Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 210
Filtrar
1.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 7(1): 25, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833230

RESUMO

Pneumonia is a common acute respiratory infection that affects the alveoli and distal airways; it is a major health problem and associated with high morbidity and short-term and long-term mortality in all age groups worldwide. Pneumonia is broadly divided into community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia. A large variety of microorganisms can cause pneumonia, including bacteria, respiratory viruses and fungi, and there are great geographical variations in their prevalence. Pneumonia occurs more commonly in susceptible individuals, including children of <5 years of age and older adults with prior chronic conditions. Development of the disease largely depends on the host immune response, with pathogen characteristics having a less prominent role. Individuals with pneumonia often present with respiratory and systemic symptoms, and diagnosis is based on both clinical presentation and radiological findings. It is crucial to identify the causative pathogens, as delayed and inadequate antimicrobial therapy can lead to poor outcomes. New antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies, in addition to rapid and accurate diagnostic tests that can detect pathogens and antibiotic resistance will improve the management of pneumonia.

2.
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP) are associated with high mortality rates. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of tedizolid (administered as tedizolid phosphate) for treatment of gram-positive ventilated HABP/VABP. METHODS: In this randomized, noninferiority, double-blind, double-dummy, global phase 3 trial, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive intravenous tedizolid phosphate 200 mg once daily for 7 days or intravenous linezolid 600 mg every 12 hours for 10 days. Treatment was 14 days in patients with concurrent gram-positive bacteremia. The primary efficacy end points were day 28 all-cause mortality (ACM; noninferiority margin, 10%) and investigator-assessed clinical response at test of cure (TOC; noninferiority margin, 12.5%) in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Overall, 726 patients were randomized (tedizolid, n = 366; linezolid, n = 360). Baseline characteristics, including incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (31.3% overall), were well balanced. Tedizolid was noninferior to linezolid for day 28 ACM rate: 28.1% and 26.4%, respectively (difference, -1.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.2 to 4.7). Noninferiority of tedizolid was not demonstrated for investigator-assessed clinical cure at TOC (tedizolid, 56.3% vs linezolid, 63.9%; difference, -7.6%; 97.5% CI: -15.7 to 0.5). In post hoc analyses, no single factor accounted for the difference in clinical response between treatment groups. Drug-related adverse events occurred in 8.1% and 11.9% of patients who received tedizolid and linezolid, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tedizolid was noninferior to linezolid for day 28 ACM in the treatment of gram-positive ventilated HABP/VABP. Noninferiority of tedizolid for investigator-assessed clinical response at TOC was not demonstrated. Both drugs were well tolerated. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02019420.

4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517926

RESUMO

Vancomycin overuse is common, yet few data are available regarding how to improve stewardship of this antibiotic. We identify an association between use of a PCR assay to rule out MRSA pneumonia and a significant, sustained decrease in average vancomycin days of therapy over a 30-month period.

5.
Nature ; 590(7847): 635-641, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429418

RESUMO

Some patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome1 (ARDS). Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from that in other types of pneumonia2. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology by characterizing the immune response in the alveoli of patients infected with the virus. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 88 patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure and 211 patients with known or suspected pneumonia from other pathogens, and analysed them using flow cytometry and bulk transcriptomic profiling. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 10 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within 48 h of intubation. In the majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the alveolar space was persistently enriched in T cells and monocytes. Bulk and single-cell transcriptomic profiling suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages, which in turn respond by producing T cell chemoattractants. These T cells produce interferon-γ to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell activation. Collectively, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages containing SARS-CoV-2 and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives persistent alveolar inflammation.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(3)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328178

RESUMO

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) culture is a standard, though time-consuming, approach for identifying microorganisms in patients with severe lower respiratory tract (LRT) infections. The sensitivity of BAL culture is relatively low, and prior antimicrobial therapy decreases the sensitivity further, leading to overuse of empirical antibiotics. The Unyvero LRT BAL Application (Curetis GmbH, Germany) is a multiplex molecular panel that detects 19 bacteria, 10 antibiotic resistance markers, and a fungus, Pneumocystis jirovecii, in BAL fluid in ∼4.5 h. Its performance was evaluated using 1,016 prospectively collected and 392 archived specimens from 11 clinical trial sites in the United States. Overall positive and negative percent agreements with culture results for identification of bacteria that grow in routine cultures were 93.4% and 98.3%, respectively, with additional potential pathogens identified by Unyvero in 21.7% of prospectively collected specimens. For detection of P. jirovecii, the positive percent agreement with standard testing was 87.5%. Antibiotic resistance marker results were compared to standard antibiotic susceptibility test results to determine positive predictive values (PPVs). PPVs ranged from 80 to 100%, based on the microorganism and specific resistance marker(s). The Unyvero LRT BAL Application provides accurate detection of common agents of bacterial pneumonia and of P. jirovecii The sensitivity and rapidity of this panel suggest significant clinical value for choosing appropriate antibiotics and for antibiotic stewardship.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168615

