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1.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831523

RESUMO

AIM: Aortic intimo-intimal intussusception (AoII) is a rare manifestation of aortic dissection with high mortality. This study aimed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of AoII. METHODS: Three databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Embase) were searched with predefined search terms ["intimal intussusception", "aortic intussusception", "(circumferential) AND (intimal dissection)" and "(circumferential) AND (aortic dissection)"]. Demographics, clinical manifestations, imaging methods, therapies, and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The literature search finally identified 81 papers comprising 87 patients (Mean age: 53.7±14.9 years old; male: n=63). According to morphologic criteria (orientation of AoII intimal flap), patients were divided into three groups: antegrade(n=37), retrograde (n=49) and bidirectional (n=1) orientation. The most frequent symptoms in antegrade group were chest pain (62.2%), syncope (27%), and unconsciousness (21.6%), while in retrograde group, they were chest pain (71.4%), dyspnea (20.4%), and back pain (16.3%). Regarding applied imaging modalities, 67.5% of patients in antegrade group were diagnosed with≥2 methods, comparing with 87.7% in retrograde group. A total of 21 patients (24.1%) with AoII finally died, among which 13.8% (12/87) died before surgery. CONCLUSION: AoII is a rare form of aortic dissection with high mortality. Antegrade orientation of the intima flap was more accompanied with neurological disorders and asymmetric blood pressure, while retrograde orientation mostly manifested with aortic regurgitation. Application of multiple imaging examinations may detect this rare entity in time.

2.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 202: 111658, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677134

RESUMO

TiO2 acts as an inorganic sunscreen and photocatalyst to protect humans from environmental pollutants. We incorporated TiO2 into mesoporous silica (SBA-15) for skin application to prevent environmental stresses including UVA irradiation and pollutant invasion. Organic ultraviolet (UV)A filters such as avobenzone and oxybenzone were then loaded into mesoporous support for synergistic sunscreen efficiency. The as-prepared formulations with different TiO2 amounts (10 %-50 %) were fabricated. The pore size decreased from 4.72 to 4.00 nm following the increase in TiO2 percentage. TiO2/SBA-15 captured about 60 % fluoranthene and 80 % furfural within 3 h with no significant difference due to different TiO2 content. The in vitro photoprotection assessed by UVA/UVB ratio exhibited the increase in Boots star rating from 2 to 3 to 5 by entrapment of avobenzone into TiO2/SBA-15. Thirty-percent TiO2/SBA-15 in hydrogel decreased avobenzone and oxybenzone deposition by 70 % and 80 % compared to free form, respectively. Avobenzone and TiO2 supplementation to SBA-15 significantly alleviated skin cell death and neutrophil recruitment in the photoaged mouse skin compared to the SBA-15 application alone. Compared to the UVA-irradiated skin, 30 % TiO2/SBA-15 showed a 2.5- and 3.1-fold decline in IL-1ß and IL-6 levels, respectively. The TiO2/SBA-15 hybrid was considered non-irritant based on results of cytotoxicity assay, skin histology, and cutaneous barrier function. Our data indicate that the versatile mesoporous silica is an effective system for topical use in sunscreen and skin protection.

