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1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 12, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) therapy has proven to be a successful and safe treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Despite the high efficacy rates of MTX, treatment outcomes are often complicated by burdensome gastro-intestinal side effects. Intolerance rates for MTX in children are high (approximately 50%) and thus far no conclusive effective treatment strategies to control for side effects have been found. To address this need, this article proposes an innovative research approach based on pharmacological conditioning, to reduce MTX intolerance. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: A collaboration between medical psychologists, pediatric rheumatologists, pharmacologists and patient groups was set up to develop an innovative research design that may be implemented to study potential improved control of side effects in JIA, by making use of the psychobiological principles of pharmacological conditioning. In pharmacological conditioning designs, learned positive associations from drug therapies (conditioning effects) are integrated in regular treatment regimens to maximize treatment outcomes. Medication regimens with immunosuppressant drugs that made use of pharmacological conditioning principles have been shown to lead to optimized therapeutic effects with reduced drug dosing, which might ultimately cause a reduction in side effects. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: This research design is tailored to serve the needs of the JIA patient group. We developed a research design in collaboration with an interdisciplinary research group consisting of patient representatives, pediatric rheumatologists, pharmacologists, and medical psychologists. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Based on previous experimental and clinical findings of pharmacological conditioning with immune responses, we propose that the JIA patient group is particularly suited to benefit from a pharmacological conditioning design. Moreover, findings from this study may potentially also be promising for other patient groups that endure long-lasting drug therapies.

2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 33, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000824

RESUMO

The Rare Immunodeficiency, AutoInflammatory and AutoImmune Disease (RITA) network is a European Research Network (ERN) that brings together the leading centres for rare immune disorders. On April 2018 an online survey was sent to all RITA members in order to facilitate the harmonization of data collection in rare immune disorders registries. Currently, as many as 52 different registries collect data on rare immune disorders, of whom 30 (58%) are dedicated primarily to autoimmune diseases, 15 (29%) to primary immunodeficiencies and 12 (23%) to autoinflammatory disorders. Improving data on patient safety, outcome, and quality of life measures is warranted to unfold the full potential of RITA registries.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(1): 39-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413005

RESUMO

To update the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) published in 2011. Four systematic literature reviews were performed regarding the incidence/prevalence of vaccine-preventable infections among patients with AIIRD; efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccines; effect of anti-rheumatic drugs on the response to vaccines; effect of vaccination of household of AIIRDs patients. Subsequently, recommendations were formulated based on the evidence and expert opinion. The updated recommendations comprise six overarching principles and nine recommendations. The former address the need for an annual vaccination status assessment, shared decision-making and timing of vaccination, favouring vaccination during quiescent disease, preferably prior to the initiation of immunosuppression. Non-live vaccines can be safely provided to AIIRD patients regardless of underlying therapy, whereas live-attenuated vaccines may be considered with caution. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination should be strongly considered for the majority of patients with AIIRD. Tetanus toxoid and human papilloma virus vaccination should be provided to AIIRD patients as recommended for the general population. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B and herpes zoster vaccination should be administered to AIIRD patients at risk. Immunocompetent household members of patients with AIIRD should receive vaccines according to national guidelines, except for the oral poliomyelitis vaccine. Live-attenuated vaccines should be avoided during the first 6 months of life in newborns of mothers treated with biologics during the second half of pregnancy. These 2019 EULAR recommendations provide an up-to-date guidance on the management of vaccinations in patients with AIIRD.

