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1.
Nanoscale ; 13(45): 19085-19097, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761764

RESUMO

Polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles have been widely studied in tumor photothermal therapy (PTT) for their significant photostability, good biocompatibility, and excellent photothermal performance. Herein, we report bovine serum albumin (BSA) stabilized PPy that were mineralized by MnO2 nanozyme on the surface (PPy@BSA-MnO2) to achieve synergistic photothermal and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) for breast cancer. In this multifunctional nanoplatform, the surface-loaded MnO2 undergoes a redox reaction with glutathione (GSH) to generate glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and Mn2+. Then, Mn2+ can convert H2O2 into a highly cytotoxic ˙OH to achieve chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and possess good magnetic resonance (MR) T1-weighted imaging capabilities to realize contrast imaging of the 4T1 tumor-bearing mouse models. In addition, PPy nanoparticles can efficiently convert near-infrared light energy into heat and achieve PTT. Most importantly, PPy@BSA-MnO2 nanoprobes have excellent in vitro 4T1 cell-killing effect and in vivo tumor-suppressive properties. The acute toxicity assessment results indicate that PPy@BSA-MnO2 nanoprobes have good biological safety. Therefore, the as-prepared multifunctional PPy@BSA-MnO2 nanoprobes possess excellent performance to promote MRI-guided PTT/CDT synergistic therapy for breast cancer treatment and have extensive clinical transformation and application prospects.

2.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(9): 2601-2614, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810334

RESUMO

A cost-effective approach was applied to prepare porous carbon samples by the simple carbonization of wormwood rod followed by salt activator (NaCl) activation. The effect of preparation parameters on the characteristics of the wormwood rod-based porous carbons (WWRs) were studied. The properties of these samples were investigated by SEM, BET surface area, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The prepared WWRs were applied as new adsorbent materials to remove methyl orange (MO). The experimental results indicated that WWR-800 activated at 800 °C possesses the best adsorption performance. Several factors that affected the adsorption property of the system such as the solution pH, dosing of adsorbent, initial dye concentration and ionic strength were examined. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters and kinetic parameters of MO with WWR-800 were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption of MO on WWR-800 was an endothermic process and non-spontaneous under standard conditions. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of MO on WWR-800 was 454.55 mg/g. After five adsorption/desorption cycles, the adsorption capacity of MO on WWR-800 remained at 94%, which indicated that wormwood rod-based porous carbon possessed good reusability.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Carbono , China , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Porosidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
N Z Med J ; 134(1545): 106-119, 2021 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788276

RESUMO

AIM: Patients with incurable oesophageal cancer have poor outcomes, with disabling symptoms and a poor quality of life (QOL), which may be improved by oesophageal stenting. We aimed to measure change in symptoms related specifically to oesophageal cancer and overall QOL before and 30 days after stent insertion, to measure adverse effects and to define any patient factors that may be significant in predicting patients who may benefit most. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients in an observational study at Middlemore Hospital, New Zealand, and administered validated QOL- and symptomatology-based questionnaires before and 30 days after stent insertion. Additional patient-related demographics, procedural characteristics, adverse events and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Between 31 March 2014 and 3 July 2020, 57 patients were initially recruited. Four patients withdrew from the study, and 13 patients died before 30 days. Forty patients (29 males; mean±SD age, 72±12 years) completed the study. A significant improvement was noted at one-month post stent insertion in the overall global QOL score (mean 35 to 46, p=0.01). The most significant score improvements were seen in dysphagia, trouble eating, trouble swallowing saliva and dry mouth (p<0.001). Physical, emotional, cognitive and social functioning did not change. Post-procedural adverse events occurred in 17 patients (43%). A poorer initial level of functioning was associated with reduced improvement in global QOL (p≤0.04). Patients followed-up died a mean of 2.8 months after insertion. CONCLUSION: In patients surviving longer than 30 days, there is significant improvement of overall QOL and dysphagia one-month post oesophageal stent insertion for malignant, palliative dysphagia. Multiple psychosocial facets were unchanged with this intervention. Stent-related adverse events were common.

