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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 101681, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy with Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is well-established for keratinocyte dysplasia. PpIX fluorescence can be quantified at the skin surface and within skin layers, but their relation is previously undescribed. The study objective was to assess the relation between skin surface PpIX fluorescence and PpIX fluorescence in epidermis and dermis. METHODS: Normal buttocks skin was tape-stripped and incubated with 20% methyl aminolevulinate cream and 20% hexyl aminolevulinate cream under occlusion. After 3 hours, skin surface PpIX fluorescence photographs were captured and 4 mm punch biopsies sampled. PpIX fluorescence microscopy was measured in regions of interest (ROI) in epidermis and superficial dermis. All PpIX fluorescence intensities were calculated in arbitrary units (AU). RESULTS: Skin surface PpIX fluorescence intensity expressed a positive, linear relation to ROI-epidermis PpIX fluorescence (HAL- and MAL-incubated skin, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.60), but not to PpIX fluorescence intensities in ROI-superficial dermis (p = 0.112). PpIX fluorescence microscopy identified higher fluorescence intensities in ROI-epidermis (median 92 AU) compared to lower fluorescence intensities in ROI-superficial dermis (median 37 AU) (p < 0.001). HAL reached higher median PpIX fluorescence intensities than MAL when measured by skin surface photographs (10230 vs. 5630 AU, p < 0.001), and by fluorescence microscopy in ROI-epidermis (107 vs. 52.5 AU, p < 0.001) or ROI-superficial dermis (40 vs. 30.5 AU, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The positive linear relation between skin surface PpIX fluorescence photographs and epidermal PpIX fluorescence microscopy indicates that skin surface PpIX fluorescence predominantly derives from epidermis.

2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 511-518, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This review examined the implications of using sunscreen photoprotection on 25(OH)D formation and determined the best photoprotective method to reduce the risk of skin cancer caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Based on previous studies on 25(OH)D formation after use of different amounts of sunscreen and different doses of UVR for approximately one week to different body areas it is possible to estimate the amount of 25(OH)D formed after a week's holiday in Southern and Northern Europe. CONCLUSION: The best method of photoprotection by sunscreen is two consecutive applications before sun exposure, ensuring the use of sufficient amounts of sunscreen and minimizing the unprotected skin areas. The double application method simultaneously ensures a high photoprotection against erythema from sun exposure. Despite the use of sunscreen, the calculated serum 25(OH)D levels clearly increase to similar levels as those measured after sun vacations.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Banho de Sol , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Organização Mundial da Saúde
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 557-564, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes solar lentigines (SL) and skin cancer (SC) in humans. The association between measured lifetime UVR dose and SC has not been investigated. This study investigated this relation through their common relationship to SL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First we investigated the association between lifetime UVR dose and SL for 16,897 days in 38 healthy participants, and secondly, the relation between SL and SC was investigated in 2,898 participants, including 149 with SC. By combining both studies, SC risk related to lifetime UVR dose and skin phototype was estimated. RESULTS: A positive association was found between SL and lifetime UVR dose (p=0.060). Skin phototype (p=0.001) and SL (p<0.001) were associated with SC. Combined SC risk increased 1.23 by doubling the average lifetime UVR dose and was 34.9 times higher for those with very fair skin compared to dark Mediterranean skin. CONCLUSION: The estimate of SC risk shows that skin phototype is of greater relative importance than lifetime UVR dose.


Assuntos
Lentigo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Skin colour and sun sensitivity are highly related to the distance to the equator: people in southern latitudes are usually darker and less sensitive to sun than in northern latitudes. Whether differences in sun sensitivity can be found in a relatively homogenous European population is unclear. We aimed to objectively measure sun sensitivity (assessed as pigment protection factor (PPF)) in five European countries, relate it to self-assessed Fitzpatrick skin phototype (FST) and to determine whether PPF levels in the different FST categories are dependent on the investigated countries. METHODS: Volunteers (n = 569) were recruited in Copenhagen (Denmark), Dublin (Ireland), London (England), Münster (Germany) and Ioannina (Greece). Skin phototype was self-assessed using the FST scale. PPF was measured at both sun-protected buttocks and five sun-exposed skin sites by a skin reflectance spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Overall, there were statistically significant differences in PPF of the buttocks, inner arm, outer arm, forehead, chest and back between the five countries (P ≤ .031). Generally, PPF level was lower in northern than in southern latitudes. PPF of the buttocks was similar in all countries for those who identified as FST I (P = .723). However, it was statistically significantly different (P ≤ 2.913*10-4 ) and country-dependent for those who identified as FST II-IV. CONCLUSION: Objectively measured sun sensitivity is higher (lower PPF) in northern compared with southern latitudes. The choice of self-identified FST category is influenced by a person's immediate environment. Therefore, we confirmed the relative nature of the FST scale and the need to standardise the skin phototype assessment procedure.

