Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

3.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 312(2): 155-158, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372728

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common illness that most commonly originates in childhood, but can be seen in all ages. Filaggrin (FLG) loss of function variants have been associated with the onset and severity of atopic dermatitis and are the most common genetic association with AD. Previous studies have shown variability in the frequency of FLG variants. We have recently demonstrated that previous FLG genotyping methods were inadequate for proper genotyping. In this concise report, we show that genotyping using a popular older informatics program is problematic. In fact, publications that used the older program likely do not properly capture all FLG variants.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Mutação
4.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 123(6): 595-601.e1, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic relapsing skin disease. Genetic variants have been associated with skin barrier function and immune regulation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an immune regulator, has been previously associated with AD. OBJECTIVE: To fine map TSLP and evaluate associations with the onset and persistence of AD. METHODS: TSLP variation was determined using targeted massively parallel sequencing in a longitudinal cohort of children with AD. Evaluations included linkage disequilibrium and the persistence of AD for as many as 10 years of follow-up. The association between the presence of AD and rs1898671 variation was evaluated in a second independent cohort. RESULTS: The minor variant frequency for rs1898671 was 23.5% (95% CI, 21.4%-25.8%). This variant was not in linkage disequilibrium with other TSLP variants in the longitudinal cohort (n = 741). White children with AD were less likely to have rs1898671 variant (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.20-1.66) than Genome Aggregation Database controls. Children with AD and the rs1898671 variant during follow-up were more likely to have remission than children who were wild type for rs1898671 (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.91). In the second cohort (n = 585), the rs1898671 variant was less prevalent in those with AD than those without. The protective effect was greater in rs1898671 heterozygotes (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.34-2.75) than homozygotes (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.61-2.70). CONCLUSION: TSLP and specifically rs1898671 are important in the pathogenesis of AD and could represent a potential clinical target for the development of therapies to treat individuals with AD.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365035

RESUMO

Importance: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic illness that has been associated with variation in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Four variants are most often evaluated. Objectives: To comprehensively describe and compare results from targeted sequencing of FLG loss-of-function (LoF) variants in children of African and European ancestry and the association of these variants with onset and persistence of AD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective US cohort study assessed the genetic subcohort of the Pediatric Eczema Elective Registry (PEER). Children with mild to moderate AD were included in the analysis. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was used to focus on FLG LoF variation in white and African American children. Patients were enrolled from June 2005 through July 2017. Data were analyzed from January 25 through May 10, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of FLG LoF variation with white and African American ancestry and with the risk and persistence of AD. Results: A total of 741 children were included in the analysis (394 [53.2%] female and 347 [46.8%] male; mean [SD] age at onset, 1.97 [2.72] years); of these, 394 (53.2%) were white, 326 (44.0%) were African American, and 21 (2.8%) were of other ancestries. Using MPS technology, 23 FLG LoF variants were found in children with AD. The prevalence of FLG LoF variants was 177 participants (23.9%) in the full cohort, 124 white participants (31.5%), and 50 African American participants (15.3%). The odds ratio for carrying any FLG LoF variant in a white child compared with an African American child with AD was 2.44 (95% CI, 1.76-3.39). Some FLG LoF variants are only found in children of a specific ancestry (eg, p.S3316* and p.R826* were not seen in white patients). Children with an FLG LoF were more likely to have persistent AD (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.80). Conclusions and Relevance: The FLG LoF variants in a US cohort of children with mild to moderate AD differ significantly by race and their association with the persistence of AD. Conventional testing of the 4 frequently evaluated variants is inadequate. Any planned genetic diagnostic test for AD based on FLG LoF variants must be inclusive and not rely on the most frequently studied variants.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4363-4374, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancers with BRCA1/2 alterations have a relatively high mutational load, suggesting that immune checkpoint blockade may be a potential treatment option. However, the degree of immune cell infiltration varies widely, and molecular features contributing to this variability remain unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We hypothesized that genomic signatures might predict immunogenicity in BRCA1/2 breast cancers. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) genomic data, we compared breast cancers with (89) and without (770) either germline or somatic BRCA1/2 alterations. We also studied 35 breast cancers with germline BRCA1/2 mutations from Penn using WES and IHC. RESULTS: We found that homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) scores were negatively associated with expression-based immune indices [cytolytic index (P = 0.04), immune ESTIMATE (P = 0.002), type II IFN signaling (P = 0.002)] despite being associated with a higher mutational/neoantigen burden, in BRCA1/2 mutant breast cancers. Further, absence of allele-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH negative; P = 0.01) or subclonality (P = 0.003) of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations, respectively, predicted for heightened cytolytic activity. Gene set analysis found that multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways that converge on NF-κB may contribute to this heightened immunogenicity. IHC of Penn breast cancers demonstrated increased CD45+ (P = 0.039) and CD8+ infiltrates (P = 0.037) and increased PDL1 expression (P = 0.012) in HRD-low or LOH-negative cancers. Triple-negative cancers with low HRD had far greater CD8+ T cells (P = 0.0011) and Perforin 1 expression (P = 0.014) compared with hormone receptor-positive HRD-high cancers. CONCLUSIONS: HRD scores and hormone receptor subtype are predictive of immunogenicity in BRCA1/2 breast cancers and may inform the design of optimal immune therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Recombinação Homóloga , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos
7.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515

