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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(4): 2780-2791, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492319

RESUMO

In this investigation, the improved electrochemical behavior in Si-doped Li-rich cathodes is studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Z-contrast images show a layered structure that develops a thin, spinel-like surface layer after the first charge cycle. Si-doping increases discharge capacity by ∼25% and appears to retard the surface phase transformation. Based on electron energy loss spectra, the surface layer in the doped material has an altered oxygen electronic environment, which supports the STEM findings. Furthermore, Si-doping changes the redox behavior during the activation cycle. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Si-doping can increase oxygen vacancy formation, and change the sequence of the redox couples by introducing more oxygen vacancies before or during the typical high voltage activation process. The results of this work indicate that the type of doping employed here is an effective strategy for controlling the complex charge compensation mechanisms in lithium-rich cathodes.

2.
Gene ; 767: 145148, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949698

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a common clinical cardiovascular disease and often accompanied by central nervous system injury. It often causes paralysis or loss of motor function after central nervous system injury and significantly reduces the patient's quality of life. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy for nerve damage caused by ischemic stroke. Therefore, it is urgently need to explore effective treatment targets. The protein expression of SOX5, VEGF and apoptosis related proteins were measured by western blot. The mRNA expression of SOX5 and VEGF were detected by RT-qPCR. The concentration of S100B and GFAP which are related to nerve damage were detected using ELISA assay. The transcriptional regulation of SOX5 on VEGF was detected using ChIP-PCR and dual luciferase reporter gene assays. The cell apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay and cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. In our study, we found that the expression of SOX5 was significantly reduced when LPS induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Overexpression of SOX5 repaired LPS-induced apoptosis. SOX5 promotes VEGF expression as a transcription factor to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway. VEGF also repairs nerve injury and brain tissue injury caused by ischemic stroke. In conclusion, SOX5 transcription regulates the expression of VEGF to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway, which repaired nerve damage caused by ischemic stroke. Therefore, SOX5 could be a new targetto regulate VEGF which can repair nerve injury induced by ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Células PC12 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
3.
Science ; 370(6522): 1313-1317, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303612

RESUMO

High-energy nickel (Ni)-rich cathode will play a key role in advanced lithium (Li)-ion batteries, but it suffers from moisture sensitivity, side reactions, and gas generation. Single-crystalline Ni-rich cathode has a great potential to address the challenges present in its polycrystalline counterpart by reducing phase boundaries and materials surfaces. However, synthesis of high-performance single-crystalline Ni-rich cathode is very challenging, notwithstanding a fundamental linkage between overpotential, microstructure, and electrochemical behaviors in single-crystalline Ni-rich cathodes. We observe reversible planar gliding and microcracking along the (003) plane in a single-crystalline Ni-rich cathode. The reversible formation of microstructure defects is correlated with the localized stresses induced by a concentration gradient of Li atoms in the lattice, providing clues to mitigate particle fracture from synthesis modifications.

4.
FASEB J ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190300

RESUMO

Food withdrawal is usually used for accurate feed metabolizable energy (ME) assessment in poultry, but its effects on intestinal structure and the absorption of nutrients are unclear. In this study, broilers were fed ad libitum (CT) or withdrew food for 12 (FH12), 24 (FH24), 36 (FH36), or 48 hours (FH48). We showed that food withdrawal increased the energy assimilation when compared with the CT. Food withdrawal improved the digestibility of ether extract and the level of lipid substances and fatty acid-derived ß-hydroxybutyrate in serum. Compared to the CT, food withdrawal did not influence the digestibility of starch. Due to 12 hours or longer food withdrawal duration increased glutamate oxidation and uric acid excretion, the analyzed digestibility of crude protein was underestimated, although the upregulated amino acid transporter genes. In addition, histological analysis showed that short-term food withdrawal (12 hours) increased intestinal villus height, crypt depth, and proliferative cell, whereas prolonged food withdrawal (more than 24 hours) impaired villus structure due to the decreased cell proliferation. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed upregulated pathways in birds withdrawn food for 36 hours involved in nutrient absorption and amino acid oxidation. In conclusion, food withdrawal changes nutrient absorption and utilization, especially for amino acid and ether extract, and results in increased ME. Both glutamate oxidation and fatty acid incomplete oxidation are involved in energy supply after refeeding. In contrast to short-term food withdrawal, prolonged food withdrawal impairs the intestinal structure and villus renewal. Our findings deserve attention from nutritionists who are analyzing food digestibility.