5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 101582, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a rare, genetic disease with reduced ferrochelatase activity causing protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) to accumulate in erythrocytes. PpIX activation by daylight causes skin erythema, edema, burning, and stinging. No treatment exists to reduce PpIX. AIM: To introduce a method that reduces PpIX in erythrocytes to relieve skin symptoms in patients with EPP. METHOD: A case series of 7 patients with EPP constituted this explorative study. Erythrocyte PpIX was inactivated by illuminating the patients' heparinized blood outside their body, then returning it to the patient. About 3 litres of blood was illuminated with 630 nm light, 20 J/cm2. The effect was measured as a reduction in erythrocyte PpIX. The patients reported the number of minutes in daylight tolerated before and after intervention. RESULTS: This procedure reduced PpIX by about 30% and daylight tolerance was, on average, increased by 14 times. The subsequently excreted photoproducts resulted in some liver toxicity. Three treatments during spring and early summer were sufficient to reduce the patients' symptoms throughout the year in Northern Europe. CONCLUSION: Extracorporeal erythrocyte photodynamic therapy is the first treatment to successfully reduce the amount of PpIX in the blood of EPP patients, thus "normalizing" their daylight tolerance.

6.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883961

RESUMO

Epidemiology suggests that melanin inhibits cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Laboratory investigations assessing the impact of melanin on vitamin D production have given contradictory results. We determined the effect of melanin on vitamin D3 photosynthesis in healthy young volunteers (n=102) of Fitzpatrick skin types II-VI (white to black). Participants, irrespective of skin type, were exposed to the same sub-erythemal UVR dose, to 85% body surface area, using solar simulated UVR or narrowband UVB (311nm). This was repeated 5 times with intervals of 3-4 days between UVR exposures. Blood was taken before, during and after the irradiations and assessed for serum 25(OH)D3 as a marker of vitamin D3 status. Linear UVR dose-dependent increases in 25(OH)D3 were highly significant (p ≤ 7.7 x 10-11). The ratios of regression slopes of the different skin type groups were compared, and only skin type II was significantly steeper than the other groups. Comparisons between extreme skin types II and VI showed melanin inhibition factors of about 1.3-1.4, depending on UVR source. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of melanin on vitamin D3 synthesis is small, compared to erythema, but that this difference may be sufficient to explain the epidemiological data.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e028577, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor adherence to photoprotection for people with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) can be life-threatening. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted to test the efficacy of a personalised adherence intervention (XPAND) to reduce the level of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the face, by improving photoprotection activities in adults with XP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A two-armed parallel groups RCT, where we randomised 24 patients with suboptimal adherence to either an intervention group who received XPAND in 2018 or a delayed intervention group who will receive XPAND in 2019. XPAND involves seven sessions, one-to-one with a facilitator, using behaviour change techniques and specially designed materials to target barriers to photoprotection. Following baseline assessment in April 2018 (t0) and intervention, the primary outcome will be measured across 21 consecutive days in June and July 2018 (t1). The primary outcome is the average daily UVR dose to the face (D-to-F), calculated by combining objective UVR exposure at the wrist (measured by a dosimeter) with face photoprotection activities recorded on a daily UVR protection diary. Secondary outcomes include average daily UVR D-to-F across 21 days in August (t2); psychosocial process variables measured by daily questions (t0, t1, t2) and self-report questionnaires (t0, t1, t2, December 2018 (t3)). Intervention cost-utility is assessed by service use and personal cost questionnaires (t0, t3). The delayed intervention control arm participants will complete three further assessments in April 2019 (t4) and June-July 2019 (t5), and December 2019 (t6) with dosimetry and UVR protection diary completed for 21 days at t4 and t5. A process evaluation will be conducted using mixed methods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been received from West London & GTAC REC 17/LO/2110. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. This study tests a novel intervention, which, if successful, will be integrated into routine care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03445052; Pre-results.