RESUMO

Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(4): 514-522, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676620

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 50% of the risk for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) is estimated to be heritable, but no mendelian TGCT predisposition genes have yet been identified. It is hypothesized that inherited pathogenic DNA repair gene (DRG) alterations may drive susceptibility to TGCTs. Objective: To systematically evaluate the enrichment of germline pathogenic variants in the mendelian cancer predisposition DRGs in patients with TGCTs vs healthy controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: A case-control enrichment analysis was performed from January 2016 to May 2018 to screen for 48 DRGs in 205 unselected men with TGCT and 27 173 ancestry-matched cancer-free individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort in the discovery stage. Significant findings were selectively replicated in independent cohorts of 448 unselected men with TGCTs and 442 population-matched controls, as well as 231 high-risk men with TGCTs and 3090 ancestry-matched controls. Statistical analysis took place from January to May 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Gene-level enrichment analysis of germline pathogenic variants in individuals with TGCTs relative to cancer-free controls. Results: Among 205 unselected men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 33.04 [9.67] years), 22 pathogenic germline DRG variants, one-third of which were in CHEK2 (OMIM 604373), were identified in 20 men (9.8%; 95% CI, 6.1%-14.7%). Unselected men with TGCTs were approximately 4 times more likely to carry germline loss-of-function CHEK2 variants compared with cancer-free individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium cohort (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% CI, 1.65-8.86; nominal P = .006; q = 0.018). Similar enrichment was also seen in an independent cohort of 448 unselected Croatian men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 31.98 [8.11] years) vs 442 unselected Croatian men without TGCTs (at least 50 years of age at time of sample collection) (OR, >1.4; P = .03) and 231 high-risk men with TGCTs (mean [SD] age, 31.54 [9.24] years) vs 3090 men (all older than 50 years) from the Penn Medicine Biobank (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 2.34-17.31; P = .001). The low-penetrance CHEK2 variant (p.Ile157Thr) was found to be a Croatian founder TGCT risk variant (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.53-9.95; P = .002). Individuals with the pathogenic CHEK2 loss-of-function variants developed TGCTs 6 years earlier than individuals with CHEK2 wild-type alleles (5.95 years; 95% CI, 1.48-10.42; P = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: This multicenter case-control analysis of men with or without TGCTs provides evidence for CHEK2 as a novel moderate-penetrance TGCT susceptibility gene, with potential clinical utility. In addition to highlighting DNA-repair deficiency as a potential mechanism driving TGCT susceptibility, this analysis also provides new avenues to explore management strategies and biological investigations for high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cell Metab ; 27(6): 1263-1280.e6, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754953

RESUMO

Kidney cancer, one of the ten most prevalent malignancies in the world, has exhibited increased incidence over the last decade. The most common subtype is "clear cell" renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), which features consistent metabolic abnormalities, such as highly elevated glycogen and lipid deposition. By integrating metabolomics, genomic, and transcriptomic data, we determined that enzymes in multiple metabolic pathways are universally depleted in human ccRCC tumors, which are otherwise genetically heterogeneous. Notably, the expression of key urea cycle enzymes, including arginase 2 (ARG2) and argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), is strongly repressed in ccRCC. Reduced ARG2 activity promotes ccRCC tumor growth through at least two distinct mechanisms: conserving the critical biosynthetic cofactor pyridoxal phosphate and avoiding toxic polyamine accumulation. Pharmacological approaches to restore urea cycle enzyme expression would greatly expand treatment strategies for ccRCC patients, where current therapies only benefit a subset of those afflicted with renal cancer.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Animais , Arginase/genética , Argininossuccinato Sintase/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/enzimologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(19): 4771-4784, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563139