3.
Sci Adv ; 7(5)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571110

RESUMO

Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) plays important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Conversely, reduced NKA activity has been reported in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the function of NKA in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we report that reduction of NKA activity in NKAα1+/- mice aggravates α-synuclein-induced pathology, including a reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and deficits in behavioral tests for memory, learning, and motor function. To reverse this effect, we generated an NKA-stabilizing monoclonal antibody, DR5-12D, against the DR region (897DVEDSYGQQWTYEQR911) of the NKAα1 subunit. We demonstrate that DR5-12D can ameliorate α-synuclein-induced TH loss and behavioral deficits by accelerating α-synuclein degradation in neurons. The underlying mechanism for the beneficial effects of DR5-12D involves activation of NKAα1-dependent autophagy via increased AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway signaling. Cumulatively, this work demonstrates that NKA activity is neuroprotective and that pharmacological activation of this pathway represents a new therapeutic strategy for PD.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 124, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ablating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by irreversible electroporation (IRE). METHODS: Fifteen patients (19 lesions) with RCC who underwent IRE were retrospectively reviewed. Seven patients had solitary kidneys. Two lesions were located in the renal hilus. One patient had chronic renal insufficiency. Percutaneous biopsy for histopathology was performed. The best puncture path plan was evaluated before CT-guided IRE. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was compared vs baseline at 1-2 months after the ablation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging changes were evaluated immediately after IRE. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography/magnetic resonance was performed 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and every year thereafter. The complications after treatment were also reviewed. RESULTS: The success rate of the procedure was 100%. The median tumor size was 2.4 (IQR 1.3-2.9) cm, with an median score of 6 (IQR 5.5-8) per R.E.N.A.L. criteria (radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, and location relative to polar lines). Two cases (3 lesions) were punctured through the liver. In other cases, puncture was performed through the perirenal space. There were no severecomplications in interventional therapy. Transient gross hematuria occurred in 2 patients (centrally located). Self-limiting perinephric hematomas occurred in 1 patient. Needle puncture path metastasis was found in 1 patient 2.5 years after IRE. The subcutaneous metastasis was surgically removed, and there was no evidence of recurrence. There was no significant change in eGFR levels in terms of short- term clinical outcomes (t = 0.348, P = 0.733). At 6 months, all 15 patients with imaging studies available had no evidence of recurrence. At 1 year, 1 patient (1 of 15) was noted to have experienced needle tract metastasis and accepted salvage radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy. CONCLUSIONS: IRE appears to be a safe and effective treatment for RCC that may offer a tissue-sparing method and complete ablation as an alternative therapy for RCC.

5.
Eur J Radiol ; 137: 109602, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618207

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differentiating COVID-19 from other acute infectious pneumonias rapidly is challenging at present. This study aims to improve the diagnosis of COVID-19 using computed tomography (CT). METHOD: COVID-19 was confirmed mainly by virus nucleic acid testing and epidemiological history according to WHO interim guidance, while other infectious pneumonias were diagnosed by antigen testing. The texture features were extracted from CT images by two radiologists with 5 years of work experience using modified wavelet transform and matrix computation analyses. The random forest (RF) classifier was applied to identify COVID-19 patients and images. RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 95 individuals (291 images) with COVID-19 and 96 individuals (279 images) with other acute infectious pneumonias, including 50 individuals (160 images) with influenza A/B. In total, 6 texture features showed a positive association with COVID-19, while 4 features were negatively associated. The mean AUROC, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values of the 5-fold test sets were 0.800, 0.722, 0.770, and 0.680 for image classification and 0.858, 0.826, 0.809, and 0.842 for individual classification, respectively. The feature 'Correlation' contributed most both at the image level and individual level, even compared with the clinical factors. In addition, the texture features could discriminate COVID-19 from influenza A/B, with an AUROC of 0.883 for images and 0.957 for individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The developed texture feature-based RF classifier could assist in the diagnosis of COVID-19, which could be a rapid screening tool in the era of pandemic.

6.
Sci Adv ; 7(7)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568470

RESUMO

Through an integrative analysis of the lincRNA expression and tumor immune response in 9,626 tumor samples across 32 cancer types, we developed a lincRNA-based immune response (LIMER) score that can predict the immune cells infiltration and patient prognosis in multiple cancer types. Our analysis also identified tumor-specific lincRNAs, including EPIC1, that potentially regulate tumor immune response in multiple cancer types. Immunocompetent mouse models and in vitro co-culture assays demonstrated that EPIC1 induces tumor immune evasion and resistance to immunotherapy by suppressing tumor cell antigen presentation. Mechanistically, lincRNA EPIC1 interacts with the histone methyltransferase EZH2, leading to the epigenetic silencing of IFNGR1, TAP1/2, ERAP1/2, and MHC-I genes. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 abolish EPIC1's immune-related oncogenic effect and its suppression of interferon-γ signaling. The EPIC1-EZH2 axis emerges as a potential mechanism for tumor immune evasion that can serve as therapeutic targets for immunotherapy.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111644, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396164