8.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(5): 344-353, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inter-individual variation in 25(OH)D3 increase (Δ25(OH)D3 ) after vitamin D3 supplementation was determined and compared with the UVB irradiation response. METHODS: Nineteen Danish participants received 85 µg vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) daily for nine weeks with regular serum 25(OH)D3 measurements. These participants had three years earlier taken part in a 9-week controlled UVB study. The Δ25(OH)D3 was not confounded by ambient UVB, BMI or ethnicity. RESULTS: Δ25(OH)D3 was 53 nmol L-1 and almost identical to Δ25(OH)D3 (52 nmol L-1 ) after UVB. Δ25(OH)D3 ranged from 17 to 91 nmol L-1 (span 74 nmol L-1 ) and was about half of that observed after UVB irradiation (span 136 nmol L-1 ). The interquartile ranges for vitamin D3 supplementation (38.8-71.4 nmol L-1 , span: 32.6 nmol L-1 ) and UVB irradiation (35.7-65.4 nmol L-1 , span: 29.7 nmol L-1 ) were similar indicating a comparable response of the two interventions. As the 25(OH)D3 start levels (R2  = 0.398, P = 3.8 × 10-3 ), 25(OH)D3 end levels (R2  = 0.457, P = 1.5 × 10-3 ) and Δ25(OH)D3 (R2  = 0.253, P = 0.028) between both interventions were correlated, this suggested a possible common individual background for the variation. Four pigment SNPs influenced the variation in the vitamin D3 -induced and UVB-induced Δ25(OH)D3 . A combined model including the influence of these four SNPs and the 25(OH)D3 start level explained 86.8% (P = 1.6 × 10-35 ) of the individual variation after vitamin D3 supplementation. CONCLUSION: The inter-individual variation in the two interventions was comparable and had no common demographic but a partly common genetic background.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 32(6): 809-816, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233275

RESUMO

Melanin in the skin can be divided into eumelanin and pheomelanin subtypes. Simultaneous quantification of these subtypes could clarify their relation to skin type and skin cancer development. We describe a novel, sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify two eumelanin markers, pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), and two pheomelanin markers, thiazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (TDCA) and thiazole-2,4,5 tricarboxylic acid (TTCA), performed in a single run using the same biopsy. Volunteers with either Fitzpatrick skin type (FST) I/II or III/IV (n = 30) each provided a 4-mm punch biopsy from the buttock. Upon analysis, the FST I + II group had significantly less of all four melanin biomarkers (PTCA, 0.75 ng/mm2 ; PDCA, 0.08 ng/mm2 ; TTCA, 0.24 ng/mm2 ; and TDCA, 0.10 ng/mm2 ) versus the FST III + IV group (PTCA, 4.89 ng/mm2 ; PDCA, 0.22 ng/mm2 ; TTCA, 2.61 ng/mm2 ; and TDCA, 0.72 ng/mm2 ), p ≤ 0.003. We find that this new LC-MS/MS method is sensitive enough to quantify eumelanin and pheomelanin markers even in the lightest skin types.

10.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(6): 1461-1470, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958489

RESUMO

Personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosimetry has been performed for decades to objectively measure human exposure to UVR. These measurements have been used to investigate solar behaviour and its negative effects on human health such as skin cancer and positive effects such as vitamin D formation. A specific electronic dosimeter is described with a spectral sensitivity as the erythema response for human skin and temperature measurements for compliance control. Technical, methodological and environmental causes of uncertainties regarding personal UV dosimetry are investigated using this dosimeter as an example, which enables us to show the dosimeter's limitations and enables readers to compare their dosimeters with that described and to increase awareness of imperfections of dosimeters. The dosimeter's spectral response, cosine response, linearity, temperature dependency and sensitivity are investigated. As opposed to biological and chemical dosimeters, electronic dosimeters do not measure UV radiation continuously but at time-intervals (sampling). The error introduced by sampling is investigated for sampling intervals from 1 second up to 60 seconds for 3 groups of people (n = 18, 1.1-4.6 hours of positive UV measurements) on sunny (n = 12) and cloudy (n = 6) days. Increasing the sample time by 1 second added on average an uncertainty of maximum +0.29% to -0.27% per added second compared to the 1-second sample time. The importance of dirt on the sensor was investigated in 24 dosimeters after 6 months use by farmers. The reduction in the registered dose due to the dirty sensor was 2.3% (median = 2.0%, inter-quartile range = 2.0%, max = 5%) suggesting that dirt on the sensor generally does not play a significant role.

11.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: A1-A2, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986540
13.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(4): 238-245, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There are no suitable methods for skin phototype self-assessment by children. Our study investigated several skin phototype self-assessment methods in children to identify the best correlation to objectively measure skin phototype. METHODS: Danish schoolchildren (ages 6-19) participated in a nation-wide study that assessed skin, eye, hair colour and sun behaviour. Skin phototype self-assessment was performed by children using two visual colour scales (cartoon faces and colour cards), question-based colour scale and questions about tendency to burn and ability to tan. For objective skin phototype measurements, 483 children from all age groups were selected and their pigment protection factor (PPF) was measured at three skin sites using a skin reflectance spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Cartoon faces (r2  = 0.654) and colour cards (r2  = 0.659) were better at predicting PPF on the inner forearm than the question-based colour method (r2  = 0.520). PPF prediction from questions on skin reaction to sun exposure was markedly inferior (r2  ≤ 0.142) to both visual colour scales and question-based colour method. CONCLUSION: Both visual colour scales proved to be superior to question-based skin phototype self-assessment in schoolchildren. In contrast, questions on skin reaction to sun exposure were shown to be an unsuitable tool for self-assessment of skin phototype in children.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação , Pigmentação da Pele , Pele , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(2): 448-458, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633296

RESUMO

Skin pigmentation is believed to contribute to the generally low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations observed in darker-skinned persons. The influence of measured skin pigmentation on UVB-induced 25(OH)D increase was investigated together with 9 demographic and 13 genetic parameters (pigment SNPs). Forty participants representing a wide range in measured skin pigmentation were exposed to identical UVB doses on identical body areas over nine weeks with weekly measurements of serum 25(OH)D. This study took place in Denmark during winter, a period with negligible ambient UVB, so variation in 25(OH)D synthesis was not influenced by latitude, season, sun and clothing habits. The increase in 25(OH)D concentration displayed considerable variation (range: 2.9 to 139 nmol L-1). Constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation exerted separate influence on the variation of the UVB-induced linear 25(OH)D increase. However, this influence was statistically non-significant in the presence of separate significant pigment SNPs. The variation in the 25(OH)D increase in the combined linear model was not explained by measured skin pigmentation but by sex, height, age and seven SNPs located in the ASIP, MTAP, MIR196A29 and Solute Carrier Family genes. This linear model including individual intercepts and the 10 parameters influencing the slope explained 77.4% of the variation. This study confirmed the influence of sex, age and height on 25(OH)D increase and found that pigment genes provided a better relation to UVB-induced 25(OH)D increase compared to the actual measured skin pigmentation. Therefore, only investigating skin pigmentation obscures other causal parameters for low 25(OH)D.


Assuntos
Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 18(2): 467-476, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511738

RESUMO

Over a period spanning 14 years (1999-2001, 2006 and 2012), 31 volunteers participated in sun behaviour studies with the same protocol wearing a personal, electronic wrist-borne UVR dosimeter and completed sun exposure diaries resulting in a total of 15 946 measurements days (126 days per person per year). The participants individually maintained their UVR dose level and behaviour over the years. No statistically significant differences were seen from year to year in the "estimated annual UVR dose", the "mean UVR dose per day", the "mean percentage of ambient UVR", "days sunbathing to get a tan", "days with intermittent exposure" or in "sunburn episodes". The 20 participants still active in the labour market used sunscreen on more days in 2012 than in 1999 (p = 0.019) and with a significantly higher SPF (sun protecting factor (p < 0.001)) resulting in significantly fewer days with risk behaviour without sunscreen applied in 2012 than in 2006 (p < 0.001) and 1999 (p < 0.003). This was in contrast to the 11 participants who retired during the study period. The retired group received a non-significant 45% higher UV dose in 2012 than in 1999 (p = 0.054). In an additional study, nine 30-year-old indoor workers (high school students in the 1999 study) had changed their sun exposure pattern and had fewer days sunbathing (p = 0.008) and fewer risk behaviour days without sunscreen applied in 2012 than in 1999 (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The participants still active in the labour market maintained their sun exposure behaviour over a 14-year period. The retirees had a higher UVR dose and riskier exposure behaviour after retirement, while the high school students had changed to less risky sun behaviour on becoming indoor workers.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões Elétricas , Exposição à Radiação/análise , Radiometria/instrumentação , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/farmacologia
17.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 35(2): 116-123, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Fitzpatrick phototype (FST) classification (based on ability to tan and tendency to burn) is widely used for evaluating skin cancer risk; however, it was not developed for that purpose and has been criticised scientifically. The purpose of the present study was a first approach in establishing a new skin cancer phototype (SCP) classification with direct relation to skin cancer risk, based on the questions originally proposed by Fitzpatrick. However, contrary to Fitzpatrick, the questions are in the present study kept separate. METHODS: Validated information on skin cancer and answers about participants' tendency to burn (4 answers) and ability to tan (4 answers) were obtained from 2869 Danes. The 16 (4 × 4 answers) possible answers formed a matrix, on which a logistic regression was carried out. Successively, the matrix neighbours which were insignificantly different were identified; of which the neighbours with the mutual lowest difference were merged. The merging resulted in four different SCP classes. RESULTS: There was a linear relationship between SCP classes and skin cancer risk. Further, SCP was as good a predictor of skin cancer as objectively measured skin phototype. CONCLUSION: As skin phototype is an important factor in skin cancer research, SCP has great potential in investigative studies of skin cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/classificação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/enzimologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Inquéritos e Questionários , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 188: 1-5, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin autofluorescence and pigmentation can estimate photodamage and sun exposure. These techniques may quantify differences in actinic damage between high-risk organ transplant recipients (OTRs) and immunocompetent patients. METHODS: Age and gender-matched OTRs (n = 15) and immunocompetent controls (n = 15) with a new keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) were included. We measured skin autofluorescence (370 nm excitation, F370) and skin pigmentation at five standardized body sites; and determined black light-evaluated solar lentigines on the shoulders and photosensitivity to UVA and simulated solar radiation (SSR) as minimal erythema doses (MED). RESULTS: F370 autofluorescence values were enhanced at KC site versus other body sites in OTRs (2208 vs. 1458-1898 AU, p < 0.05). Compared with non-OTRs, OTRs expressed higher F370 autofluorescence at KC site (2208 vs. 1385 arbitrary units AU, p = 0.01) and the shoulder (1898 vs. 1525, p = 0.05). Likewise, OTRs had increased skin pigmentation (25.0 vs. 20.8 pigment%, p = 0.05) and solar lentigines (3.5 vs. 3.0, p = 0.048) on the shoulders. MED tests showed increased UVA photosensitivity in OTRs (2.4 vs. 1.7 times higher than expected, p = 0.03), whereas SSR photosensitivity was similar. CONCLUSION: Quantified F370 autofluorescence, skin pigmentation, and density of solar lentigines could serve to assess photodamage in OTR. Increased UVA photosensitivity may account for higher skin photodamage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Pele/química , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Transplantados , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 34(6): 366-373, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Skin phototype questionnaires usually ask similar questions, but they differ in how the answers can be given. There is either one combined answer, which includes both tendency to burn and ability to tan, or 2 separate answers about burn and tan, respectively. We tested the reproducibility of different questionnaires and their relation to objectively measured skin phototype. METHOD: A total of 149 participants completed 3 skin phototype questionnaires distributed twice with median 3 months interval: (i) a Fitzpatrick questionnaire (FST-q) with combined answers about tendency to burn and ability to tan, (ii) a detailed questionnaire (Detail-q) with separate answers to 2 detailed questions about burn and tan and (iii) a short questionnaire (Short-q) with separate answers to 2 simplified questions about burn and tan. Objective skin phototype measurements were performed by measuring pigment protection factor (PPF) by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: Good-to-very-good reproducibility for all phototype questionnaires was shown by weighted kappa (κw ) values: κw  = .65 for the FST-q with combined (burn and tan) answers; κw  = .64 for tendency to burn and κw  = .68 for ability to tan for the Detail-q; and κw  = .72 for tendency to burn and κw  = .85 for ability to tan for the Short-q. PPF at all measurement sites was best predicted by the Detail-q (highest r2  = 0.285 on the outer arm), followed by the Short-q and by the FST-q. CONCLUSION: The detailed questionnaire with separate answers to 2 detailed questions about tendency to burn and ability to tan has good reproducibility, correlates best with objective skin measurements and is therefore the recommended method for determining skin phototype.


Assuntos
Pele , Queimadura Solar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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