RESUMO

Purpose: Telomerase promoter mutations are highly prevalent in human tumors including melanoma. A subset of patients with metastatic melanoma often fail multiple therapies, and there is an unmet and urgent need to prolong disease control for those patients.Experimental Design: Numerous preclinical therapy-resistant models of human and mouse melanoma were used to test the efficacy of a telomerase-directed nucleoside, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG). Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics approaches were used to identify genes and proteins that were significantly downregulated by 6-thio-dG.Results: We demonstrated the superior efficacy of 6-thio-dG both in vitro and in vivo that results in telomere dysfunction, leading to apoptosis and cell death in various preclinical models of therapy-resistant melanoma cells. 6-thio-dG concomitantly induces telomere dysfunction and inhibits the expression level of AXL.Conclusions: In summary, this study shows that indirectly targeting aberrant telomerase in melanoma cells with 6-thio-dG is a viable therapeutic approach in prolonging disease control and overcoming therapy resistance. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4771-84. ©2018 AACR See related commentary by Teh and Aplin, p. 4629.


Assuntos
Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Telomerase/genética , Tionucleosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Mutação , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Telômero/genética
11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 138(7): 1501-1506, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428354

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common illness that has been associated with filaggrin gene (FLG) loss of function (LoF) variation. In African Americans, a group that commonly has AD and has not been well studied, FLG LoF variation is rarely found. Our objective was to use massively parallel sequencing to evaluate FLG LoF variation in children of African ancestry to evaluate the association between FLG LoF variation and AD and AD persistence. We studied 262 African American children with AD. Nine unique FLG exon 3 LoF variants were identified for an overall minor variant frequency of 6.30% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.37-8.73). The most common variants were p.R501X (1.72%, 95% CI = 0.79-3.24), p.S3316X (1.34%, 95% CI = 0.54-2.73), and p.R826X (0.95%, 95% CI = 0.31-2.2). Over an average follow-up period of 96.4 (95% CI = 92.0-100.8) months, African American children with FLG LoF were less likely to be symptom free (odds ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.14-0.89, P = 0.027) compared with a FLG wild-type child. In contrast to previous reports, uncommon FLG LoF variants in African American children exist and are associated with AD and more persistent AD. In contrast to Europeans, no FLG LoF variants predominate in African American children. Properly determining FLG LoF status requires advanced sequencing techniques.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Pele/patologia
13.
Cell Rep ; 21(7): 1936-1952, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141224

RESUMO

Tumor-sequencing studies have revealed the widespread genetic diversity of melanoma. Sequencing of 108 genes previously implicated in melanomagenesis was performed on 462 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), cell lines, and tumors to identify mutational and copy number aberrations. Samples came from 371 unique individuals: 263 were naive to treatment, and 108 were previously treated with targeted therapy (34), immunotherapy (54), or both (20). Models of all previously reported major melanoma subtypes (BRAF, NRAS, NF1, KIT, and WT/WT/WT) were identified. Multiple minor melanoma subtypes were also recapitulated, including melanomas with multiple activating mutations in the MAPK-signaling pathway and chromatin-remodeling gene mutations. These well-characterized melanoma PDXs and cell lines can be used not only as reagents for a large array of biological studies but also as pre-clinical models to facilitate drug development.


Assuntos
Genoma , Melanoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oncogenes , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
14.
Cell Rep ; 21(7): 1953-1967, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141225

RESUMO

Therapy of advanced melanoma is changing dramatically. Following mutational and biological subclassification of this heterogeneous cancer, several targeted and immune therapies were approved and increased survival significantly. To facilitate further advancements through pre-clinical in vivo modeling, we have established 459 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and live tissue samples from 384 patients representing the full spectrum of clinical, therapeutic, mutational, and biological heterogeneity of melanoma. PDX have been characterized using targeted sequencing and protein arrays and are clinically annotated. This exhaustive live tissue resource includes PDX from 57 samples resistant to targeted therapy, 61 samples from responders and non-responders to immune checkpoint blockade, and 31 samples from brain metastasis. Uveal, mucosal, and acral subtypes are represented as well. We show examples of pre-clinical trials that highlight how the PDX collection can be used to develop and optimize precision therapies, biomarkers of response, and the targeting of rare genetic subgroups.