4.
RMD Open ; 5(2): e001041, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673420

RESUMO

Objectives: The aims of this study were to update the evidence on the incidence and prevalence rates of vaccine preventable infections (VPI) in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) and compare the data to the general population when available. Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane library (October 2009 to August 2018). The primary outcome was the incidence or prevalence of VPI in the adult AIIRD population. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Results: Sixty-three publications out of 3876 identified records met the inclusion criteria: influenza (n=4), pneumococcal disease (n=7), hepatitis B (n=10), herpes zoster (HZ) (n=29), human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (n=13). An increased incidence of influenza and pneumococcal disease was reported in patients with AIIRD. HZ infection-pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 2.9 (95% CI 2.4 to 3.3) in patients with AIIRD versus general population. Among AIIRD, inflammatory myositis conferred the highest incidence rate (IR) of HZ (pooled IRR 5.1, 95% CI 4.3 to 5.9), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (pooled IRR 4.0, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.7) and rheumatoid arthritis (pooled IRR 2.3, 95% CI 2.1 to 2.6). HPV infection-pooled prevalence ratio was 1.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 3.4 versus general population, based on studies mainly conducted in the SLE population in Latin America and Asia. Pooled prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antibody in patients with AIIRD was similar to the general population, 3%, 95% CI 1% to 5% and 15%, 95% CI 7% to 26%, respectively. Conclusion: Current evidence shows an increased risk of VPI in patients with AIIRD, emphasising that prevention of infections is essential in these patients.

5.
RMD Open ; 5(2): e001035, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565247

RESUMO

Aim: To present a systematic literature review (SLR) on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccination in adult patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD), aiming to provide a basis for updating the EULAR evidence-based recommendations. Methods: An SLR was performed according to the standard operating procedures for EULAR-endorsed recommendations. Outcome was determined by efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccination in adult patients with AIIRD, including those receiving immunomodulating therapy. Furthermore, a search was performed on the effect of vaccinating household members of patients with AIIRD on the occurrence of vaccine-preventable infections in patients and their household members (including newborns). The literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library (October 2009 to August 2018). Results: While most investigated vaccines were efficacious and/or immunogenic in patients with AIIRD, some were less efficacious than in healthy control subjects, and/or in patients receiving immunosuppressive agents. Adverse events of vaccination were generally mild and the rates were comparable to those in healthy persons. Vaccination did not seem to lead to an increase in activity of the underlying AIIRD, but insufficient power of most studies precluded arriving at definite conclusions. The number of studies investigating clinical efficacy of vaccination is still limited. No studies on the effect of vaccinating household members of patients with AIIRD were retrieved. Conclusion: Evidence on efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of vaccination in patients with AIIRD was systematically reviewed to provide a basis for updated recommendations.

6.
Arch Dis Child ; 104(11): 1090-1095, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, in adults, the incidence and severity of fatigue was found to exist rather independently from the somatic diagnosis. Since fatigue is distressing when growing up with a chronic disease, we aim to investigate: (1) the prevalence and extent of fatigue among various paediatric chronic diseases and (2) the effect of fatigue on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in two children's hospitals. PATIENTS: Children and adolescents 2-18 years of age with cystic fibrosis, an autoimmune disease or postcancer treatment visiting the outpatient clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue and HRQoL were assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) multidimensional fatigue scale (with lower scores indicating more fatigue) and PedsQL generic core scales, respectively. Linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance were used to compare fatigue scores across disease groups and against two control groups. The effect of fatigue on HRQoL was calculated. Data were adjusted for age, sex and reporting method. RESULTS: 481 children and adolescents were assessed (60% participation rate, mean age 10.7±4.9, 42% men). Children and adolescents with chronic disease reported more fatigue than the general population (mean difference -6.6, 95% CI -8.9 to -4.3 (range 0-100)), with a prevalence of severe fatigue of 21.2%. Fatigue scores did not differ significantly between disease groups on any fatigue domain. Fatigue was associated with lower HRQoL on all domains. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue in childhood chronic disease is a common symptom that presents across disease, age and sex groups. Fatigue affects HRQoL. Our findings underscore the need to systematically assess fatigue. Future studies should determine possible biological and psychosocial treatment targets.