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max) production is seriously threatened by ground-level ozone (O3) pollution. The goal of our study is to summarize the impacts of O3 on physiology, growth, yield, and quality of soybean, as well as root parameters. We performed meta-analysis on the collated 48 peer-reviewed papers published between 1980 and 2019 to quantitatively summarize the response of soybean to elevated O3 concentrations ([O3]). Relative to charcoal-filtered air (CF), elevated [O3] significantly accelerated chlorophyll degradation, enhanced foliar injury, and inhibited growth of soybean, evidenced by great reductions in leaf area (-20.8%), biomass of leaves (-13.8%), shoot (-22.8%), and root (-16.9%). Shoot of soybean was more sensitive to O3 than root in case of biomass. Chronic ozone exposure of about 75.5 ppb posed pronounced decrease in seed yield of soybean (-28.3%). In addition, root environment in pot contributes to higher reduction in shoot biomass and yield of soybean. Negative linear relationships were observed between yield loss and intensity of O3 treatment, AOT40. The larger loss in seed yield was significantly associated with higher reduction in shoot biomass and other yield component. This meta-analysis demonstrates the effects of elevated O3 on soybean were pronounced, suggesting that O3 pollution is still a soaring threat to the productivity of soybean in regions with high ozone levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Estruturas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estruturas Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo
8.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation with diabetes and diabetic nephropathy has been reported, but its role in diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate and validate the association of IgG glycosylation with DR. METHODS: We analyzed the IgG N-linked glycosylation profile and primarily selected candidate glycans by lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression analysis in the discovery population. The findings were validated in the replication population using a binary logistics model. The association between the significant glycosylation panel and clinical features was illustrated with Spearman's coefficient. The results were confirmed by sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Among 16 selected glycan candidates using lasso, two IgG glycans (GP15, GP20) and two derived traits (IGP32, IGP54) were identified and validated to be significantly associated with DR (P < .05), and the combined adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 0.587, 0.613, 1.970, and 0.593, respectively. The glycosylation panel showed a weak correlation with clinical features, except for age. In addition, the results remained consistent when the subjects with prediabetes were excluded from the controls, and the adjusted ORs were 0.677, 0.738, 1.597, and 0.678 in the whole population. Furthermore, in the 1:3 rematched population, a significant association was observed, apart from GP20. CONCLUSIONS: The IgG glycosylation profile, reflecting an aging and pro-inflammatory status, was significantly associated with DR. The variation in the IgG glycome deserves more attention in diabetic complications.

9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471078

RESUMO

AIMS: Atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease underlies the majority of ischemic strokes and is a major cause of death and disability. While plaque burden is a predictor of adverse outcomes, plaque vulnerability is increasingly recognized as a driver of lesion rupture and risk for clinical events. Defining the molecular regulators of carotid instability could inform the development of new biomarkers and/or translational targets for at-risk individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using two independent human endarterectomy biobanks, we found that the understudied glycoprotein, Chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1), is upregulated in patients with carotid disease compared to healthy controls. Further, CHI3L1 levels were found to stratify individuals based on symptomatology and histopathological evidence of an unstable fibrous cap. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in cultured human carotid artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) showed that CHI3L1 prevents a number of maladaptive changes in that cell type, including phenotype switching towards a synthetic and hyperproliferative state. Using two murine models of carotid remodelling and lesion vulnerability, we found that knockdown of Chil1 resulted in larger neointimal lesions comprised by de-differentiated SMCs that failed to invest within and stabilize the fibrous cap. Exploratory mechanistic studies identified alterations in potential downstream regulatory genes, including large tumor suppressor kinase 2 (LATS2), which mediates macrophage marker and inflammatory cytokine expression on SMCs, and may explain how CHI3L1 modulates cellular plasticity. CONCLUSION: CHI3L1 is upregulated in humans with carotid artery disease and appears to be a strong mediator of plaque vulnerability. Mechanistic studies suggest this change may be a context-dependent adaptive response meant to maintain vascular SMCs in a differentiated state and to prevent rupture of the fibrous cap. Part of this effect may be mediated through downstream suppression of LATS2. Future studies should determine how these changes occur at the molecular level, and whether this gene can be targeted as a novel translational therapy for subjects at risk of stroke. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Taken together, CHI3L1 has the potential to become a new translational target for cardiovascular disease. With further studies to understand its full causal relationship to inflammatory pathways, it could have a role in the diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disease at risk for stroke.