Assuntos
Xenoenxertos/patologia , Melanoma/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/classificação , Melanoma/genética , Camundongos
15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 319, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831036

RESUMO

Complete loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 function is associated with sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. However, not all BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation-associated tumors respond. Herein we report analyses of 160 BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation-associated breast and ovarian tumors. Retention of the normal BRCA1 or BRCA2 allele (absence of locus-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH)) is observed in 7% of BRCA1 ovarian, 16% of BRCA2 ovarian, 10% of BRCA1 breast, and 46% of BRCA2 breast tumors. These tumors have equivalent homologous recombination deficiency scores to sporadic tumors, significantly lower than scores in tumors with locus-specific LOH (ovarian, P = 0.0004; breast P < 0.0001, two-tailed Student's t-test). Absence of locus-specific LOH is associated with decreased overall survival in ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum chemotherapy (P = 0.01, log-rank test). Locus-specific LOH may be a clinically useful biomarker to predict primary resistance to DNA damaging agents in patients with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.Most tumours associated with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 loss of function mutations respond to DNA damaging agents, however, some do not. Herein, the authors identify that a subset of breast/ovarian tumors retain a normal allele, which is associated with decreased overall survival after DNA damage-inducing platinum chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
16.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 3: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649662

RESUMO

Understanding the gene-specific risks for development of breast cancer will lead to improved clinical care for those carrying germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. We sought to detail the spectrum of mutations and refine risk estimates for known and proposed breast cancer susceptibility genes. Targeted massively-parallel sequencing was performed to identify mutations and copy number variants in 26 known or proposed breast cancer susceptibility genes in 2134 BRCA1/2-negative women with familial breast cancer (proband with breast cancer and a family history of breast or ovarian cancer) from a largely European-Caucasian multi-institutional cohort. Case-control analysis was performed comparing the frequency of internally classified mutations identified in familial breast cancer women to Exome Aggregation Consortium controls. Mutations were identified in 8.2% of familial breast cancer women, including mutations in high-risk (odds ratio > 5) (1.4%) and moderate-risk genes (2 < odds ratio < 5) (2.9%). The remaining familial breast cancer women had mutations in proposed breast cancer genes (1.7%), Lynch syndrome genes (0.5%), and six cases had two mutations (0.3%). Case-control analysis demonstrated associations with familial breast cancer for ATM, PALB2, and TP53 mutations (odds ratio > 3.0, p < 10-4), BARD1 mutations (odds ratio = 3.2, p = 0.012), and CHEK2 truncating mutations (odds ratio = 1.6, p = 0.041). Our results demonstrate that approximately 4.7% of BRCA1/2 negative familial breast cancer women have mutations in genes statistically associated with breast cancer. We classified PALB2 and TP53 as high-risk, ATM and BARD1 as moderate risk, and CHEK2 truncating mutations as low risk breast cancer predisposition genes. This study demonstrates that large case-control studies are needed to fully evaluate the breast cancer risks associated with mutations in moderate-risk and proposed susceptibility genes.

17.
Nature ; 545(7652): 60-65, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397821

RESUMO

Despite the success of monotherapies based on blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in human melanoma, most patients do not experience durable clinical benefit. Pre-existing T-cell infiltration and/or the presence of PD-L1 in tumours may be used as indicators of clinical response; however, blood-based profiling to understand the mechanisms of PD-1 blockade has not been widely explored. Here we use immune profiling of peripheral blood from patients with stage IV melanoma before and after treatment with the PD-1-targeting antibody pembrolizumab and identify pharmacodynamic changes in circulating exhausted-phenotype CD8 T cells (Tex cells). Most of the patients demonstrated an immunological response to pembrolizumab. Clinical failure in many patients was not solely due to an inability to induce immune reinvigoration, but rather resulted from an imbalance between T-cell reinvigoration and tumour burden. The magnitude of reinvigoration of circulating Tex cells determined in relation to pretreatment tumour burden correlated with clinical response. By focused profiling of a mechanistically relevant circulating T-cell subpopulation calibrated to pretreatment disease burden, we identify a clinically accessible potential on-treatment predictor of response to PD-1 blockade.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Oncotarget ; 7(30): 48577-48585, 2016 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191893