RESUMO

Intravenous (IV) minocycline is increasingly used to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR)-Acinetobacter baumannii Despite being approved nearly 50 years ago, published information on its pharmacokinetic (PK) prolife is limited. This multi-center study examined the PK and probability of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) target attainment profile of IV minocycline in critically ill patients, with suspected or documented infection with Gram-negative bacteria. The PK study population included 55 patients who received a single 200 mg IV dose of minocycline. Plasma PK samples were collected pre-dose and 1, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after initiation of minocycline. Total and unbound minocycline concentrations were determined at each timepoint. Probabilities of achieving the PK-PD targets associated with stasis and 1-log killing (fAUC:MIC of 12 and 18, respectively) were evaluated. A two-compartment population PK model with zero-order IV input and first-order elimination, which estimated a constant fraction unbound (fub) for minocycline, best characterized the total and unbound plasma minocycline concentration-time data. The only two covariates retained in the final PK model were body surface area [associated with central volume of distribution] and albumin (associated with fub). In the PK-PD target attainment analyses, minocycline 200 mg IV Q12H was predicted to result in a suboptimal PK-PD profile for patients with A. baumannii infections with MIC values ≥ 1 mg/L. These findings cast uncertainty on the appropriateness of the current minocycline FDA susceptibility breakpoints and suggest that clinicians should strongly consider only combination antibiotic therapy with IV minocycline for all patients with serious Acinetobacter sp infections.

9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New antibiotics are needed for the treatment of patients with life-threatening carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. We assessed the efficacy and safety of cefiderocol versus best available therapy in adults with serious carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, multicentre, parallel-group, pathogen-focused, descriptive, phase 3 study in 95 hospitals in 16 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. We enrolled patients aged 18 years or older admitted to hospital with nosocomial pneumonia, bloodstream infections or sepsis, or complicated urinary tract infections (UTI), and evidence of a carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogen. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1 by interactive web or voice response system) to receive either a 3-h intravenous infusion of cefiderocol 2 g every 8 h or best available therapy (pre-specified by the investigator before randomisation and comprised of a maximum of three drugs) for 7-14 days. For patients with pneumonia or bloodstream infection or sepsis, cefiderocol treatment could be combined with one adjunctive antibiotic (excluding polymyxins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems). The primary endpoint for patients with nosocomial pneumonia or bloodstream infection or sepsis was clinical cure at test of cure (7 days [plus or minus 2] after the end of treatment) in the carbapenem-resistant microbiological intention-to-treat population (ITT; ie, patients with a confirmed carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogen receiving at least one dose of study drug). For patients with complicated UTI, the primary endpoint was microbiological eradication at test of cure in the carbapenem-resistant microbiological ITT population. Safety was evaluated in the safety population, consisting of all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. Mortality was reported through to the end of study visit (28 days [plus or minus 3] after the end of treatment). Summary statistics, including within-arm 95% CIs calculated using the Clopper-Pearson method, were collected for the primary and safety endpoints. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02714595) and EudraCT (2015-004703-23). FINDINGS: Between Sept 7, 2016, and April 22, 2019, we randomly assigned 152 patients to treatment, 101 to cefiderocol, 51 to best available therapy. 150 patients received treatment: 101 cefiderocol (85 [85%] received monotherapy) and 49 best available therapy (30 [61%] received combination therapy). In 118 patients in the carbapenem-resistant microbiological ITT population, the most frequent carbapenem-resistant pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii (in 54 patients [46%]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (in 39 patients [33%]), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in 22 patients [19%]). In the same population, for patients with nosocomial pneumonia, clinical cure was achieved by 20 (50%, 95% CI 33·8-66·2) of 40 patients in the cefiderocol group and ten (53%, 28·9-75·6) of 19 patients in the best available therapy group; for patients with bloodstream infection or sepsis, clinical cure was achieved by ten (43%, 23·2-65·5) of 23 patients in the cefiderocol group and six (43%, 17·7-71·1) of 14 patients in the best available therapy group. For patients with complicated UTIs, microbiological eradication was achieved by nine (53%, 27·8-77·0) of 17 patients in the cefiderocol group and one (20%, 0·5-71·6) of five patients in the best available therapy group. In the safety population, treatment-emergent adverse events were noted for 91% (92 patients of 101) of the cefiderocol group and 96% (47 patients of 49) of the best available therapy group. 34 (34%) of 101 patients receiving cefiderocol and nine (18%) of 49 patients receiving best available therapy died by the end of the study; one of these deaths (in the best available therapy group) was considered to be related to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Cefiderocol had similar clinical and microbiological efficacy to best available therapy in this heterogeneous patient population with infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Numerically more deaths occurred in the cefiderocol group, primarily in the patient subset with Acinetobacter spp infections. Collectively, the findings from this study support cefiderocol as an option for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant infections in patients with limited treatment options. FUNDING: Shionogi.

