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1.
Food Chem ; 349: 129137, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556727

RESUMO

Contamination of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in agricultural products have attracted more and more attentions recently. In this review, relationship between PFASs and vegetables is summarized comprehensively. PFASs could transfer to cultivation soils by irrigation water, bio-amended soil, and atmospheric deposition mainly from industrial emissions. Carbon chain length of PFASs, species of vegetables and so on are key factors for PFASs migration and bioaccumulation in soils, plants and vegetables. Studies on food risk assessment of PFOA and PFOS show low consumption risk for most vegetables, however researches on other substances are lacking. In the future, we need to pay more attention on novel pollution pathway in cultivation, traceability research for considerable contamination, dietary exposure levels for different vegetables and more substances, as well as more exact and scientific food risk assessments. Additionally, effective means for PFASs adsorption in soil and removal from soil are also expected.

2.
Med Res Rev ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559917

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a particularly notorious mosquito-borne flavivirus, which can lead to a devastating congenital syndrome in the fetuses of pregnant mothers (e.g., microcephaly, spasticity, craniofacial disproportion, miscarriage, and ocular abnormalities) and cause the autoimmune disorder Guillain-Barre' syndrome of adults. Due to its severity and rapid dispersal over several continents, ZIKV has been acknowledged to be a global health concern by the World Health Organization. Unfortunately, the ZIKV has recently resurged in India with the potential for devastating effects. Researchers from all around the world have worked tirelessly to develop effective detection strategies and vaccines for the prevention and control of ZIKV infection. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the most recent research into ZIKV, including the structural biology and evolution, historical overview, pathogenesis, symptoms, and transmission. We then focus on the detection strategies for ZIKV, including viral isolation, serological assays, molecular assays, sensing methods, reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification, transcription-mediated amplification technology, reverse transcription strand invasion based amplification, bioplasmonic paper-based device, and reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification. To conclude, we examine the limitations of currently available strategies for the detection of ZIKV, and outline future opportunities and research challenges.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(6): 3217-3225, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525867

RESUMO

The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction has drawn increasing attention in the field of analytical science. However, the poor stability of Cu(I) usually hinders not only the simplicity of the click reaction but also its applications in precise analyses. Therefore, the development of a nanocatalyst containing stable Cu(I) is of great significance for broadening the application of CuAAC-based assays. Herein, inspired by the active center structure of natural multicopper oxidases (MCOs), we successfully prepared a novel nanocatalyst containing abundant stable Cu(I) as an artificial "clickase" (namely, CCN) by using glutathione to stabilize Cu(I). The stability and enzyme-like catalytic activity in the CuAAC reaction of the prepared CCN clickase were studied, and the catalytic mechanism of the CCN clickase-mediated CuAAC reaction between 3-azide-7-hydroxycoumarin (Azide 1) and propargyl alcohol (Alkyne 2) was also revealed. Compared with the existing solid CuO nanocatalysts used in CuAAC-based assays, CCN clickases exhibited plenty of superior properties (including high stability, excellent catalytic activity, no requirements of dissolution and reducing agents/radical initiator during the detection, well-defined porosities benefiting the substrate diffusion, and good biocompatibility), which can greatly increase the reaction efficiency and shorten the detection time. Encouraged by these remarkable performances, CCN clickases were used as labels to establish a new catalytic click fluorescence immunoassay for foodborne pathogens. Notably, the proposed CCN clickase-based immunoassay exhibited high analytical performances for the quantification of Salmonella enteritidis in the linear range of 102-106 CFU/mL with a limit of detection as low as 11 CFU/mL. The developed method has also been used in the determination of S. enteritidis in food samples, showing its great potential in the detection of foodborne pathogens.

5.
Food Chem ; 347: 129075, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493838

RESUMO

A novel magnetic covalent organic framework (NH2-Fe3O4@COF) was prepared using a simple room-temperature synthesis in this study. These magnetic particles exhibited high adsorption performance with short adsorption time (10 min) for six benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbents. Quantum chemistry calculation demonstrated that adsorption mechanism was primarily attributed to strong halogen bonds between electronegative O atoms of COF and electropositive F atoms of BUs as well as potential hydrophobic effect. Wide linearities (10-1000 ng·L-1) and low limits of detection (0.06-1.65 ng·L-1) for six analytes were obtained via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Applicability of the proposed method was further evaluated by analyzing four kinds of original tea beverages. Recoveries of six BUs in spiked samples ranged from 80.1% to 108.4%.

6.
J Hazard Mater ; 409: 124905, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412473

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) remain a major point of concern worldwide, and surveillance monitoring of these contaminants presents a significant challenge. Here, we conducted an assessment of combined exposure to multiple POPs components [10 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 29 dioxin-like compounds (DLCs)] in relation to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk, and determined the identification and prioritization of potent components in these POPs mixtures. The results indicated a significant mixture effect and the combined exposure index estimated from multiple POPs components was associated with GDM and glucose homeostasis (P < 0.001). Based on the mixture effects on GDM, the procedure of prioritization identified DLCs as the components of the greatest concern, although at the lowest body burden in the population compared with PBDEs, PFAAs, and PCBs. For glucose homeostasis, BDE-153 was the chemical of top-ranked priority of concern. The final effect-based prioritized list of POPs was DLCs > PBDEs >PFAAs > PCBs. This prioritization is important for developing a more cost-effective regulation framework focusing on the POPs components of the greatest concern to human health.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144649, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493913

RESUMO

The blood lead levels (BLLs) of children in China remain notably high in many areas. We aimed to summarise the relevant regional characteristics, identifying problematic areas and the causes of lead pollution. We searched the databases of PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data, systematically reviewing 219 articles published from January 2010 to September 2020. In doing so, we assessed the BLLs noted in 220 prefectures across China. Data were organised using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping. Out of a total of 629,627 children sampled, we found that the average blood lead level (BLL) of children included in our study is 50.61 ± 13.63 µg/L, which slightly exceeds the 50.00 µg/L US standard. Within the sample, 8.75% had BLLs higher than 100.00 µg/L. Children living in Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Anhui, Fujian, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi had notably high BLLs, at more than 60.00 µg/L. A total of 112 municipalities had an average children's BLL above 50.00 µg/L. Furthermore, Chenzhou, Linfen, Yuncheng, and Hechi had the highest children's BLLs, with average values above 100.00 µg/L. The leading contributors to lead pollution are lead mining, lead recovery and the smelting industry. Nonetheless, the lead-acid battery industry needs more attention. Although data suggest that BLLs are decreasing in China, many areas still have high BLLs that need to be monitored. Moreover, national standards must improve to decrease acceptable BLL thresholds for children.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(4): 1391-1397, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480683

RESUMO

Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues (together with their chlorinated derivatives are referred to as BPs) were measured in 181 breastmilk samples collected from 9 provinces in China in 2014. Twelve BP types were found. The BP concentrations ranged from not detected to 5.912 µg/L. BPA was the predominant BP, followed by bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS). The mean BPA, BPF, and BPS levels were 0.444, 0.107, and 0.027 µg/L, respectively. Other BPs were sporadically detected in breastmilk samples. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in BPA, BPF, BPS, or total BP levels in the urban and rural regions or the northern and southern regions. BPA accounted for approximately 70% of the BPs and BPF accounted for more than 20% of the BPs in breast milk samples. The high contribution of BPF indicated that BPA analogues, not only BPA, should receive attention. The upper-bound daily intakes of BPs for infants 0-6 months old were 0.044-1.291 µg/kg bw/day. Despite the absence of tolerable daily intake data, attention should be paid not only on BPA but also BPF.

9.
Food Chem ; 337: 127974, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920274

RESUMO

Facile enrichment and determination of trace organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in foods has been a constantly pursuing goal in food safety field. Herein, Zr4+-immobilized covalent organic frameworks (Fe3O4@COF@Zr4+) have been first constructed and utilized as the powerful adsorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of OPPs. Owing to the π-π stacking interaction, hydrogen bonding and Zr4+-phosphate coordination reaction, the composites exhibited excellent selectivity and superior affinity to OPPs. Under optimized conditions, the proposed MSPE method coupled with GC-FPD showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9990) and yielded low limits of detection (0.7-3.0 µg kg-1) for OPPs. Moreover, the developed method was successfully employed for the quantitation of OPPs in spiked vegetable samples and obtained satisfactory recoveries in the range of 87-121% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 8.9%. These results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles hold unique advantages for trace OPPs analysis in foodstuffs.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Organofosfatos/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Compostos de Anilina/química , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ferro/química , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Nanocompostos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Zircônio/química
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123917, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264969