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of somatic mutations in homologous recombination (HR) genes on the chemotherapeutic response and survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed targeted massively parallel sequencing of tumor DNA from 158 patients with EOC. We associated adjuvant chemotherapy and clinical outcome with mutations in selected genes, focusing on those encoding HR proteins. RESULTS: HR mutations were found in 47 (30%) tumors. We did not detect an overall survival (OS) difference in advanced stage patients whose tumors had HR mutations compared to those without (median OS of 49.6 months (95% CI 29.9-57.7) vs. 43.3 months (95% CI 31.9-75.47), p = 0.87). However, when stratified by chemotherapy regimen, patients whose tumors had TP53 and HR mutations demonstrated a marked survival advantage when treated with platinum and paclitaxel vs. platinum +/- cyclophosphamide (median OS of 90 months (95% CI 50-NA) vs. 29.5 months (95% CI 17.7-50.5), p = 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies demonstrating a survival advantage for EOC patients with somatic HR mutations have been conducted with almost universal use of both platinum and paclitaxel. Our study is the first to our knowledge to compare cohorts with somatic HR gene mutations treated with and without paclitaxel containing platinum regimens. The survival benefit attributed to the platinum sensitivity of HR deficient ovarian cancers may depend upon the combined use of paclitaxel.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 801-817, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27153395

RESUMO

Sequencing tests assaying panels of genes or whole exomes are widely available for cancer risk evaluation. However, methods for classification of variants resulting from this testing are not well studied. We evaluated the ability of a variant-classification methodology based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines to define the rate of mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in 180 medically relevant genes, including all ACMG-designated reportable cancer and non-cancer-associated genes, in individuals who met guidelines for hereditary cancer risk evaluation. We performed whole-exome sequencing in 404 individuals in 253 families and classified 1,640 variants. Potentially clinically actionable (likely pathogenic [LP] or pathogenic [P]) versus nonactionable (VUS, likely benign, or benign) calls were 95% concordant with locus-specific databases and Clinvar. LP or P mutations were identified in 12 of 25 breast cancer susceptibility genes in 26 families without identified BRCA1/2 mutations (11%). Evaluation of 84 additional genes associated with autosomal-dominant cancer susceptibility identified LP or P mutations in only two additional families (0.8%). However, individuals from 10 of 253 families (3.9%) had incidental LP or P mutations in 32 non-cancer-associated genes, and 9% of individuals were monoallelic carriers of a rare LP or P mutation in 39 genes associated with autosomal-recessive cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, 95% of individuals had at least one VUS. In summary, these data support the clinical utility of ACMG variant-classification guidelines. Additionally, evaluation of extended panels of cancer-associated genes in breast/ovarian cancer families leads to only an incremental clinical benefit but substantially increases the complexity of the results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/normas , Genômica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Exoma , Feminino , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 22(2): 374-82, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26307133

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Copy number alterations have been shown to be involved in melanoma pathogenesis. The randomized phase III clinical trial E2603: carboplatin, paclitaxel, ± sorafenib (CP vs. CPS) offers a large collection of tumor samples to evaluate association of somatic mutations, genomic alterations, and clinical outcomes, prior to current FDA-approved therapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Copy number and mutational analysis on 119 pretreatment samples was performed. RESULTS: CPS therapy was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with CP in patients with tumors with RAF1 (cRAF) gene copy gains (HR, 0.372; P = 0.025) or CCND1 gene copy gains (HR, 0.45; P = 0.035). CPS therapy was associated with improved overall survival (OS) compared with CP in patients with tumors with KRAS gene copy gains (HR, 0.25; P = 0.035). BRAF gene copy gain and MET amplification were more common in samples with V600K versus V600E mutations (P < 0.001), which was validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. CONCLUSIONS: We observed improved treatment response with CPS in patients with melanoma whose tumors have RAF1 (cRAF), KRAS, or CCND1 amplification, all of which can be attributed to sorafenib targeting CRAF. These genomic alterations should be incorporated in future studies for evaluation as biomarkers.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Genes ras/genética , Humanos , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Niacinamida/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA