bbo (rFIP-bbo) was produced in an optimized E. coli expression system, and the pure protein was isolated using a Ni-NTA column. Antineoplastic experiments suggested that FIP-bbo is similar to LZ-8 in inhibiting various cancer cells (Hela, Spac-1, and A549) at lower concentrations, but it is not as potent as LZ-8. The molecular mechanism by which FIP-bbo, FIP-fve, and LZ-8 are cytotoxic to cancer cells has been discussed based on molecular dynamics simulation. Point mutations that may improve the thermal stability of FIP-fve and FIP-bbo were predicted. These results not only present a new candidate protein for the development of anticancer adjuvants, but also provide an approach for designing FIPs with high anticancer activity.

11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5283-5292, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is generally considered to be a safe and green solvent suitable for use in natural product extraction. In this study, an eco-friendly subcritical water method was used to extract pectin from waste jackfruit peel (JFP-S), which was compared with pectin obtained by the traditional citric acid method (JFP-C). RESULTS: The extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimum process parameters were as follows: extraction temperature 138 °C, extraction time 9.15 min, liquid / solid (L/S) ratio 17.03 mL g-1 . Under these conditions, the pectin yield was 149.6 g kg-1 (dry basis). Pectin obtained from the two extraction methods displayed a high degree of esterification and the monosaccharide composition was consistent. The galacturonic acid content of JFP-S and JFP-C was 52.27% and 56.99%, respectively. JFP-S had more hairy regions and side chains than JFP-C. The molecular weight of JFP-S was 113.3 kDa, which was significantly lower than that of JFP-C (174.3 kDa). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that two samples had similar pectin typical absorption peaks. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), both JFP-S and JFP-C had relatively good thermal stability. JFP-S demonstrated lower apparent viscosity and elasticity than JFP-C. Meanwhile, the G' and G'' moduli of JFP-S were lower, which found expression in the gel textural characterization of the samples. CONCLUSION: This work showed that the subcritical water method is an efficient, time-saving, and eco-friendly technology for the extraction of pectin from jackfruit peel compared with the traditional citric acid method. The physicochemical properties of pectin could be changed during subcritical water extraction. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Química Verde/métodos , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Esterificação , Peso Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Viscosidade
12.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760040

RESUMO

(+) Benzomalvins E (1) and (-) Benzomalvins E (2), a pair of epimeric derivatives, together with three known benzomalvins (3-5), were isolated from solid cultures of a interrhizospheric fungus Penicillium sp. SYPF 8411. The planar structure of (+) Benzomalvins E (1) has been previously reported. While, the absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis for the first time. The planar structure of the new compound 2 were elucidated by detailed interpretation of their HR ESI-TOF MS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compound 2 was established by Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectral data and the electronic circular dichroic (ECD) method. Furthermore, the epimerization induced by pH, temperature and H2O was revealed. Benzomalvins (1-3, 5), a type of indoximod, enhanced the cytotoxic capability of 5-fluorouracil against A549.

13.
J Microbiol ; 57(5): 337-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806981

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, nonspore- forming, coccoid or rod-shaped and creamy-pigmented bacterium, designated SYP-B2100T, was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Codonopsis clematidea in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The optimal growth occurred at 28°C, pH 5.0, in the absence of NaCl. The cells tested positive in catalase and methyl red tests but negative in oxidase, urease, gelatinase, milk coagulation, and peptonisation, H2S production, nitrate reduction, and Voges-Proskauer tests. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and summed feature 8. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SYP-B2100T was the most similar to that of Rahnella inusitata DSM 30078T (96.9%) within the family Enterobacteriaceae. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain SYP-B2100T was 50.3 mol%. The combined data from the phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, biochemical, and chemotaxonomic analyses presented in this study support the conclusion that strain SYP-B2100T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Edaphovirga cremea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SYPB2100T (= CGMCC 1.5857T = DSM 105170T = KCTC 62024T).


Assuntos
Codonopsis/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732477

RESUMO

Two new compounds, (7R, 2E, 5E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,5-octadienedioic-8-methyl ester (1) and neovasipyridone G (3), together with a new natural product compound (7R,2E,5E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,5-octadienedioic acid (2), and six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from Penicillium sp. SYPF7381. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by optical rotation. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined by means of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation. In addition, the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of all compounds were assayed in RAW 264.7 cells by assessing LPS-induced NO production. Furthermore, the structure-antiinflammation activity relationships for these isolated compounds were summarized based on the experimental as well as the docking results.

15.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(19): 2770-2776, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221546

RESUMO

One new indole diterpenoid, drechmerin I (1), was isolated from the fermentation broth of Drechmeria sp. isolated from the root of Panax notoginseng. Its structure was elucidated based on 1 D and 2 D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrum (HRESIMS), and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic analyses as well as TD DFT calculations of ECD spectra. Drechmerin I (1) was assayed for its antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtillis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia, respectively. Drechmerin I (1) showed antimicrobial activities against B. subtillis with an MIC value of 200 µg/mL. The interaction of S. aureus peptide deformylase with drechmerin I (1) was investigated by molecular docking.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Alcaloides Diterpenos/farmacologia , Hypocreales/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicroísmo Circular , Alcaloides Diterpenos/química , Alcaloides Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(12): 1223-1239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464014

RESUMO

Large numbers of DNA sequences deposited in the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD) are erroneously annotated. The erroneous information may lead to misleading conclusions or cause great economic losses to farmers. Lentinus edodes (= Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) is one of the most important and popular culinary-medicinal mushrooms with a high nutritional value. In this study, experimental and in silico methods were used to correct the sequences annotated as L. edodes in the INSD. A total of 3,426 nucleotide entries were retrieved from public databases, including 140 different types of genetic sequences. Excluding 1,893 genome sequences, the most abundant signatures represented by ITS (258) and IGS1 (259) sequences accounted for 33.23% of the total entries. A total of 3,058 sequences were annotated correctly, 350 were indeterminate, and 18 were annotated erroneously based on the two methods. Correction of sequences will be beneficial for species identification and annotation. Phylogenic analysis based on ITS sequences suggested that L. edodes segregate in four clades in the tree based on ITS sequences. The isolates from China were distributed into two clades. In L. edodes, the intraspecific variation of the ITS2 sequences was much higher than that of the ITS1 sequences. In addition, the genetic diversity of the L. edodes sequences from China was much higher than that of any other regions included in this study. The northwest and southwest regions of China were L. edodes diversity centers.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Cogumelos Shiitake/genética , China , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico , Variação Genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cogumelos Shiitake/classificação
17.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206428, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359454

RESUMO

The nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) has been widely used to assess the fungal composition in different environments by deep sequencing. To evaluate the ITS in the analysis of fungal diversity, comparisons of the clustering and taxonomy generated by sequencing with different portions of the whole fragment were conducted in this study. For a total of 83,120 full-length ITS sequences obtained from the UNITE database, it was found that, on average, ITS1 varied more than ITS2 within the kingdom Fungi; this variation included length and GC content variations and polymorphisms, with some polymorphisms specific to particular fungal groups. The taxonomic accuracy for ITS was higher than that for ITS1 or ITS2. The commonly used operational taxonomic unit (OTU) for evaluating fungal diversity and richness assigned several species to a single OTU even with clustering at 99.00% sequence similarity. The clustering and taxonomic capacities did not differ between ITS1 and ITS2. However, the OTU commonality between ITS1 and ITS2 was very low. To test this observation further, 219,741 pyrosequencing reads, including 39,840 full-length ITS sequences, were obtained from 10 soil samples and were clustered into OTUs. The pyrosequencing results agreed with the results of the in silico analysis. ITS1 might overestimate the fungal diversity and richness. Analyses using ITS, ITS1 and ITS2 yielded several different taxa, and the taxonomic preferences for ITS and ITS2 were similar. The results demonstrated that ITS2 alone might be a more suitable marker for revealing the operational taxonomic richness and taxonomy specifics of fungal communities when the full-length ITS is not available.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos
18.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev ; 2(7): e028, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280141

RESUMO

Introduction: We developed an economical three-dimensional printed and casted simulator of the hand for the training of percutaneous pinning. This simulator augments the traditional "See one, do one, teach one" training model. Methods: To evaluate the simulator, five expert orthopaedic surgeons were recruited to perform percutaneous pinning on the simulator and then to complete a questionnaire on its realism and expected usefulness. Evaluation was based on responses to multiple-choice questions and a Likert-type scale. Results: All subjects expressed that the tactile hand simulator is useful for residency training. They would recommend the simulator to their colleagues and indicated interest in testing future iterations. Subjects rated highly the realism of the material, the purchase of the pin, and the cortical-cancellous bone interface. Conclusion: The learning of tactile skills in addition to visual cues on a tactile simulator is expected to benefit residents. It provides a low-cost and low-risk environment outside the operating room for residents to hone their skills.

19.
Fitoterapia ; 131: 35-43, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291967

RESUMO

A total of 180 fungal isolates, belonging to 20 genera and 47 species, were obtained from the roots, stems and leaves of Panax notoginseng. One isolate, the endophytic fungus Penicillium janthinellum SYPF 7899, displayed the strongest antibacterial activity and was studied for its production of secondary metabolites. In total, three new compounds, including rotational isomers 1a, 1b and 2 were isolated from the solid cultures of P. janthinellum, as well as eight known compounds (3-10). These structures were determined on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic analyses as well as theoretical calculations. Compound 1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 15 and 18 µg/ml, respectively. The other compounds showed moderate or weak activities. In addition, morphological observation showed the rod-shaped cells of B. subtilis growing into long filaments, which reached 1.5- to 2-fold of the length of the original cells after treatment with compound 1. The coccoid cells of S. aureus exhibited a similar response and swelled to a 2-fold volume after treatment with compound 1. In silico molecular docking was explored to study the binding interactions between the compounds and the active sites of filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) from B. subtilis and S. aureus. Compound 1a, 1b and 2 showed high binding energies, strong H-bond interactions and hydrophobic interactions with FtsZ. Based on the antimicrobial activities, cellular phenotype observation and docking studies, compound 1 is considered to be a promising antimicrobial inhibitor of FtsZ.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/antagonistas & inibidores , Panax notoginseng/microbiologia , Penicillium/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Endófitos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Bioorg Chem ; 81: 350-355, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193143

RESUMO

Eighteen secondary metabolites were isolated from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. SYPF 8246, including four new compounds, xylarianins A-D (1-4), three new natural products, 6-methoxycarbonyl-2'-methyl-3,5,4',6'-tetramethoxy-diphenyl ether (5), 2-chlor-6-methoxycarbonyl-2'-rnethyl-3,5,4',6'-tetramethoxy-diphenyl ether (6), and 2-chlor-4'-hydroxy-6-methoxy carbonyl-2'-methyl-3,5,6'-trimethoxy-diphenyl ether (7), and eleven known compounds (8-18). Their structural elucidations were conducted by using 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra analyses. The integrated 1H and 13C NMR data of three new natural products 5-7 were reported for the first time. All the isolated compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activities against human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE 2). Compounds 1, 5-9, and 18 displayed significant inhibitory activities against hCE 2 with IC50 values of 10.43 ±â€¯0.51, 6.69 ±â€¯0.85, 12.36 ±â€¯1.27, 18.25 ±â€¯1.78, 29.78 ±â€¯0.48, 18.86 ±â€¯1.87, and 20.72 ±â€¯1.51 µM, respectively. The interactions between compounds 1 and 5 with hCE 2 were anaylzed by molecular docking.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/química , Carboxilesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Succinatos/química , Xylariales/química , Benzofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Carboxilesterase/química , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Metabolismo Secundário , Succinatos/isolamento & purificação , Xylariales/metabolismo
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