4.
Adv Mater ; 33(37): e2102054, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309925

RESUMO

Arsenical drugs have achieved hallmark success in treating patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, but expanding their clinical utility to solid tumors has proven difficult with the contradiction between the therapeutic efficacy and the systemic toxicity. Here, leveraging efforts from materials science, biocompatible PEGylated arsenene nanodots (AsNDs@PEG) with high monoelemental arsenic purity that can selectively and effectively treat solid tumors are synthesized. The intrinsic selective killing effect of AsNDs@PEG is closely related to high oxidative stress in tumor cells, which leads to an activated valence-change of arsenic (from less toxic As0 to severely toxic oxidation states), followed by decreased superoxide dismutase activity and massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These effects occur selectively within cancer cells, causing mitochondrial damage, cell-cycle arrest, and DNA damage. Moreover, AsNDs@PEG when applied in a multi-drug combination strategy with ß-elemene, a plant-derived anticancer drug, achieves synergistic antitumor outcomes, and its newly discovered on-demand photothermal properties facilitate the elimination of the tumors without recurrence, potentially further expanding its clinical utility. In line of the practicability for a large-scale fabrication and negligible systemic toxicity of AsNDs@PEG (even at high doses and with repetitive administration), a new-concept arsenical drug with high therapeutic efficacy for selective solid tumor therapy is provided.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206650

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that the energy release capacity of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)/Al with Si, and CuO, respectively, is higher than that of PTFE/Al. PTFE/Al/Si/CuO reactive materials with four proportions of PTFE/Si were designed by the molding-sintering process to study the influence of different PTFE/Si mass ratios on energy release. A drop hammer was selected for igniting the specimens, and the high-speed camera and spectrometer systems were used to record the energy release process and the flame spectrum, respectively. The ignition height of the reactive material was obtained by fitting the relationship between the flame duration and the drop height. It was found that the ignition height of PTFE/Al/Si/CuO containing 20% PTFE/Si is 48.27 cm, which is the lowest compared to the ignition height of other Si/PTFE ratios of PTFE/Al/Si/CuO; the flame temperature was calculated from the flame spectrum. It was found that flame temperature changes little for the same reactive material at different drop heights. Compared with the flame temperature of PTFE/Al/Si/CuO with four mass ratios, it was found that the flame temperature of PTFE/Al/Si/CuO with 20% PTFE/Si is the highest, which is 2589 K. The results show that PTFE/Al/Si/CuO containing 20% PTFE/Si is easier to be ignited and has a stronger temperature destruction effect.

6.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112189, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082988

RESUMO

The incorporation of specific therapeutic gene into glioblastoma offers potent therapeutic strategy to treat the disease. Non-viral gene delivery vectors are of particular interest due to their tuneable transfection efficiency and easy scale-up. Herein, we demonstrate successful delivery of plasmid encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (pTRAIL) using arginine-conjugated tocopherol lipid (AT) nanovesicles into glioblastoma cell lines. Another cationic lipid, glycine-conjugated tocopherol lipid (GT) having glycine in the head group region is also synthesized as a control lipid. Both lipid-derived liposomes effectively condensed the pDNA and the corresponding biomacromolecular assemblies (lipoplexes) are efficiently transfected into different cell lines. AT-based liposomes exhibit higher transfection efficacy in various cell lines, particularly selective in glioma cell lines. At an optimized N/P ratio, both the liposomal formulations show low cytotoxicity. AT-based lipoplexes have superior cellular uptake in U87 than the control lipid GT. The expression of TRAIL protein regulated death receptor and apoptosis signaling pathway is assayed by western blot using transfection of AT-based/pTRAIL into U87 cell lines. Induction of apoptosis in U87 cells exposed to AT-based/pTRAIL plasmid is evaluated by MTT assay as well as Annexin V-propidium iodide dual-staining assay. All results indicate that the developed AT-based/pTRAIL system offers a potentially safe and efficient therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma gene therapy.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Apoptose , Arginina , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lipídeos , Lipossomos , Plasmídeos/genética , Tocoferóis , Transfecção
7.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(9): 687-696, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077234