10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens poses an increasing challenge. We compared the efficacy and safety of cefiderocol versus high-dose, extended-infusion meropenem for adults with nosocomial pneumonia. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3, non-inferiority trial in 76 centres in 17 countries in Asia, Europe, and the USA (APEKS-NP). We enrolled adults aged 18 years and older with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, or health-care-associated Gram-negative pneumonia, and randomly assigned them (1:1 by interactive response technology) to 3-h intravenous infusions of either cefiderocol 2 g or meropenem 2 g every 8 h for 7-14 days. All patients also received open-label intravenous linezolid (600 mg every 12 h) for at least 5 days. An unmasked pharmacist prepared the assigned treatments; investigators and patients were masked to treatment assignment. Only the unmasked pharmacist was aware of the study drug assignment for the infusion bags, which were administered in generic infusion bags labelled with patient and study site identification numbers. Participants were stratified at randomisation by infection type and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (≤15 and ≥16). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population (ie, all patients receiving at least one dose of study drug, excluding patients with Gram-positive monomicrobial infections). The analysis was done for all patients with known vital status. Non-inferiority was concluded if the upper bound of the 95% CI for the treatment difference between cefiderocol and meropenem groups was less than 12·5%. Safety was investigated to the end of the study in the safety population, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03032380, and EudraCT, 2016-003020-23. FINDINGS: Between Oct 23, 2017, and April 14, 2019, we randomly assigned 148 participants to cefiderocol and 152 to meropenem. Of 292 patients in the modified ITT population, 251 (86%) had a qualifying baseline Gram-negative pathogen, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (92 [32%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (48 [16%]), Acinetobacter baumannii (47 [16%]), and Escherichia coli (41 [14%]). 142 (49%) patients had an APACHE II score of 16 or more, 175 (60%) were mechanically ventilated, and 199 (68%) were in intensive care units at the time of randomisation. All-cause mortality at day 14 was 12·4% with cefiderocol (18 patients of 145) and 11·6% with meropenem (17 patients of 146; adjusted treatment difference 0·8%, 95% CI -6·6 to 8·2; p=0·002 for non-inferiority hypothesis). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 130 (88%) of 148 participants in the cefiderocol group and 129 (86%) of 150 in the meropenem group. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event was urinary tract infection in the cefiderocol group (23 patients [16%] of 148) and hypokalaemia in the meropenem group (23 patients [15%] of 150). Two participants (1%) of 148 in the cefiderocol group and two (1%) of 150 in the meropenem group discontinued the study because of drug-related adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Cefiderocol was non-inferior to high-dose, extended-infusion meropenem in terms of all-cause mortality on day 14 in patients with Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia, with similar tolerability. The results suggest that cefiderocol is a potential option for the treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia, including those caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. FUNDING: Shionogi.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic raised concern for exposure to healthcare providers through aerosol generating procedures, such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Current society guidelines recommended limiting use of BAL to reduce operators' risk for infection, yet data on the infection rate for providers after BAL is sparse. Since March 2020, our institution used a modified protocol to perform over 450 BALs on intubated COVID-19 patients. We therefore sought to describe the subsequent infectious risks to providers associated with BAL. METHODS: Fifty-two pulmonary and critical care providers (faculty and fellows) at our tertiary-care, urban medical center were surveyed. Survey participants were asked to provide the number of BALs on COVID-19 patients they performed, the number of weeks they cared for intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19, and the results of any SARS-CoV-2 testing that they received. Participants were asked to assess the difficulty of BAL on intubated COVID-19 patients as compared to routine ICU BAL using a numeric perceived difficulty score ranging from 1 (easier) to 10 (harder). RESULTS: We received forty-seven responses from fifty-two surveyed (90% response rate), with 2 declining to participate. Many respondents (19/45, 42%) spent >5 weeks on an ICU service with COVID-19 patients. The number of BALs performed by providers ranged from 0 to >60. Sixteen of the 35 providers (46%) who performed BALs underwent at least one nasopharyngeal (NP) swab to test for SARS-CoV-2, but none were positive. Twenty-seven of the 35 providers (77%) who performed BALs underwent SARS-CoV-2 serology testing, and only one (3.7%) was positive. Respondents indicated occasionally not being able to follow aerosol-minimizing steps but overall felt BALs in COVID-19 patients was only slightly more difficult than routine ICU BAL. DISCUSSION: At a high-volume center having performed >450 BALs on intubated COVID-19 patients with aerosol-limiting precautions, our survey of bronchoscopists found no positive NP SARS-CoV-2 tests and only one positive antibody test result. While the optimal role for COVID-19 BAL remains to be determined, these data suggest that BAL can be safely performed in intubated COVID-19 patients if experienced providers take precautions to limit aerosol generation and wear personal protective equipment.

12.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(4): 115179, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiplexed molecular rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may allow for rapid and accurate diagnosis of the microbial etiology of pneumonia. However, little data are available on multiplexed RDTs in pneumonia and their impact on clinical practice. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 659 hospitalized patients for microbiological diagnosis of suspected pneumonia. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of the Unyvero LRT Panel was 85.7% (95% CI 82.3-88.7) and the overall specificity was 98.4% (95% CI 98.2-98.7) with a negative predictive value of 97.9% (95% CI 97.6-98.1). The LRT Panel result predicted no change in antibiotics in 12.4% of cases but antibiotic de-escalation in 65.9% (405/615) of patients, of whom 278/405 (69%) had unnecessary MRSA coverage and 259/405 (64%) had unnecessary P. aeruginosa coverage. INTERPRETATION: In hospitalized adults with suspected pneumonia, use of an RDT on respiratory samples can allow for early adjustment of initial antibiotics, most commonly de-escalation.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imipenem combined with the ß-lactamase inhibitor relebactam has broad antibacterial activity, including against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative pathogens. We evaluated efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam in treating hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind phase 3 trial. Adults with HABP/VABP were randomized 1:1 to imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam 500 mg/500 mg/250 mg or piperacillin/tazobactam 4 g/500 mg, intravenously every 6 hours for 7-14 days. The primary endpoint was day 28 all-cause mortality in the modified intent-to-treat (MITT) population (patients who received study therapy, excluding those with only gram-positive cocci at baseline). The key secondary endpoint was clinical response 7-14 days after completing therapy in the MITT population. RESULTS: Of 537 randomized patients (from 113 hospitals in 27 countries), the MITT population comprised 264 imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam and 267 piperacillin/tazobactam patients; 48.6% had ventilated HABP/VABP, 47.5% APACHE II score ≥15, 24.7% moderate/severe renal impairment, 42.9% were ≥65 years old, and 66.1% were in the intensive care unit. The most common baseline pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.6%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.9%). Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam was noninferior (P < .001) to piperacillin/tazobactam for both endpoints: day 28 all-cause mortality was 15.9% with imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam and 21.3% with piperacillin/tazobactam (difference, -5.3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -11.9% to 1.2%]), and favorable clinical response at early follow-up was 61.0% and 55.8%, respectively (difference, 5.0% [95% CI, -3.2% to 13.2%]). Serious adverse events (AEs) occurred in 26.7% of imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam and 32.0% of piperacillin/tazobactam patients; AEs leading to treatment discontinuation in 5.6% and 8.2%, respectively; and drug-related AEs (none fatal) in 11.7% and 9.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam is an appropriate treatment option for gram-negative HABP/VABP, including in critically ill, high-risk patients. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02493764.

14.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 41(4): 453-454, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629485
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections. Although there are several distinct PIV serotypes, few studies have compared the clinical characteristics and severity of infection among the individual PIV serotypes and between PIV and other pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted active population-based surveillance for radiographically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations among children and adults in eight United States hospitals with systematic collection of clinical data and respiratory, blood, and serological specimens for pathogen detection. We compared clinical features of PIV-associated pneumonia among individual serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and among all PIV infections with other viral, atypical, and bacterial pneumonias. We also compared in-hospital disease severity among groups employing an ordinal scale (mild, moderate, severe) using multivariable proportional odds regression. RESULTS: PIV was more commonly detected in children (155/2354 [6.6%]) than in adults (66/2297 [2.9%]) (p<0.001). Other pathogens were commonly co-detected among PIV cases (110/221 [50%]). Clinical features of PIV-1, PIV-2, and PIV-3 infections were similar to one another in both children and adults with pneumonia. In multivariable analysis, children with PIV-associated pneumonia exhibited similar severity to children with other non-bacterial pneumonia; whereas children with bacterial pneumonia, exhibited increased severity (OR 8.42 [95% CI 1.88, 37.80]). In adults, PIV-associated pneumonia exhibited similar severity to other pneumonia pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features did not distinguish among infection with individual PIV serotypes in patients hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia. However, in children, PIV pneumonia was less severe than bacterial pneumonia.