5.
Foods ; 9(11)2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202556

RESUMO

Healthy diets are necessary for both humans and animals, including poultry. These diets contain various nutrients for maintenance and production in laying hens. Therefore, research was undertaken to explore the efficiency of various dietary flaxseed sources on the n-3 deposition in the egg yolk and gene expression in laying hens. Five dietary groups were analyzed, i.e., (i) a corn-based diet with no flaxseed (FS) as a negative control (NC), (ii) a wheat-based diet supplemented with 10% whole FS without multi-carbohydrase enzymes (MCE) as a positive control (PC), (iii) ground FS supplemented with MCE (FS), (iv) extruded flaxseed meal was supplemented with MCE (EFM), (v) flaxseed oil supplemented with MCE (FSO). Results indicated that egg weight was highest in the NC, FS, EFM, and FSO groups as compared to PC in the 12th week. Egg mass was higher in enzyme supplemented groups as compared to the PC group, but lower than NC. In the 12th week, the HDEP (hen day egg production) was highest in the FS and EFM groups as compared to FSO, PC, and NC. The FCR (feed conversion ratio) was better in enzyme supplemented groups as compared to the PC group. Enzyme addition enhanced the egg quality as compared to PC in the 12th week. The HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was increased, while LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), VLDL-C (very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), TC (total cholesterol), and TG (total triglycerides) were reduced in the enzyme supplemented groups as compared to PC and NC. The FSO deposit more n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the egg yolk as compared to FS and EFM groups. The expression of ACOX1, LCPT1, FADS1, FADS2, and ELOV2 genes were upregulated, while PPAR-α was downregulated in the FSO group. The LPL mRNA expression was upregulated in the FS, EFM, and FSO groups as compared to the PC and NC groups. It was inferred that FSO with enzymes at 2.5% is cost-effective, improves the hen performances, upregulated the fatty acid metabolism and ß-oxidation genes expression, and efficiently deposits optimal n-3 PUFA in the egg as per consumer's demand.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38861-38870, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632684

RESUMO

Small geographically isolated ponds provide a multitude of ecological functions and services, but water table fluctuations alter the magnitude of these services. Understanding temporal and spatial changes of surface water levels in the watershed, and their spatial variability, is critical for restoration and protection of small ponds. A biweight spatial consistency test was employed to quantify the seasonal variability of surface water tables for 50 ponds and hydrological connectivity models, and land use metrics, topographic characteristics, and irrigation needs, for groundwater, were introduced into the model to identify influencing factors. The spatial difference of water level changes in the rice season was greater than the wheat season while water table increased in the wheat season and declined in the rice season. Continuous runoff with complete surface hydrological connectivity of ponds, which was strongly related to precipitation, occurred only one time during the study period. Water level dynamics were largely uncorrelated to surface hydrological connectivity but were linked to watershed and pond size. By evaluating irrigation water requirements, irrigation was a primary human management factor affecting the water table changes in ponds. Groundwater also enriched influence factors that estimated water level variation in ponds, and these results will provide support for improved water resource management and ponds protection purposes.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Tanques , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Hidrologia , Água
7.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 412, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, increased attention has been focused on breast muscle yield and meat quality in poultry production. Supplementation with nicotinamide and butyrate sodium can improve the meat quality of broilers. However, the potential molecular mechanism is not clear yet. This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementation with a combination of nicotinamide and butyrate sodium on breast muscle transcriptome of broilers under high stocking density. A total of 300 21-d-old Cobb broilers were randomly allocated into 3 groups based on stocking density: low stocking density control group (L; 14 birds/m2), high stocking density control group (H; 18 birds/m2), and high stocking density group provided with a combination of 50 mg/kg nicotinamide and 500 mg/kg butyrate sodium (COMB; 18 birds/m2), raised to 42 days of age. RESULTS: The H group significantly increased cooking losses, pH decline and activity of lactate dehydrogenase in breast muscle when compared with the L group. COMB showed a significant decrease in these indices by comparison with the H group (P < 0.05). The transcriptome results showed that key genes involved in glycolysis, proteolysis and immune stress were up-regulated whereas those relating to muscle development, cell adhesion, cell matrix and collagen were down-regulated in the H group as compared to the L group. In contrast, genes related to muscle development, hyaluronic acid, mitochondrial function, and redox pathways were up-regulated while those associated with inflammatory response, acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glycolysis pathway were down-regulated in the COMB group when compared with the H group. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of nicotinamide and butyrate sodium may improve muscle quality by enhancing mitochondrial function and antioxidant capacity, inhibiting inflammatory response and glycolysis, and promoting muscle development and hyaluronic acid synthesis.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139980, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544690