RESUMO

Food and environmental safety issues attributable to the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are gaining increasing attention, and these urge us to establish a high-performance sample-handling technique. In this study, an outstanding adsorption performance with short adsorption time (10 min) was achieved for PBDEs using a novel synthesized dispersive solid-phase extraction adsorbent, a reticulated covalent organic framework with N/O functional groups (i.e., imine linkage, triazine, and methoxy) (TAPT-DMTA-COF). By conducting sufficient experimentation and theoretical simulation on adsorption mechanism, the halogen bond between electronegative N/O atoms of TAPT-DMTA-COF and the electropositive Br atoms of PBDEs were observed to play a more pivotal role than π-π, C-H…π interactions, and hydrophobic effects. Furthermore, the positive linear relation between calculated adsorption energy and Br content directly clarified that enrichment behavior of PBDEs can be attributed to halogen bonding. These data implied that integrated nanostructure (i.e., N/O functional groups and reticulated architecture) effectively enhanced adsorption capacity. In case of PBDE analysis, this approach achieved excellent results with low limits of detection (0.03-0.13 ng L-1). Finally, the promising potential applications of aforementioned method were verified by spiking water, fish, and milk samples with PBDEs; good PBDEs recoveries were obtained.

11.
Food Chem ; 337: 127802, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795851

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxin are major trichothecenes contaminated in cereals, which might bring harmful effects to humans. In this research, mixed anti-DON and anti-T-2 mAb were used for multiple immunoaffinity columns (mIACs) preparation. Under the optimal conditions, column capacities were tested at 1280 ng/mL for DON and 1160 ng/mL for T-2 toxin. Regeneration investigation showed mIACs capacities were over 510 ng/mL for DON and 440 ng/mL for T-2 toxin in 10 recycle usages. Good performances were obtained when applying mIACs purification coupled UHPLC-MS/MS for spiked samples with limit of detection at 3-13 µg/kg and mean recoveries at 79.0-97.6%. Applying to estimate the exposure of DON and T-2 toxin in commercial samples, maize samples were 100% DON positive and rice samples were 40% DON positive while T-2 toxin was negative in all tested samples. The proposed method is reliable and suitable for monitoring DON and T-2 toxin in cereal samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxina T-2/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tricotecenos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Zea mays/química
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112776, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157408

RESUMO

Inspired by the structure of the catalytically active center of natural laccase, a novel laccase mimics (named LM nanozymes) with a superior catalytic activity was successfully prepared by using glutathione (GSH) and copper (II) chloride as precursors via a facile hydrothermal method. The catalytically active center structure of LM nanozymes was revealed, which was constructed based on the numerous copper (Ⅰ) and copper (II) coordinating with thiol/amino group. The possible catalytic mechanism of LM nanozymes was also proposed. Similar to natural laccase, the prepared LM nanozymes can catalyze the oxidative coupling reaction between 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DP) and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AP) to produce an obvious red product. Compared with natural laccase, the LM nanozymes showed many outstanding advantages such as robust stability, lower cost, stronger catalytic activity and substrate affinity. Based on its excellent performances, LM nanozymes were employed as a powerful alternative to the natural enzyme in a traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to establish a nanozyme-based ELISA towards alpha-lactalbumin (allergenic protein). Impressively, a high-throughput and portable detection method was established by the integration of the nanozyme-based ELISA with a smartphone. The portable detection strategy achieved a limit of detection as low as 0.056 ng/mL with high specificity, and also showed excellent applicability in food sample analysis. This work not only enriches the diversities of nanozymes, but also broadens the promising applications of nanozymes in the biosensing area.

13.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116376, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383424