7.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(10): 1812-1817, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the total number of adverse events (AEs) before and after mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion in refractory JIA and to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: Single-centre Proof of Mechanism Phase Ib, open label intervention study in JIA patients previously failing all biologicals registered for their diagnosis. Six patients received 2 million/kg intravenous infusions of allogeneic bone-marrow derived MSC. In case of ACR-Ped30-response but subsequent loss of response one and maximal two repeated infusions are allowed. RESULTS: Six JIA patients with 9.2 years median disease duration, still active arthritis and damage were included. All had failed methotrexate, corticosteroids and median five different biologicals. MSC were administered twice in three patients. No acute infusion reactions were observed and a lower post-treatment than pre-treatment incidence in AEs was found. The one systemic onset JIA (sJIA) patient had again an evolving macrophage activation syndrome, 9 weeks after tocilizumab discontinuation and 7 weeks post-MSC infusion. Statistically significant decreases were found 8 weeks after one MSC infusion in VAS well-being (75-56), the JADAS-71 (24.5-11.0) and the cJADAS10 (18.0-10.6). CONCLUSION: MSC infusions in six refractory JIA patients were safe, although in sJIA stopping the 'failing' biologic treatment carries a risk of a MAS flare, as the drug might still suppress the systemic features. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial register.nl, http://https://www.trialregister.nl, NTR4146.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(7): 1163-1173, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a multifactorial autoinflammatory disease with a historically poor prognosis. With current treatment regimens, approximately half of patients still experience active disease after 1 year of therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate a treat-to-target approach using recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rIL-1Ra; anakinra) as first-line monotherapy to achieve early inactive disease and prevent damage. METHODS: In this single-center, prospective study, patients with new-onset systemic JIA with an unsatisfactory response to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs received rIL-1Ra monotherapy according to a treat-to-target strategy. Patients with an incomplete response to 2 mg/kg rIL-1Ra subsequently received 4 mg/kg rIL-1Ra or additional prednisolone, or switched to alternative therapy. For patients in whom inactive disease was achieved, rIL-1Ra was tapered after 3 months and subsequently stopped. RESULTS: Forty-two patients, including 12 who had no arthritis at disease onset, were followed up for a median of 5.8 years. The median time to achieve inactive disease was 33 days. At 1 year, 76% had inactive disease, and 52% had inactive disease while not receiving medication. High neutrophil counts at baseline and a complete response after 1 month of rIL-1Ra were highly associated with inactive disease at 1 year. After 5 years of follow-up, 96% of the patients included had inactive disease, and 75% had inactive disease while not receiving medication. Articular or extraarticular damage was reported in <5%, and only 33% of the patients received glucocorticoids. Treatment with rIL-1Ra was equally effective in systemic JIA patients without arthritis at disease onset. CONCLUSION: Treatment to target, starting with first-line, short-course monotherapy with rIL-1Ra, is a highly efficacious strategy to induce and sustain inactive disease and to prevent disease- and glucocorticoid-related damage in systemic JIA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Substituição de Medicamentos , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Neutrófilos , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(8): 1019-1024, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826775

RESUMO

In 2012, a European initiative called Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) was launched to optimise and disseminate diagnostic and management regimens in Europe for children and young adults with rheumatic diseases. Juvenile localised scleroderma (JLS) is a rare disease within the group of paediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD) and can lead to significant morbidity. Evidence-based guidelines are sparse and management is mostly based on physicians' experience. This study aims to provide recommendations for assessment and treatment of JLS. Recommendations were developed by an evidence-informed consensus process using the European League Against Rheumatism standard operating procedures. A committee was formed, mainly from Europe, and consisted of 15 experienced paediatric rheumatologists and two young fellows. Recommendations derived from a validated systematic literature review were evaluated by an online survey and subsequently discussed at two consensus meetings using a nominal group technique. Recommendations were accepted if ≥80% agreement was reached. In total, 1 overarching principle, 10 recommendations on assessment and 6 recommendations on therapy were accepted with ≥80% agreement among experts. Topics covered include assessment of skin and extracutaneous involvement and suggested treatment pathways. The SHARE initiative aims to identify best practices for treatment of patients suffering from PRDs. Within this remit, recommendations for the assessment and treatment of JLS have been formulated by an evidence-informed consensus process to produce a standard of care for patients with JLS throughout Europe.