RESUMO

Effective conservation measures largely depend on knowledge of habitat selection of target species. Little is known about the scale characteristics and temporal rhythm of habitat selection of the endangered red-crowned crane, limiting the habitat conservation. Here, two red-crowned cranes were tracked with Global position system (GPS) for two years in Yancheng National Nature Reserve (YNNR). A multiscale approach was developed to identify the spatiotemporal pattern of habitat selection of red-crowned cranes. The results revealed that Red-crowned cranes preferred to select Scirpus mariqueter, ponds, Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis, and avoid Spartina alterniflora. In each season, habitat selection ratio for Scirpus mariqueter and ponds was the highest during the day and night, respectively. Further multiscale analysis showed that the percent coverage of Scirpus mariqueter at the 200-m to 500-m scale was the most important predictor for all habitat selection modeling, emphasizing the importance of restoring a large area of Scirpus mariqueter habitat for red-crowned crane population restoration. Additionally, other variables affect habitat selection at different scales, and their contributions vary with seasonal and circadian rhythm. Furthermore, habitat suitability was mapped to provide a direct basis for habitat management. The suitable area of daytime and nighttime habitat accounted for 5.4%-19.0% and 4.6%-10.2% of the study area, respectively, implying the urgency of restoration. The study highlighted the scale and temporal rhythms of habitat selection for various endangered species that depend on small habitats. The proposed multiscale approach applies to the restoration and management of habitats of various endangered species.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Poaceae , Estações do Ano
9.
Clin Chim Acta ; 509: 220-223, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore ABO blood group distribution and clinical characteristics in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The clinical data of 187 patients with COVID-19 seen between January 20, 2020 and March 5, 2020 at the First Hospital of Changsha were retrospectively analyzed. The differences in the ABO blood group distribution between COVID-19 patients and the control group (1991 cases) were analyzed. The relationship between blood type and clinical characteristics was analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 187 patients with COVID-19, 69 had type A (36.90%), 63 had type B (33.69%), 41 had type O (21.92%), and 14 had type AB blood (7.49%). The proportion of patients with type A blood in the COVID-19 group was significantly higher than that in the control group (36.90% vs. 27.47%, P = 0.006), while the proportion of patients with type O blood in the COVID-19 group was significantly lower than that in the control group (21.92% vs. 30.19%, P = 0.018). The risk of COVID-19 was higher for individuals with blood group A than for those with blood group O (OR = 1.849, 95% CI = 1.228-2.768, P = 0.003). The risk of COVID-19 was higher for patients with blood group A than for those with a blood group other than A (OR = 1.544, 95% CI = 1.122-2.104, P = 0.006). Patients with blood group O had a lower risk of COVID-19 than non-O blood group patients (OR = 0.649, 95% CI = 0.457-0.927, P = 0.018). The ABO blood group distribution was related to COVID-19 status. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with blood group A had an increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, whereas blood group O was associated with a decreased risk, indicating that certain ABO blood groups were correlated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. Blood type was related to some clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(4): 323-327, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between interleukin-8 (IL-8) rs4073 polymorphisms and susceptibility to sepsis in full-term neonates through a prospective study. METHODS: A total of 50 neonates who were diagnosed with sepsis based on positive blood culture from January to December 2017 were enrolled as the sepsis group. Fifty neonates who had clinical symptoms and negative blood culture were enrolled as the clinical sepsis group. Fifty neonates without infection were enrolled as the control group. Sequencing was used to detect the polymorphisms of IL-8 rs4073. The three groups were compared in terms of the frequencies of genotypes and alleles. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of IL-8 rs4073 genotypes with sepsis in full-term neonates. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes and alleles at IL-8 rs4073 among the three groups (P<0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that a low gestational age and TT genotype at IL-8 rs4073 were risk factors for the pathogenesis of sepsis in neonates (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The full-term neonates with TT genotype at IL-8 rs4073 may be susceptible to sepsis.


Assuntos
Interleucina-8/genética , Sepse Neonatal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sepse Neonatal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1462-1470, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115032

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation with nicotinamide (NAM) and sodium butyrate (BA) on meat quality and expression of muscle development genes in broilers reared at a high stocking density. A total of 567, 21-day-old AA broilers were randomly assigned to 5 treatment groups and 2 control groups, with 7 replicates of each group. The control groups included a low stocking density (LD; 12.9 birds/m2) and were fed a basal diet. The treatment groups were kept at a high stocking density (HD; 18.6 birds/m2) and received either a low dose of NAM (50 mg/kg; treatment LN), a high dose of NAM (100 mg/kg; treatment HN), a low dose of BA (500 mg/kg; treatment LB), a high dose of BA (1,000 mg/kg; treatment HB), or a compound supplement (50 mg/kg NAM+500 mg/kg BA; treatment COMB); broilers were reared till 42 D of age. The control groups were kept at HD or at LD (12.9 birds/m2) and were fed a basal diet. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in the HD control group than that in the LD group; this ratio was significantly lower in treatments LN, HN, HB, and COMB than that in the HD control group. The lightness of breast muscles at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter was significantly higher in the HD group than that in the LD group, and the HD group showed the highest drip loss at 24 h and 48 h. Lightness and drip loss were lower in the HN, LB, and COMB treatments than those in the HD group. HD rearing significantly reduced gene expression of myogenic regulatory factor 5 (MYF5) while significantly increased expression of the protein ubiquitin degradation genes FBXO9, FBXO22, and FBXO32. All treatments significantly reduced FBXO9 and FBXO32 expression. Our results suggest dietary supplementation with NAM and BA can improve meat quality of broilers under high stocking density by upregulating the expression of myogenic genes, and inhibiting protein ubiquitination.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Carne/análise , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ubiquitinação
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1061407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016112

RESUMO

Asthma is a common respiratory disease with inflammation in the lungs. Exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial role in inflammation, whereas the role of exosomal miRNA in asthma remains unknown. Here, we aimed to identify the key exosomal miRNAs and their underlying mechanisms involved in scorpio and centipede (SC) treatment in asthma. Eighteen mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group, asthma group, and SC treatment group. Effect of SC was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time PCR. Exosomes from asthma and SC treatment groups were analyzed by small RNA-seq. Results revealed SC significantly alleviated the pathogenesis of asthma and suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines. A total of 328 exosomal miRNAs were differentially expressed between the exosomes from asthma and SC-treated mice, including 118 up- and 210 downregulated in SC-treated mice. The altered exosomal miRNAs were primarily involved in the function of transcription, apoptotic process, and cell adhesion; and pathway of calcium, Wnt, and MAPK signaling. Real-time PCR verified exosomal miR-147 was downregulated, while miR-98-5p and miR-10a-5p were upregulated in SC-treated mice compared to asthma mice. Moreover, the target genes of miR-147-3p, miR-98-5p, and miR-10a-5p were mainly enriched in Wnt and MAPK inflammatory signaling. miR-10a-5p promoted the proliferation of mouse lung epithelial cells and downregulated the expression of Nfat5 and Map2k6. These data suggest SC-induced exosomal miRNAs might mediate the inflammatory signaling and might be involved in the SC treatment in asthma. The exosomal miRNAs might be promising candidates for the treatment of asthma.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Exossomos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Asma/genética , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Distribuição Aleatória , Escorpiões , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
14.
Anim Biotechnol ; 31(6): 520-531, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253055

RESUMO

To study why flaxseed supplementation causes adverse effects on the performance of poultry, we investigated the gut microbiota of Peking ducks after consumption of a flaxseed diet. A total of 792, 12-day-old white Peking ducks were divided into four groups. In the control group, birds were provided with a basal diet. In the three experimental groups, the birds were fed flaxseed containing diet (10% flaxseed and 90% basal diet) for 30, 20 and 10 d, respectively. On day 42, ceca were collected to evaluate the bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota using microbial 16S rDNA gene profiling; serums were obtained to determine the levels of inflammatory mediators. The flaxseed diet decreased the alpha diversity and shifted the predominant genera of the gut microbiota. Flaxseed-fed groups had higher abundances of Escherichia/Shigella (p < 0.1) and Campylobacter (p < 0.05) than the control group. The abundance of pro-inflammatory bacteria such as Veillonellaceae increased (p < 0.05) at first and then decreased (p < 0.05) with prolonged flaxseed supplementation. The levels of prostaglandin E2 and Leukotriene B4 in serum showed the same pattern as that of the pro-inflammatory bacteria. In conclusion, flaxseed diets are associated with inflammation by altering the cecal microbiota dynamics.

15.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 10663-10670, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824173

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the role of glypican-3 (GPC3) in cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with CoCl2 in the absence or presence of GPC3 plasmid transfection. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of GPC3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), c-myc, sp1, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 was determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence after the cells were treated with different concentrations of CoCl2 or siRNA targeting HIF-1α. Results: CoCl2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells and induced apoptosis. Additionally, the expression of GPC3 mRNA and protein was decreased, and overexpression of GPC3 attenuated the tumour inhibiting effects. Further studies showed that CoCl2 increased the expression of HIF-1α while reducing the expression of sp1 and c-myc; knockdown of HIF-1α elevated the expression of GPC3, sp1, and c-myc. Conclusion: CoCl2 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells through downregulation of GPC3 expression via the HIF-1α/c-myc axis.

16.
Food Nutr Res ; 632019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839790

RESUMO

Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3, have beneficial effects on human health, and for this reason foodstuffs with increased content of n-3 PUFA are now very common and widely available. Design: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the duration of a flaxseed diet on Peking duck's growth performance, antioxidant status, gene expression, and fatty acid profile of the meat. A total of 792 12-day-old white Peking ducks were divided into four groups. In the control group, animals were provided with a basal diet. In the three experimental groups, animals were fed a 10% flax seed diet with vitamin E at 13, 23, and 33 days of age for 30, 20, and 10 days, respectively. Results: The growth performance of the ducks decreased with flaxseed diet's duration. Both body weight and body weight gain decreased linearly while Feed conversion ratios (FCR) increased in the group of ducks fed flaxseed compared to control ducks. Serum triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) linearly decreased while high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels increased by feeding flaxseed up to 30 days. The expression of lipin-1 gene (LPIN-1) and fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) linearly increased in ducks fed flaxseed for 30 days. Linolenic acid (n-3) and its long-chain metabolites like eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-3 fatty acids (FA) linearly increased while the ratio of n-6 to n-3 was reduced with increased duration of flaxseed supplementation. Conclusion: Overall, we found that increasing the duration of flaxseed diet with vitamin E for more than 10 days had a mild adverse effect on duck's growth performance but enrichedits meat with long-chain PUFA and decreased the n-6 to n-3 ratio, providing quality meat for health-conscious consumers. A period of 20 days is good for producing n-3 enriched Peking duck meat and skin.

17.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7081-7090, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670358

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density and dietary nicotinamide (NAM) and butyrate sodium (BA) supplementation on the growth performance, liver mitochondrial function and gut microbiota of broilers at high stocking density. A total of 342, 26-d-old Cobb500 broilers were divided into 5 groups with 6 replicates. Treatments were as follows: (a) Low stocking density (L, 9 birds per cage); (b) High stocking density (H, 12 birds per cage); (c) H + 50 ppm NAM; (d) H + 500 ppm BA; (e) H + 50 ppm NAM + 500 ppm BA (COMB). The results showed that high stocking density significantly reduced the feed intake and body weight gain of broilers, while COMB improved the growth performance at high stocking density. High stocking density significantly reduced the liver metallothionein content, liver mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase. In contrast, the liver metallothionein contents in the NAM, BA and COMB fed group were higher than those in the H group. COMB increased the activity of ATPase as well, but it failed to enhance the mitochondrial membrane potential. Stocking density also affected gut microbiota of broilers. The high-density group increased the relative abundance of Blautia. Supplementation of BA and NAM increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of NAM and BA can improve the performance, antioxidant capacity, mitochondrial function and intestinal microbiota of broilers at high stocking density.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225702, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774876

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic and complex interface between blood and the central nervous system (CNS). It protects the brain by preventing toxic substances from entering the brain but also limits the entry of therapeutic agents. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters are critical for the functional barrier and present a formidable impediment to brain delivery of therapeutic agents including antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and 4 (MRP1 and MRP4), two ABC transporters, in benzylpenicillin efflux transport using wild-type (WT) MDCKII cells and cells overexpressing those human transporters, as well as non-selective and selective inhibitors. We found that inhibiting MRP1 or MRP4 significantly increased [3H]benzylpenicillin uptake in MDCKII-WT, -MRP1 or -MRP4 cells. Similar results were also found in HepG2 cells, which highly express MRP1 and MRP4, and hCMEC/D3 cells which express MRP1. The results indicate that human and canine MRP1 and MRP4 are involved in benzylpenicillin efflux transport. They could be potential therapeutic targets for improving the efficacy of benzylpenicillin for treating CNS infections since both MRP1 and MRP4 express at human blood-brain barrier.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/antagonistas & inibidores , Penicilina G/metabolismo , Animais , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Transporte Biológico , Cães , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia
19.
AMB Express ; 9(1): 189, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754923

RESUMO

Engineered Salmonella typhimurium (S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA) and attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (SL: Salmonella typhimurium with a defect in the synthesis of guanine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate) exhibit similar tumor targeting capabilities (Kim et al. in Theranostics 5:1328-1342, 2015; Jiang et al. in Mol Ther 18:635-642, 2013), but S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA exerts superior tumor suppressive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA inhibits colon cancer growth and recurrence by promoting increased IL-1ß production. The CT26 tumor mouse model was used, and mice were treated in the following ways: PBS, S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA(+) + IL-1ßAb, SL, S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA(-), and S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA(+). Dynamic evaluation of the efficacy of S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA in the treatment of colon cancer was assessed by MRI. Western blot, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis were used to investigate IL-1ß-derived cells and IL-1ß expression on tumor cells and immune cells to analyze the regulatory mechanism. IL-1ß levels in tumors colonized by S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA were significantly increased and maintained at high levels compared to control treatments. This increase caused tumors to subside without recurrence. We examined the immune cells mediating S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA-induced tumor suppression and examined the major cell types producing IL-1ß. We found that macrophages and dendritic cells were the primary IL-1ß producers. Inhibition of IL-1ß in mice treated with S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA using an IL-1ß antibody caused tumor growth to resume. This suggests that IL-1ß plays an important role in the treatment of cancer by S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA. We found that in St-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA-treated tumors, expression of molecules involved in signaling pathways, such as NLRP3, ASC, Caspase1, TLR4, MyD88, NF-kB and IL-1ß, were upregulated, while in ΔppGpp S. typhimurium treated animals, TLR4, MyD88, NF-kB and IL-1ß were upregulated with NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase1 being rarely expressed or not expressed at all. Using S.t-ΔpGlux/pT-ClyA may simultaneously activate TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways, which increase IL-1ß expression and enhance inhibition of colon cancer growth without tumor recurrence. This study provides a novel platform for treating colon cancer.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0198985, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365498

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the impact of stocking density on the liver proteome and cecal microbiota of Peking ducks. A total of 1,200 21-day-old ducks were randomly assigned to 5 stocking density groups of 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 ducks/m2, with 6 replicates for each group. At 40 days of age, duck serum and pectorals were collected for biochemical tests; liver and cecal contents of ducks were gathered for proteome and microbiota analysis, respectively. Serum MDA increased while pectorals T-AOC reduced linearly with enhancing stocking density. Duck lipid metabolism was altered under different stocking density as well. Serum LDL-C increased linearly with increasing stocking density. Proteome analysis revealed fatty acid biosynthesis proteins such as acyl-CoA synthetase family member 2 and fatty acid oxidation related proteins including acyl-CoA dehydrogenase long chain and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase were enriched in high stocking density group. Additionally, high stocking density increased oxidative response associated proteins such as DDRGK domain containing 1. Furthermore, increasing stocking density diminished proteins of anti-oxidant capacity including regucalcin and catalase. 16S rDNA analysis revealed that higher stocking density was accompanied with decreased microbial diversity, as well as depletion of anti-inflammatory bacterial taxa, including Bacteroidales, Butyricimonas and Alistipe. Besides, reduced bile acid metabolism-associated bacteria such as Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiales and Desulfovibrionaceae were found in the high-density group. Both proteome and 16S rDNA results showed inflammation and chronic liver disease trend in the high-density group, which suggests the involvement of the liver-gut axis in oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Patos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteoma , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Pequim , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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