RESUMO

Emerging per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), such as chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs), have been detected in human samples, yet investigation on their occurrence in pregnant women remains limited. Herein, ten legacy PFASs, branched perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), two Cl-PFESAs, perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (HFPO-DA), and ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA) were detected in serum samples from 480 pregnant women in Tianjin, China. The influencing effects of age, body mass index, gravidity, and parity were also evaluated. PFOS [geographic mean (GM): 7.05 ng/mL], 6:2Cl-PFESA (GM: 5.31 ng/mL), and PFOA (GM: 2.82 ng/mL) were the dominant PFASs in the serum of pregnant women, while neither HFPO-DA nor ADONA was detectable in any serum. The serum concentration of Cl-PFESAs and 6:2Cl-PFESA/PFOS ratio in the present study were 2-5 times higher than that in previous studies of pregnant women in China. Serum concentrations of Cl-PFESAs were significantly correlated with all detected PFAAs (Spearman's Rho: 0.15-0.69, p < 0.01) excepting perfluoropentanesulfonate (PFPeS), indicating common exposure sources for Cl-PFESAs and PFAAs and some particular exposure source for PFPeS. Younger age and multi-parity were associated with lower serum concentrations of PFOS and several perfluoroalkyl sulfonates but not associated with Cl-PFESAs or PFOA, suggesting an increasing exposure to Cl-PFESAs and PFOA which neutralized the impact of age and parity. Overall, this study indicated a relatively high exposure level and composition of 6:2Cl-PFESA in pregnant women in the north coast of China, which highlights the need to investigate the exposure sources in this area.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Alcanossulfonatos , China , Éter , Éteres , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes
14.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 19(2): 503-529, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325172

RESUMO

Reactive carbonyl compounds are a large group of highly reactive electrophilic compounds containing one or more carbonyl groups, which can be created by lipid oxidation both in vivo and in food. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenel (HNE) are the two most important reactive carbonyl compounds in food. They can react with proteins and nucleic acids and cause biological damage to cells and lead to carbonyl stress. Therefore, they are regarded as representative products of lipid oxidation, toxic molecules, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Apart from biological toxicity, they can also react with myoglobin and myofibrillar protein and further affect color, gel properties, hydrophobicity, or other properties of food. However, the effects of MDA and HNE on food qualities have not received as much attentions and it is noteworthy that the existing analytical methods for detecting MDA and HNE have a variety of limitations due to the complexity of food samples. To provide a comprehensive understanding of HNE and MDA, the formation mechanism, occurrence, and analytical methods for MDA and HNE in food matrix were summarized in this article. Emphasis is focused on formation mechanism including non-enzymatic pathway and enzymatic pathway, and detection methods including the extraction methods, the new development of sample pre-treatment technology and the selection of derivative reagents. Impressively, the reaction mechanism of MDA and HNE with myoglobin or myofibrillar protein is also described to explain how MDA and HNE affect food quality.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186379

RESUMO

Information on the burden of disease due to foodborne pathogens in China is quite limited. To understand the incidence of foodborne gastroenteritis due to non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, population survey and sentinel hospital surveillance were conducted during July 2010 to June 2011 in Shanghai, east China, and a model for calculating disease burden was established. The multiplier for gastroenteritis caused by these pathogens was estimated at 59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 30-102]. Annual incidence per 100,000 population in Shanghai was estimated as 48 (95% CI 24-83) and 183 (95% CI 93-317) cases for foodborne non-typhoidal salmonellosis and V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, respectively, illustrating that bacterial gastroenteritis due to these two pathogens poses a substantial health burden. There is a significant difference between our simulated incidence and the data actually reported for foodborne diseases, indicating significant underreporting and underdiagnosis of non-typhoidal S. enterica and V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the surveillance area. The present research demonstrates basic situation of the health burden caused by major foodborne pathogens in the surveillance area. Enhanced laboratory-based sentinel hospital surveillance is one of the effective ways to monitor food safety in east China.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; : 124298, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168321

RESUMO

The global dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their role as novel contaminants has garnered significant attention. However, the prevalence of ARGs in farm environments is usually underestimated and understudied. Here, colistin resistance gene mcr-1 and extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase genes, all of which pose a threat to food safety and public health, were selected to investigate ARG pollution in farm environments. Target gene prevalence ranged from 22.4% to 98.8%, with broiler feedlots showing higher contamination rates than pig and layer feedlots. Moreover, the ARGs were detected in the cooperative broiler feedlot environment from 2016 to 2019, with no significant changes in mcr-1 abundance after the 2017 ban on colistin as a growth promotor. The relative abundance of target genes was also higher in solid manure than in feces and soil. Overall, our results revealed: (1) that broiler farm environments could serve as an important reservoir of mcr-1 and ESBL- and carbapenemase-encoding genes; (2) that fecal treatment processes may affect levels of ARG contamination in the environment; and (3) that residual colistin selects for the persistence of mcr-1 in farm environments. Therefore, further investigation is needed to estimate the impact of the ban on colistin as a growth promoter.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(47): 13906-13915, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146527