11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(7): 1188-1195, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the paediatric rheumatology (PR) services in Europe, describe current delivery of care and training, set standards for care, identify unmet needs and inform future specialist service provision. METHODS: An online survey was developed and presented to national coordinating centres of the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO) (country survey) and to individual PR centres (centre and disease surveys) as a part of the European Union (EU) Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe project. The survey contained components covering the organization of PR care, composition of teams, education, health care and research facilities and assessment of needs. RESULTS: Response rates were 29/35 (83%) for country surveys and 164/288 (57%) for centre surveys. Across the EU, approximately one paediatric rheumatologist is available per million population. In all EU member states there is good access to specialist care and medications, although biologic drug availability is worse in Eastern European countries. PR education is widely available for physicians but is insufficient for allied health professionals. The ability to participate in clinical trials is generally high. Important gaps were identified, including lack of standardized clinical guidelines/recommendations and insufficient adolescent transition management planning. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive description of current specialist PR service provision across Europe and did not reveal any major differences between EU member states. Rarity, chronicity and complexity of diseases are major challenges to PR care. Future work should facilitate the development, dissemination and implementation of standards of care, treatment and service recommendations to further improve patient-centred health care across Europe.

13.
J Rheumatol ; 46(2): 190-197, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To revise the current juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) classification criteria with an evidence-based approach, using clinical and routine laboratory measures available worldwide, to identify homogeneous clinical groups and to distinguish those forms of chronic arthritis typically seen only in children from the childhood counterpart of adult diseases. METHODS: The overall project consists of 4 steps. This work represents Step 1, a Delphi Web-based consensus and Step 2, an international nominal group technique (NGT) consensus conference for the new provisional Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization JIA classification criteria. A future large data collection of at least 1000 new-onset JIA patients (Step 3) followed by analysis and NGT consensus (Step 4) will provide data for the evidence-based validation of the JIA classification criteria. RESULTS: In Step 1, three Delphi rounds of interactions were implemented to revise the 7 ILAR JIA categories. In Step 2, forty-seven questions with electronic voting were implemented to derive the new proposed criteria. Four disorders were proposed: (a) systemic JIA; (b) rheumatoid factor-positive JIA; (c) enthesitis/spondylitis-related JIA; and (d) early-onset antinuclear antibody-positive JIA. The other forms were gathered under the term "others." These will be analyzed during the prospective data collection using a list of descriptors to see whether the clustering of some of them could identify homogeneous entities. CONCLUSION: An international consensus was reached to identify different proposed homogeneous chronic disorders that fall under the historical term JIA. These preliminary criteria will be formally validated with a dedicated project.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208534, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to predict insufficient response to 3 months methotrexate (MTX) in DMARD naïve rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS: A Multivariable logistic regression model of rheumatoid arthritis patients starting MTX was developed in a derivation cohort with 285 patients starting MTX in a clinical multicentre, stratified single-blinded trial, performed in seven secondary care clinics and a tertiary care clinic. The model was validated in a validation cohort with 102 patients starting MTX at a tertiary care clinic. Outcome was insufficient response (disease activity score (DAS)28 >3.2) after 3 months of MTX treatment. Clinical characteristics, lifestyle variables, genetic and metabolic biomarkers were determined at baseline in both cohorts. These variables were dichotomized and used to construct a multivariable prediction model with backward logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prediction model for insufficient response in the derivation cohort, included: DAS28>5.1, Health Assessment Questionnaire>0.6, current smoking, BMI>25 kg/m2, ABCB1 rs1045642 genotype, ABCC3 rs4793665 genotype, and erythrocyte-folate<750 nmol/L. In the derivation cohort, AUC of ROC curve was 0.80 (95%CI: 0.73-0.86), and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.69-0.91) in the validation cohort. Betas of the prediction model were transformed into total risk score (range 0-8). At cutoff of ≥4, probability for insufficient response was 44%. Sensitivity was 71%, specificity 72%, with positive and negative predictive value of 72% and 71%. CONCLUSIONS: A prognostics prediction model for insufficient response to MTX in 2 prospective RA cohorts by combining genetic, metabolic, clinical and lifestyle variables was developed and validated. This model satisfactorily identified RA patients with high risk of insufficient response to MTX.