10.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 35, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398067

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic posing significant health risks. The diagnostic test sensitivity of COVID-19 is limited due to irregularities in specimen handling. We propose a deep learning framework that identifies COVID-19 from medical images as an auxiliary testing method to improve diagnostic sensitivity. We use pseudo-coloring methods and a platform for annotating X-ray and computed tomography images to train the convolutional neural network, which achieves a performance similar to that of experts and provides high scores for multiple statistical indices (F1 scores > 96.72% (0.9307, 0.9890) and specificity >99.33% (0.9792, 1.0000)). Heatmaps are used to visualize the salient features extracted by the neural network. The neural network-based regression provides strong correlations between the lesion areas in the images and five clinical indicators, resulting in high accuracy of the classification framework. The proposed method represents a potential computer-aided diagnosis method for COVID-19 in clinical practice.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , /virologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , /fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 2, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have investigated the association of PM2.5 exposure with arterial stiffness measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), of which conclusions are inconsistent. Moreover, limited evidence is available on the contributory role of PM2.5 exposure on the arterial stiffness index. METHODS: We used the population data from the Beijing Health Management Cohort and conducted a longitudinal analysis. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 for 35 air pollutant monitoring sites in Beijing from 2014 to 2018 was used to estimate individual exposure by different interpolation methods. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression were conducted to assess the association of annual average PM2.5 concentration with the incidence of higher baPWV, the progression of ABI, and baPWV, respectively. RESULTS: The association between PM2.5 exposure and incidence of higher baPWV was not significant (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.82-1.50, P = 0.497). There was - 0.16% (95% CI: - 0.43-0.11%) decrease in ABI annually and 1.04% (95% CI: 0.72-1.37%) increase in baPWV annually with each increment of 10 µg/m3 average PM2.5 concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with the progression of arterial stiffness in Beijing. This study suggests that improvement of air quality may help to prevent arterial stiffness.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125208, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513556

RESUMO

Self-supporting electrodes have triggered great interests in improving electro-Fenton (EF) system for degradation of refractory organic pollutants. In this work, a novel self-supporting carbon fiber paper (CFP) electrode modified by transition metals, e.g. Fe and Mn, was fabricated and employed as a heterogeneous EF cathode. The prepared electrode exhibited excellent degradation for a number of typical organic pollutants along with superior stability. Remarkably, a high removal efficiency was achieved in the EF treatment of shale gas fracturing flowback wastewater. Results indicated that 65.2% TOC and 74.8% COD were eliminated after 4 h degradation. The residual COD value of the real wastewater was 80 mg L-1, meeting the emission requirement of the integrated wastewater discharge standard (COD<100 mg L-1) with a low specific energy consumption of 6.9kWhkg-1COD-1. This work demonstrates a competing alternative for efficient decontamination of real wastewater using an electro-Fenton strategy with a low-cost electrode.

13.
Redox Biol ; 38: 101813, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279869

RESUMO

Diabetic kidney disease is known as a major cause of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Polysulfides, a class of chemical agents with a chain of sulfur atoms, are found to confer renal protective effects in acute kidney injury. However, whether a polysulfide donor, sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4), confers protective effects against diabetic nephropathy remains unclear. Our results showed that Na2S4 treatment ameliorated renal dysfunctional and histological damage in diabetic kidneys through inhibiting the overproduction of inflammation cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as attenuating renal fibrosis and renal cell apoptosis. Additionally, the upregulated phosphorylation and acetylation levels of p65 nuclear factor κB (p65 NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in diabetic nephropathy were abrogated by Na2S4 in a sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-dependent manner. In renal tubular epithelial cells, Na2S4 directly sulfhydrated SIRT1 at two conserved CXXC domains (Cys371/374; Cys395/398), then induced dephosphorylation and deacetylation of its targeted proteins including p65 NF-κB and STAT3, thereby reducing high glucose (HG)-caused oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, inflammation response and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression. Most importantly, inactivation of SIRT1 by a specific inhibitor EX-527, small interfering RNA (siRNA), a de-sulfhydration reagent dithiothreitol (DTT), or mutation of Cys371/374 and Cys395/398 sites at SIRT1 abolished the protective effects of Na2S4 on diabetic kidney insulting. These results reveal that polysulfides may attenuate diabetic renal lesions via inactivation of p65 NF-κB and STAT3 phosphorylation/acetylation through sulfhydrating SIRT1.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303693

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the association of IgG glycosylation and esophageal precancerosis for squamous cell carcinoma and determine its role in inflammation. Primary glycans selected by the LASSO algorithm were validated using univariate and multivariate logistics models plus restricted cubic spline functions. In total, 24 direct glycans and 27 derived traits were detected, among which 4 glycans and 3 derived traits were primarily selected. Then, GP5 (adjusted OR: 0.805), GP17 (adjusted OR: 1.305), G12n (adjusted OR: 1.271), Gal_1 (adjusted OR: 0.776) and Fuc (adjusted OR: 0.737) were validated and significantly associated with esophageal precancerosis. Additionally, there was a consistent positive association in GP17 and G12n and a negative association in GP5, Gal_1, and Fuc by restricted cubic spline function. Compared with esophageal inflammation, GP17, G12n, and Fuc were still independently associated with precancerosis. In brief, the IgG glycosylation profile was independently associated with esophageal precancerosis beyond inflammation, which could be an early biomarker for esophageal cancer.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(20)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096924

RESUMO

Cisplatin, a widely used chemotherapy for the treatment of various tumors, is clinically limited due to its extensive nephrotoxicity. Inflammatory response in tubular cells is a driving force for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The plant-derived agents are widely used to relieve cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction in preclinical studies. Polysulfide and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are ubiquitously expressed in garlic, and both of them are documented as potential agents for preventing and treating inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to determine whether polysulfide and H2S could attenuate cisplatin nephrotoxicity through suppression of inflammatory factors. In renal proximal tubular cells, we found that sodium tetrasulfide (Na2S4), a polysulfide donor, and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and GYY4137, two H2S donors, ameliorated cisplatin-caused renal toxicity through suppression of the massive production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Mechanistically, the anti-inflammatory actions of Na2S4 and H2S may be mediated by persulfidation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and inhibitor kappa B kinase ß (IKKß), followed by decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 and IKKß. Moreover, the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), and phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor protein alpha (IκBα) induced by cisplatin, were also mitigated by both polysulfide and H2S. In mice, after treatment with polysulfide and H2S donors, cisplatin-associated renal dysfunction was strikingly ameliorated, as evidenced by measurement of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels, renal morphology, and the expression of renal inflammatory factors. Our present work suggests that polysulfide and H2S could afford protection against cisplatin nephrotoxicity, possibly via persulfidating STAT3 and IKKß and inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cascade. Our results might shed light on the potential benefits of garlic-derived polysulfide and H2S in chemotherapy-induced renal damage.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 4180-4196, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124300

RESUMO

In this study, 130 surface soil samples were collected at an industrial pollution site in Beijing and the contents of As, Be, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, Zn, and 16 PAHs were determined. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to analyze the sources of heavy metals and PAHs, and the contributions of these sources to carcinogenic risk and hazard index in the study area were calculated. The results showed that the contents of Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, As, Zn, and Cr in the soil exceeded the background values in different degrees; Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, and Cu exceeded the background values by>50%. Low molecular weight PAHs (two and three rings) and high molecular weight PAHs (four to six rings) accounted for 39.6% and 60.4% of the total content of 16 PAHs. The PAH content at 77% of the sampling points at the target site was more than 1000 µg ·kg-1, which suggests severe PAH pollution at the site. Heavy metals Be, Ti, As, and Ni mainly originated from natural sources. There are three major sources of 7 heavy metals and 16 PAHs at the site: coal combustion (Hg and ∑16PAHs), smelting (Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn), and traffic (Sb and Cd). The contribution rates of these sources to the total average contents of seven heavy metals and sixteen PAHs at 130 sampling sites were 8.46% (coal combustion), 90.61% (smelting), and 0.94% (traffic). Human health risk assessment results showed that the carcinogenic risk of seven heavy metals and ∑16PAHs ranged from 4.17×10-6 to 39.38×10-4, and the hazard index ranged from 0 to 32.23. The maximum carcinogenic risk and hazard index values were calculated near the coking plant. Benzo[α]pyrene was the PAH that posed the highest carcinogenic risk and Zn was the heavy metal that had the highest hazard index value. The average carcinogenic risk of coal combustion was 2.16×10-4, accounting for 50.26% of the total average carcinogenic risk. The average hazard index of smelting was 0.834, accounting for 56.43% of the total average non-carcinogenic risk. These two pollution sources are responsible for the high levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil of the steel smelting sites that pose the most severe health risks. The results of this study can provide reference for soil remediation and process optimization at other heavily polluted industrial sites.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer with high mortality. Paeoniflorin is a pinane monoterpene picroside with anti-tumor effect isolated from Chinese peony root and white peony root. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) regulating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression via 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1D (5-HT1D). METHODS: HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells were treated with different concentrations of PF (0, 5, 10, 20 µM). Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were examined by CCK-8 and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell assay, respectively. RT-qPCR assay was used to detect the expression level of 5-HT1D, and Western blot assay was used to detect the expressions of 5-HT1D and Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-related proteins. RESULTS: With the increase of PF concentration, the mRNA level of 5-HT1D in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells were decreased in a dose-dependent manner, and the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion ability of cells were gradually weakened, while the apoptosis rate was gradually increased. Overexpression of 5-HT1D significantly promoted the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, and increased the expression of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-related proteins ß-actenin, survivin, C-myc, and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, 5-HT1D overexpression could reverse the effect of PF on hepatoma cells and inhibit the expressions of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway-related proteins. CONCLUSION: PF may inhibit the progression of HCC by blocking Wnt/ß-catenin pathway expression through downregulating 5-HT1D.

18.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 1029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015008

RESUMO

We discovered a unique fluorescent enhancement of dye encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles, which strongly depended on the polymeric matrix. Interestingly, the polymer nanoparticles containing a NIR emissive dye exhibited remarkable enhancement of emission encapsulated by the polymer amphiphilic polymer containing polystyrene (PS) moiety, whereas the nanoparticles showed weak fluorescence when using other polymer encapsulation. The highest fluorescent quantum yield of nanoparticles can reach 27% by using PS-PEG encapsulation, where the strong NIR fluorescence can be observed. These ultra-bright fluorescence nanoparticles also possess a strong three-photon fluorescence and show a good candidate for in vivo vascular three-photon fluorescence imaging of mouse brain and ear under 1550 nm fs laser excitation. A fine three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction with an imaging depth of 635 and 180 µm was achieved, respectively. We further demonstrate that these nanoparticles can effectively target the sentinel lymph node (SLN) of mice.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904600

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this network meta-analysis (NMA) was to explore the effectiveness of different traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) combined with systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: A comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed with regard to different TCMIs for treating HCC in seven electronic databases up to November 2019. The quality assessment of the included RCTs was conducted according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and Karnofsky performance score (KPS) data were extracted. The network meta-analysis used the network package in Stata software to analyse the data and draw a map of the evidence summarizing the direct and indirect comparisons. Results: A total of 1697 articles were retrieved through the comprehensive search. Twenty RCTs focusing on Aidi injection, compound Kushen injection, and Kanglaite injection as adjuvant therapies to chemotherapy were included, involving a total of 1418 patients. The NMA statistics showed that all three indicators (ORR, CBR, and KPS) were better in the combined treatment group of TCMIs with chemotherapy than that in the single treatment group of chemotherapy alone. Kanglaite injection tended to be better than the other two in terms of primary outcome, but there was not a significant difference. The combined treatment group had fewer adverse reactions than the single treatment group. Moreover, several articles reported that TCMIs combined with chemotherapy could increase the number of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes. Conclusions: TCMIs combined with systemic chemotherapy could be an effective and safe treatment option for patients with HCC. Kanglaite injection showed a tendency to be better than the other two kinds of injections in terms of ORR. Nevertheless, additional results from multicentre trials and high-quality studies will be pivotal for supporting our findings.

20.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888271

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen polysulfides are recognized as important signaling molecules that are generated physiologically in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that these two molecules are involved in cytoprotection against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the brain system, H2S and polysulfides exert multiple functions in both health and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), memory decline, and glioma. Mechanistically, S-Persulfidation (also known as S-sulfuration or S-sulfhydration) of target proteins is believed to be a fundamental mechanism that underlies H2S-regulated signaling pathways. Cysteine S-Persulfidation is an important paradigm of post-translational protein modification in the process of H2S signaling. This model is established as a critical redox mechanism to regulate numerous biological functions, especially in H2S-mediated neuroprotection and neurogenesis. Although the current research of S-Persulfidation is still in its infancy, accumulative evidence suggests that protein S-Persulfidation may share similar characteristics with protein S-nitrosylation. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive insight into the S-Persulfidation biology of H2S and polysulfides in neurological ailments and presume potential avenues for therapeutic development in these disorders based on S-Persulfidation of target proteins.

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