16.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 41(4): 470-479, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521547

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an emergent etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) over the past 2 decades, with severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) leading to critical illness and death. S. aureus colonization is associated with a high incidence of pneumonia. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is one of the most important virulence factors of S. aureus associated with serious complications. In recent years, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clones that caused infections in young adults and healthy individuals with no exposure to health care settings and no classical risk factors have emerged. Clinical features at admission including concurrent influenza infection, hemoptysis, multilobar infiltrates, and neutropenia should suggest S. aureus CAP. Sputum Gram stains, cultures (or tracheobronchial aspirates or bronchoalveolar lavage in mechanically ventilated patients), polymerase chain reaction (nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal or lower respiratory tract specimens), and two sets of blood cultures should be obtained from patients presenting with severe S. aureus CAP. For CAP due to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, first-line therapy is usually cefazolin, oxacillin, or ceftaroline. For CA-MRSA pneumonia, linezolid is recommended. If vancomycin or teicoplanin are used, combination with clindamycin or rifampicin should be considered in cases of PVL-positive MRSA CAP.

17.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(5): 531-540, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356696

RESUMO

Intensive care units (ICUs) are an appropriate focus of antibiotic stewardship program efforts because a large proportion of any hospital's use of parenteral antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum, occurs in the ICU. Given the importance of antibiotic stewardship for critically ill patients and the importance of critical care practitioners as the front line for antibiotic stewardship, a workshop was convened to specifically address barriers to antibiotic stewardship in the ICU and discuss tactics to overcome these. The working definition of antibiotic stewardship is "the right drug at the right time and the right dose for the right bug for the right duration." A major emphasis was that antibiotic stewardship should be a core competency of critical care clinicians. Fear of pathogens that are not covered by empirical antibiotics is a major driver of excessively broad-spectrum therapy in critically ill patients. Better diagnostics and outcome data can address this fear and expand efforts to narrow or shorten therapy. Greater awareness of the substantial adverse effects of antibiotics should be emphasized and is an important counterargument to broad-spectrum therapy in individual low-risk patients. Optimal antibiotic stewardship should not focus solely on reducing antibiotic use or ensuring compliance with guidelines. Instead, it should enhance care both for individual patients (by improving and individualizing their choice of antibiotic) and for the ICU population as a whole. Opportunities for antibiotic stewardship in common ICU infections, including community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, are discussed. Intensivists can partner with antibiotic stewardship programs to address barriers and improve patient care.

20.
Chest ; 158(3): 1008-1016, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A paucity of studies have assessed the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that require ICU admission. We conducted a study on this group of patients with the primary objective of defining the incidence, epidemiology, and mortality rate of CAP in the ICUs in Louisville, Kentucky. The secondary objective was to estimate the number of patients who were hospitalized and the number of deaths that were associated with CAP in ICU in the United States. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: What is epidemiology of CAP in the ICU in Louisville, Kentucky, and the projected incidence in the United States? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective population-based cohort study. The setting was all nine adult hospitals in Louisville, Kentucky. The annual incidence of CAP in the ICU per 100,000 adults was calculated for the whole adult population of Louisville. The number of patients who were hospitalized because of CAP in ICU in the United States was estimated by multiplying the Louisville incidence rate of CAP in ICU by the 2014 US adult population. RESULTS: From a total of 7,449 unique patients who were hospitalized with CAP, 1,707 patients (23%) were admitted to the ICU. The incidence of CAP in the ICU was 145 cases per 100,000 population of adults. Cases of CAP in the ICU were clustered in patients from areas of the city with high poverty. The mortality rate of patients with CAP in ICU was 27% at 30 days and 47% at one year. In the United States, the estimated number of patients who were hospitalized with CAP requiring the ICU was 356,326 per year, and the estimated number of deaths at 30 days and one year were 96,206 and 167,474, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Almost one in five patients who are hospitalized with CAP requires intensive care. Poverty is associated with CAP in the ICU. Nearly one-half of patients with CAP in the ICU will die within one year. Because of its significant burden, CAP in the ICU should be a high priority in research agenda and health policy.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...