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/análise , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(12): 1710-1719, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of canakinumab in patients with active systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: Patients (2-19 years) entered two phase III studies and continued in the long-term extension (LTE) study. Efficacy assessments were performed every 3 months, including adapted JIA American College of Rheumatology (aJIA-ACR) criteria, Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) and ACR clinical remission on medication criteria (CRACR). Efficacy analyses are reported as per the intent-to-treat population. RESULTS: 144 of the 177 patients (81%) enrolled in the core study entered the LTE. Overall, 75 patients (42%) completed and 102 (58%) discontinued mainly for inefficacy (63/102, 62%), with higher discontinuation rates noted in the late responders group (n=25/31, 81%) versus early responders (n=11/38, 29%). At 2 years, aJIA-ACR 50/70/90 response rates were 62%, 61% and 54%, respectively. CRACR was achieved by 20% of patients at month 6; 32% at 2 years. A JADAS low disease activity score was achieved by 49% of patients at 2 years. Efficacy results were maintained up to 5 years. Of the 128/177 (72.3%) patients on glucocorticoids, 20 (15.6%) discontinued and 28 (22%) tapered to 0.150 mg/kg/day. Seven patients discontinued canakinumab due to CR. There were 13 macrophage activation syndrome (three previously reported) and no additional deaths (three previously reported). No new safety findings were observed. CONCLUSION: Response to canakinumab treatment was sustained and associated with substantial glucocorticoid dose reduction or discontinuation and a relatively low retention-on-treatment rate. No new safety findings were observed on long-term use of canakinumab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT00886769, NCT00889863, NCT00426218 and NCT00891046.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 16(1): 57, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) should support patients, caregivers/parents (carers) and clinicians to make important decisions in the consulting room and eventually to improve the lives of patients with JIA. Thus far these end-users of JIA-research have rarely been involved in the prioritisation of future research. MAIN BODY: Dutch organisations of patients, carers and clinicians will collaboratively develop a research agenda for JIA, following the James Lind Alliance (JLA) methodology. In a 'Priority Setting Partnership' (PSP), they will gradually establish a top 10 list of the most important unanswered research questions for JIA. In this process the input from clinicians, patients and their carers will be equally valued. Additionally, focus groups will be organised to involve young people with JIA. The involvement of all contributors will be monitored and evaluated. In this manner, the project will contribute to the growing body of literature on how to involve young people in agenda setting in a meaningful way. CONCLUSION: A JIA research agenda established through the JLA method and thus co-created by patients, carers and clinicians will inform researchers and research funders about the most important research questions for JIA. This will lead to research that really matters.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/terapia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Adolescente , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisões , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Países Baixos , Médicos , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(9): 761-770, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Placebo effects are powerful modulators in clinical outcomes and can either result in treatment benefits or harms, known as placebo and nocebo effects. To harness these outcomes, it is important to focus on the underlying processes that steer these effects, namely by learning through expectations and conditioning. In this review, we focus on the influence of placebo effects on subjective and physiological levels of immune-related conditions (e.g. lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production or other inflammatory markers). Areas covered: A literature search is conducted in the databases PubMed and PsychInfo by making use of keywords such as 'expectations', 'classical conditioning', 'cytokines', 'immune system', 'learned immunosuppression', and covers studies done in animals, experimental studies in healthy controls as well as studies performed in immune-related patient populations. Expert commentary: We report on the presence of placebo effects in RCTs in immune-related conditions and review findings that demonstrate the ability to learn immune responses in both experimental animal and human placebo studies making use of conditioning paradigms with immunomodulating drug agents. We also discuss results to utilize placebo effects by means of classical conditioning principles in medication regimens for patient populations and elaborate on promising findings of preliminary studies focusing on this topic.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Efeito Nocebo , Efeito Placebo , Animais , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Imunomodulação , Aprendizagem , Modelos Animais
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(6): 819-828, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643108