RESUMO

Presently, the potential health risks of neonicotinoid insecticides (neonics) are now receiving much attention, but no data regarding the exposure of infants to neonics via human breast milk intake have been reported. In this study, a nationwide survey was conducted during the period of 2017-2019, wherein 97 pooled breast milk samples were collected from 3570 lactating women of 23 provinces in China. Nationally, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl was the most predominant compound, accounting for 61.2% of the total amount of neonics, followed by imidacloprid (15.6%). The concentration of the sum of acetamiprid and its metabolite acetamiprid-N-desmethyl in breast milk was positively correlated with corresponding dietary exposure, while no statistically significant association between the other neonic levels in breast milk and dietary exposure was found. The cumulative daily intakes of neonics (9.40-249 ng kg-1 of body weight day-1) were estimated for breastfed infants, indicating a minuscule risk to Chinese infants from neonic exposure via breastfeeding.

18.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 2): 128269, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035825

RESUMO

To ensure food safety in livestock industries, developing a non-lethal and cost-effective detection method for the long-term monitoring of veterinary antibiotics in animals will be beneficial to avoid unnecessary losses. In this study, a highly-selective extraction using dispersive micro solid-phase extraction method coupled with an enhanced-sensitivity detection by pre-column dilution injection and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was used to determine the restricted fluoroquinolones (FQs) in swine body fluids. The proposed method showed good linear coefficients higher than 0.999, and high sensitivity with the LODs and LOQs in the range of 0.02-0.03 µg/L and 0.06-0.1 µg/L in swine body fluids, respectively. For further evaluation, the adequate recoveries (85.3-112.8%), satisfactory repeatability (intra-day and inter-day precisions of 2.1%-8.2% and 3.8%-13.7%, respectively), and acceptable matrix effect (0.92-1.12) of the FQs were achieved. It has been successfully applied for analysis of the FQs in body fluids without sacrificing animals in the future.

19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), proved to be potential carcinogenic threats to human health, have received great concerns in food field. It was essential to develop effective methods to detect EDCs in food samples. The present study proposed an efficient method to determine trace EDCs including estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and bisphenol A (BPA) based on magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) coupled high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in meat samples. RESULTS: Fe3 O4 @COF(TpBD)/TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized via functionalization of magnetic covalent organic frameworks (COFs) with titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, and used as absorbents of MSPE to enrich EDCs. The efficient EDCs enrichment relies on π-π stacking interaction, hydrogen bonding, and the interaction between titanium ions (IV, Ti4+ ) and hydroxyl groups in EDCs, which improves the selectivity and sensitivity. Under the optimized conditions, target EDCs were rapidly extracted through MSPE with 5 min. Combining Fe3 O4 @COF(TpBD)/TiO2 based MSPE and HPLC-MS/MS to determine EDCs, good linearities were observed with correlation coefficient (R2 ) ≥ 0.9989. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.13-0.41 µg kg-1 and 0.66-1.49 µg kg-1 , respectively. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to real samples analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The established MSPE-HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine EDCs in meat samples with rapidness, improved selectivity and sensitivity. It shows great prospects for EDCs detection in other complicated matrices.

20.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3756-3763, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990369

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) contamination in rice grain is common worldwide. This study investigated the effect of degree of milling (DM) on the reduction of Cd in cooked rice grain and porridge (rice-to-water ratios 1:1.6 and 1:10, respectively) and Cd in vitro bioaccessibility. Cd-contaminated rice grains with DMs of 20%, 15%, and 0% were cooked and then subjected to successive digestion in a gastrointestinal environment model. Simulated-digestion juices, including saliva, gastric juice, duodenal juice, and bile juice, were used. The degree of gelatinization of cooked rice was measured and the morphological characteristics of the grain were also examined. The results showed that the Cd in vitro bioaccessibility, although less than 50% in all samples, was gradually increased with an increase of DM. The detected Cd bioaccessibility was higher at half meals (reduced grain content) when compared with full meals (full grain content). As DM increased, the surface of cooked rice grain and porridge became smoother, and the amount of fiber, fat droplets, and starch granules were gradually decreased, whereas degree of gelatinization increased. The results indicate that DM affects the Cd in vitro bioaccessibility in cooked rice by altering the gelatinization of starch. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Degree of milling (DM) significantly influenced the in vitro bioaccessibility of cadmium (Cd) in cooked rice. This work may offer a potential solution to the rice grain with high Cd content because a limited DM will allow a low bioaccessibility of Cd.

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