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the impact of the duration of breastfeeding on the intelligence of children. Materials and Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched to identify studies that investigated the impact of breastfeeding on the intelligence of children. Data were pooled, and the ratio of means (RoM) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using a pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using a tool developed by the CLARITY group. Data were analyzed using R version 3.5.1. Results: A total of 15 studies with 12,316 subjects were included in the review. Half of the studies were at low risk of bias. A meta-analysis indicated that breastfed children had a score 1.04-fold higher in intelligence tests compared with those that had never been breastfed (RoM: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06, p < 0.05). Evidence from a network meta-analysis indicated that breastfeeding for ≤6 months resulted in score 1.04-fold higher in intelligence tests (RoM: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06, p < 0.05) and children breastfed for >6 months had a score 1.06-fold higher (RoM: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05-1.08, p < 0.05) than children that had never been breastfed. Thus, breastfeeding for >6 months demonstrated a slightly higher score than breastfeeding for ≤6 months (RoM: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Breastfeeding could significantly improve the intelligence of children, with a duration of >6 months showing a slight but significantly higher intelligence score than for ≤6 months.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Inteligência , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Risco
8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 646575, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996809

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore whether high-salt diet (HSD) could cause cardiac damage independent of blood pressure, and whether nitric oxide (NO) could alleviate high-salt-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and autophagy in rats. The rats received 8% HSD in vivo. H9C2 cells or primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) were treated with sodium chloride (NaCl) in vitro. The levels of cleaved-caspase 3/caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8/caspase 8, Bax/Bcl2, LC3 II/LC3 I, Beclin-1 and autophagy related 7 (ATG7) were increased in the heart of HSD rats with hypertension (HTN), and in hypertension-prone (HP) and hypertension-resistant (HR) rats. Middle and high doses (50 and 100 mM) of NaCl increased the level of cleaved-caspase 3/caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8/caspase 8, Bax/Bcl2, LC3 II/LC3 I, Beclin-1, and ATG7 in H9C2 cells and NRCM. The endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) level was increased, but p-eNOS level was reduced in the heart of HSD rats and H9C2 cells treated with 100 mM NaCl. The level of NO was reduced in the serum and heart of HSD rats. NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) reversed the increases of cleaved-caspase 3/caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8/caspase 8, Bax/Bcl2 induced by NaCl (100 mM) in H9C2 cells and NRCM. SNP treatment attenuated the increases of cleaved-caspase 3/caspase 3, Bax/Bcl2, LC3 II/LC3 I, Beclin-1, and ATG7 in the heart, but had no effect on the blood pressure of HSD rats with HR. These results demonstrated that HSD enhanced cardiac damage independently of blood pressure. Exogenous NO supplementarity could alleviate the high salt-induced apoptosis and autophagy in cardiomyocytes.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116171, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387783

RESUMO

In addition to being historically intentionally manufactured as commercial products, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be unintentionally released as by-products from industrial processes. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCBs) and have even identified them as major contributors to atmospheric PCBs. However, little is known about contributions of UP-PCBs in current soils. In this study, all 209 PCB congeners were analyzed in agricultural soils on a national scale to investigate the influence of unintentional sources on Chinese soil. The concentration of Σ209PCBs in soils across China was in the range of 64.3-4358 pg/g. Four non-Aroclor congeners, i.e., PCB11, PCB44 + 47+65, PCB68, and PCB209, were dominant among all PCBs, averagely accounting for 26.3%, 8.83%, 3.03%, and 2.80% of total PCBs, respectively. PCB11 and PCB209 were found to be higher in East China, while PCB44 + 47+65 and PCB68 were higher in South China. Their spatial distributions were largely dependent on local sources. The results of source apportionment indicated that the legacy of historically produced and used commercial PCB mixtures was the dominant contributor to seven indicator PCBs in Chinese agricultural soils, especially high-chlorinated congeners. However, unintentional sources (i.e., pigment/paint, combustion-related sources, and polymer sealant), which contributed 57.4% of the total PCBs, are controlling PCB burdens in agricultural soils across China.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8623-8639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177822

RESUMO

Background: To improve responses to tumor microenvironments for achieving a better therapeutic outcome in combination cancer therapy, poly(ε-caprolactone)-SS-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer (PCL-SS-PMAA) with a disulfide linkage between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic junctions was synthesized. Materials and Methods: Repeating units of PCL and PMAA in PCL-SS-PMAA were controlled and formulated into polymersomes (PSPps). Truncated octahedral Fe3O4 nanoparticles (IONPs) were synthesized and encapsulated to produce IONPs-PSPps NPs and doxorubicin (DOX) was further loaded to produce IONPs-PSPps@DOX NPs for theranostic applications. Results: IONPs-PSPps NPs remained a superparamagnetic property with a saturation magnetization value of 85 emu⋅gFe3O4 -1 and a relaxivity value of 180 mM-1⋅s-1. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), IONPs-PSPps NPs increased temperature from 25°C to 54°C within 15 min. Among test groups, the cell apoptosis was greatest in the group exposed to IONPs-PSPps@DOX NPs with AMF and magnet assistance. In vivo T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of A549 tumor-bearing mice also showed highest contrast and greatest tumor suppression in the tumor with AMF and magnet assistance. Conclusion: IONPs-PSPps@DOX NPs are a potential theranostic agent having multifaceted applications involving magnetic targeting, MRI diagnosis, hyperthermia and chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Magnetossomos/química , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Células A549 , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Experimentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Poliésteres/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182529

RESUMO

Due to the natural cellulose encapsulated in both lignin and hemicellulose matrices, as well as in plant cell walls with a compact and complex hierarchy, extracting cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from lignocellulosic biomass is challenging. In this study, a sustainable high yield strategy with respect to other CNF preparations was developed. The cellulose was liberated from plant cell walls and fibrillated to a 7-22 nm thickness in one bath treatment with H3PO4 and H2O2 under mild conditions. The cellulose underwent swelling, the lignin underwent oxidative degradation, and the hemicellulose and a small amount of cellulose underwent acid hydrolysis. The CNFs' width was about 12 nm, with high yields (93% and 50% based on cellulose and biomass, respectively), and a 64% crystallinity and good thermal stability were obtained from bagasse. The current work suggests a strategy with simplicity, mild conditions, and cost-effectiveness, which means that this method can contribute to sustainable development for the preparation of CNFs.

12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 8697-8715, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192062

RESUMO

Purpose: The development of tissue-engineered blood vessels provides a new source of donors for coronary artery bypass grafting and peripheral blood vessel transplantation. Fibrin fiber has good biocompatibility and is an ideal tissue engineering vascular scaffold, but its mechanical property needs improvement. Methods: We mixed polyurethane (PU) and fibrin to prepare the PU/fibrin vascular scaffolds by using electrospinning technology in order to enhance the mechanical properties of fibrin scaffold. We investigated the morphological, mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, degradation, blood and cell compatibility of PU/fibrin (0:100), PU/fibrin (5:95), PU/fibrin (15:85) and PU/fibrin (25:75) vascular scaffolds. Based on the results in vitro, PU/fibrin (15:85) was selected for transplantation in vivo to repair vascular defects, and the extracellular matrix formation, vascular remodeling, and immune response were evaluated. Results: The results indicated that the fiber diameter of the PU/fibrin (15:85) scaffold was about 712nm. With the increase of PU content, the mechanical strength of the composite scaffolds increased, however, the degradation rate decreased gradually. The PU/fibrin scaffold showed good hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility. PU/fibrin (15:85) vascular scaffold could promote the adhesion and proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Quantitative RT-PCR experimental results showed that the expression of collagen, survivin and vimentin genes in PU/fibrin (15:85) was higher than that in PU/fibrin (25:75). The results in vivo indicated the mechanical properties and compliance of PU/fibrin grafts could meet clinical requirements and the proportion of thrombosis or occlusion was significantly lower. The graft showed strong vasomotor response, and the smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and ECM deposition of the neoartery were comparable to that of native artery after 3 months. At 3 months, the amount of macrophages in PU/fibrin grafts was significantly lower, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines decreased. Conclusion: PU/fibrin (15:85) vascular scaffolds had great potential to be used as small-diameter tissue engineering blood vessels.


Assuntos
Prótese Vascular , Fibrina/química , Poliuretanos/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Adesão Celular , Células Endoteliais , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
13.
Zool Stud ; 59: e10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760456

RESUMO

Lycaenidae is one of the larger of the world's butterfly families, based on number and diversity of species, but knowledge of roosting in this group is sparse. Zizina otis riukuensis and Zizeeria maha okinawana are two small lycaenids that are commonly found in urban settings and widely distributed across much of Asia. We conducted experiments on a university campus to determine the plant species and plant structures commonly used by these two blues when roosting. We also tested the hypothesis that gregarious roosting exists in these two blues by demonstrating the non-random distribution of roosting blues and the tight mapping of their roosts to the spatial distribution of specific plant species and/or specific plant structures, as well as by demonstrating behavioral interactions among individuals during roosting-assembly. We found that both Z. otis and Z. maha roosted primarily on flowers and fruits of Tridax procumbens and Vernonia cinerea. We also found that these blues formed conspicuous roosting aggregations with significant positive associations between the flowers and fruits of both T. procumbens and V. cinerea and the blues. Moreover, our behavioral observations showed that these blues expressed various levels of interaction during roosting gatherings. Based on these findings, we conclude that gregarious roosting exists in both Z. otis and Z. maha. To our knowledge, this paper represents one of the first demonstration of nocturnal gregarious roosting in lycaenids. This study also highlights the importance of institutional estates in providing roosting resources for butterflies in urban ecosystems.

14.
J Orthop Translat ; 23: 113-121, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642426

RESUMO

Background & objective: Tendinopathy is a tendon disease with abnormal mechanical loading to induce chronic repetitive injury. However, lack of a comparable animal model to demonstrate clinical progressions has hindered the understanding of anatomical and pathological changes. The major extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tendon consists of abundant type I collagen (COL) and minimal amount of elastin (ELN). Methods: To study the ECM breakdown and inflammation, rat Achilles tendon was harvested and ex vivo incubated with specific enzymes of elastase (ELNase) or collagenase (COLase). Results: The ELNase broke down ELN, loosened the tendon structure, and increased the COL composition. Increases in cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels in tenocytes were revealed to induce inflammation with either ELNase or COLase. However, incubation of COLase for 12 hours severely digested the tendon. To create a proper ELN degradation in rats, the present study used high-frequency ultrasound to guide the injection of ELNase at the paratendon tissue of the Achilles tendon. The effect of mechanically triggered inflammatory responses was investigated by applying treadmill exercise (15 m/min for 20 min per day). After ELNase injection for 14 and 28 days, a significant loss of ELN was observed, and exercise further facilitated the pathological transition of COL. The dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitments was revealed by specific staining of CD-11b (neutrophils) and CD-68 (macrophage) after in vivo injection of ELNase or COLase for 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The combination of ELNase and exercise caused early recruitment of neutrophil on day 1 and sequential expression of macrophage on day 7 in peritendinous tissue. Conclusion: These results suggested that ELN degradation with repetitive mechanical loading may present a suitable model for the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. The Translational potential of this article: This discover the role of elastin degradation in tendinopathy and the interaction of exercise in the histological changes. The established the pathological model mimicking the pathogenesis to the human disease by injecting the elastase using ultrasound guidance and then applying treadmill exercise. The loss of elastin and change of collagen composition in clinical tendinopathy samples were observed in the rats. In addition, the sequential inflammation cascades were observed in the histological outcomes with combination of elastase injection and treadmill exercise. Thus, this model may be used to test the clinical treatment of tendinopathy in different stages.

15.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 20(1): 106, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have reported inconsistent results on the association between alcohol intake and diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of alcohol intake on subsequent DR risk using a meta-analytic approach. METHODS: Three electronic databases (PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library) were systematically searched for observational studies from their inception till November 2019. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied for the summary effect estimate using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies (5 cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 6 cross-sectional studies) with 37,290 participants and 12,711 DR cases were selected for the final meta-analysis. The pooled OR indicated no significant association between alcohol intake and DR risk (OR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.78-1.06; P = 0.225), irrespective of the studies being pooled cohort (OR: 0.95; 95%CI: 0.66-1.36; P = 0.761), case-control (OR: 0.97; 95%CI: 0.77-1.23; P = 0.818), or cross-sectional (OR: 0.86; 95%CI: 0.69-1.08; P = 0.190) ones. However, this association might have been affected by the type of diabetes mellitus and the adjusted status. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the potential impact of alcohol intake on DR risk may differ according to the type of diabetes mellitus and adjusted status. Further large-scale, prospective cohort studies should be conducted to verify the findings of this study and to evaluate DR risk in relation to the dose and type of alcohol intake.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(5)2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429055

RESUMO

Separating the fibers, deconstructing both the interlamellar structures and the intermicrofibrils structures in the cell wall, and cleaving the amorphous regions of cellulose (all reached in one bath chemical-assisted treatment), then extracting cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from biomass, is both challenging and imperative. A simple, cost-effective and green strategy for extracting CNFs from bamboo using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide (NCHP), to enable fibrillation via a cooperative mechanism, is demonstrated herein. NCHP-CNFs 13.1 ± 2.0 nm wide, with a high aspect ratio, 74% crystallinity, excellent UV resistance and high thermal stability, were successfully extracted by treatment in HNO3 aqueous solution, at a concentration of 3.2 mol/L, and treatment with 60.00 mmol/g H2O2 at 50 °C for 48 h. The yields of NCHP-CNFs reached 73% and 99% based on biomass and cellulose, respectively, due to the high delignification selectivity of OH+ and the mild aqueous conditions during the NCHP treatment. These NCHP-CNFs with excellent UV resistance can potentially be applied in the field of UV-resistant coatings, to replace organic and inorganic materials.

17.
Theranostics ; 10(6): 2817-2831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194837

RESUMO

Rationale: The formation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into spheres on a chitosan-coated microenvironment promoted ASCs differentiation into a mixed population of neural lineage-like cells (NLCs), but the underline mechanism is still unknown. Since the fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play as key regulators of neural cell fate during embryo development and stem cell differentiation, the current study aims to reveal the interplay of FGF9 and FGFRs for promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Different concentration of FGF9 peptide (10, 25, 50, 100 ng/mL) were added during NLCs induction (FGF9-NLCs). The FGFR expressions and potential signaling were studied by gene and protein expressions as well as knocking down by specific FGFR siRNA or commercial inhibitors. FGF9-NLCs were fluorescent labeled and applied into a nerve conduit upon the injured sciatic nerves of experimental rats. Results: The FGFR2 and FGFR4 were significantly increased during NLCs induction. The FGF9 treated FGF9-NLCs spheres became smaller and changed into Schwann cells (SCs) which expressed S100ß and GFAP. The specific silencing of FGFR2 diminished FGF9-induced Akt phosphorylation and inhibited the differentiation of SCs. Transplanted FGF9-NLCs participated in myelin sheath formation, enhanced axonal regrowth and promoted innervated muscle regeneration. The knockdown of FGFR2 in FGF9-NLCs led to the abolishment of nerve regeneration. Conclusions: Our data therefore demonstrate the importance of FGF9 in the determination of SC fate via the FGF9-FGFR2-Akt pathway and reveal the therapeutic benefit of FGF9-NLCs.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 9 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Nervo Isquiático , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
18.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 36(6): 441-449, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961055

RESUMO

Although human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the association of unfolded protein response (UPR) induced by HLA-B27 misfolding in AS remains controversial. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial in induction of AS in HLA-B27-transgenic rats, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) belong to one type of DCs, we here aim to study the relevance of pDCs and UPR in AS. Peripheral pDCs were isolated from 27 HLA-B27(+) AS patients and 37 controls. The bone marrow (BM) and synovium of inflamed hips from AS patients and controls were obtained. We found a significantly higher frequency of pDCs in the peripheral blood, BM, or inflamed synovium of hips, which is associated with the enhanced expression of pDC trafficking molecules, CCR6 and CCL20 in the synovium of AS patients. Functional analysis further revealed that several inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα, IL-6, and IL-23, secreted by pDCs were significantly increased in AS patients as compared with those in controls. Remarkably, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathway in UPR was up-regulated in pDCs of AS patients. Notably, PERK inhibitor treatment significantly inhibited the enhanced cytokine production by pDCs of AS patients. Further, the extent of PERK activation was significantly associated with the increased disease severity of AS patients. Our data uncover the aberrant distribution and function of pDCs in AS patients. The up-regulated PERK pathway in UPR of pDCs not only contributes to enhanced cytokine production of pDCs, but also is associated with increased disease activity of AS patients.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/farmacologia , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Contagem de Células , Quimiocina CCL20/genética , Quimiocina CCL20/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Antígeno HLA-B27/imunologia , Quadril , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Indóis/farmacologia , Interleucina-23/genética , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores CCR6/genética , Receptores CCR6/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/patologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , eIF-2 Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , eIF-2 Quinase/imunologia
19.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(1): e1900948, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746549

RESUMO

Prussian blue nanoprobes are widely studied and applied in tumor photothermal therapy (PTT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to their low toxicity and excellent in vivo performance. However, the sizes of hitherto reported Prussian blue nanoprobes are generally larger than 50 nm, which greatly influence cell phagocytosis, in vivo circulation, and biodistribution. In this work, a novel method of doping zinc ions is used to control the size of Prussian blue nanoprobes. Consequently, the performances of the nanoprobes in PTT and MRI are both significantly improved. The results show that the minimum size of Prussian blue nanoprobes achieved by doping 10% zinc ions (abbreviated as SPBZn(10%)) is 3.8 ± 0.90 nm, and the maximum specific absorption coefficient, photothermal conversion efficiency, and longitudinal relaxation rates are 1.78 L g-1 cm-1 , 47.33%, and 18.40 mm-1 s-1 , respectively. In addition, the SPBZn(10%) nanoprobes provide excellent PTT efficacy on 4T1 tumor cells (killing rate: 90.3%) and breast cancer model (tumor inhibition rate: 69.4%). Toxicological experiment results show that the SPBZn(n%) nanoprobes exhibit no obvious in vitro cytotoxicity and they can be used safely in mice at doses below 100 mg kg-1 . Therefore, SPBZn(10%) nanoprobes can potentially be used for effective cancer theranostics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Ferrocianetos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Terapia Fototérmica/métodos , Zinco/química , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Raios Infravermelhos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho da Partícula , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Distribuição Tecidual , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 17: 477-490, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336235

RESUMO

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a widely used chemotherapy drug; however, frequent use causes multidrug resistance (MDR), which limits the utility of PTX against advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PTX-resistant subline (NCI-H23-TXR) was established in vitro by exposing NCI-H23 cells to gradually increased concentrations of PTX in culture medium. Distinct Beclin expression of autophagy level was observed between resistant NCI-H23-TXR and parental NCI-H23 cells. Beclin-small interfering RNA (siRNA) was selected to restore sensitivity of PTX against NCI-H23-TXR. Chondroitin sulfate-polyethylenimine (CS-PEI) was constructed for delivery and protection of Beclin-siRNA. To delineate the underlying molecular mechanism of Beclin knockdown, we analyzed different MDR expression proteins of two cells using western blot, and the corresponding genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. Compared with NCI-H23, NCI-H23-TXR had higher expression levels in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein 7 (ABCC10). Knockdown of Beclin simultaneously inhibited P-gp and ABCC10, and renewed the sensitivity of PTX against NCI-H23-TXR. Research on zebrafish embryos revealed that tumor sizes decreased in NCI-H23 tumor xenografts but remained intact in NCI-H23-TXR tumor xenografts as zebrafish were treated with 1 µg/mL PTX. In contrast, the tumor sizes decreased in NCI-H23-TXR tumor xenografts with zebrafish pre-transfected with CS-PEI/Beclin-siRNA followed by the same treatment of PTX. The role of autophagy was associated with MDR development. This study paves the way for a new avenue of PTX in MDR-related lung cancer therapy using CS-PEI as a gene delivery carrier.

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