RESUMO

Recent therapeutic advances in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have made remission an achievable goal for most patients. Reaching this target leads to improved outcomes. The objective was to develop recommendations for treating JIA to target. A Steering Committee formulated a set of recommendations based on evidence derived from a systematic literature review. These were subsequently discussed, amended and voted on by an international Task Force of 30 paediatric rheumatologists in a consensus-based, Delphi-like procedure. Although the literature review did not reveal trials that compared a treat-to-target approach with another or no strategy, it provided indirect evidence regarding an optimised approach to therapy that facilitated development of recommendations. The group agreed on six overarching principles and eight recommendations. The main treatment target, which should be based on a shared decision with parents/patients, was defined as remission, with the alternative target of low disease activity. The frequency and timeline of follow-up evaluations to ensure achievement and maintenance of the target depend on JIA category and level of disease activity. Additional recommendations emphasise the importance of ensuring adequate growth and development and avoiding long-term systemic glucocorticoid administration to maintain the target. All items were agreed on by more than 80% of the members of the Task Force. A research agenda was formulated. The Task Force developed recommendations for treating JIA to target, being aware that the evidence is not strong and needs to be expanded by future research. These recommendations can inform various stakeholders about strategies to reach optimal outcomes for JIA.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Comitês Consultivos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(7): 1155-1165, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29513936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uveitis is a visually debilitating disorder that affects up to 30% of children with the most common forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The disease mechanisms predisposing only a subgroup of children to uveitis are unknown. This study was undertaken to identify genetic susceptibility loci for uveitis in JIA, using a genome-wide association study in 522 children with JIA. METHODS: Two cohorts of JIA patients with ophthalmologic follow-up data were genotyped. Data were then imputed using a genome-wide imputation reference panel, and an HLA-specific reference panel was used for imputing amino acids and HLA types in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). After imputation, genome-wide and MHC-specific analyses were performed, and a reverse immunology approach was utilized to model antigen presentation at 13 common HLA-DRß1 alleles. RESULTS: Presence of the amino acid serine at position 11 (serine 11) in HLA-DRß1 was associated with an increased risk of uveitis in JIA patients (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, P = 5.43 × 10-10 ) and was specific to girls (Pfemales = 7.61 × 10-10 versus Pmales = 0.18). Serine 11 resides in the YST motif in the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRß1; all 3 amino acids in this motif are in perfect linkage disequilibrium and show identical association with disease. Quantitative prediction of binding affinity revealed that HLA-DRß1 alleles with the YST motif could be distinguished on the basis of discernable peptide-binding preferences. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a genetically distinct, sexually dimorphic feature of JIA with uveitis as compared to JIA without uveitis. The association could be indicative of the potential involvement of antigen presentation by HLA-DRß1 in the development of uveitis in JIA. The results of this study may advance our progress toward improved treatments for, and possible prevention of, the sight-threatening complications of uveitis in children with JIA.


Assuntos
Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Artrite Juvenil/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Uveíte/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(8): 1107-1117, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29592918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2012, a European initiative called Single Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) was launched to optimise and disseminate diagnostic and management regimens in Europe for children and young adults with rheumatic diseases. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children and uveitis is possibly its most devastating extra-articular manifestation. Evidence-based guidelines are sparse and management is mostly based on physicians' experience. Consequently, treatment practices differ widely, within and between nations. OBJECTIVES: To provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JIA-associated uveitis. METHODS: Recommendations were developed by an evidence-informed consensus process using the European League Against Rheumatism standard operating procedures. A committee was constituted, consisting of nine experienced paediatric rheumatologists and three experts in ophthalmology from Europe. Recommendations derived from a validated systematic literature review were evaluated by an Expert Committee and subsequently discussed at two consensus meetings using nominal group techniques. Recommendations were accepted if >80% agreement was reached (including all three ophthalmologists). RESULTS: In total, 22 recommendations were accepted (with >80% agreement among experts): 3 on diagnosis, 5 on disease activity measurements, 12 on treatment and 2 on future recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The SHARE initiative aims to identify best practices for treatment of patients suffering from JIA-associated uveitis. Within this remit, recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JIA-associated uveitis have been formulated by an evidence-informed consensus process to suggest a standard of care for JIA-associated uveitis patients throughout Europe.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Uveíte/etiologia , Uveíte/terapia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Uveíte/diagnóstico
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